Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Linguaphile
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Re: conjugation of olema in Estonian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-22, 20:59

Conjugation of the verb 'to be' (olema) in Estonian

s1 ma olen = I am
s2 sa oled = you are
s3 ta on = he/she is
p1 me oleme = we are
p2 te olete = you are
p3 nad on = they are

s1 ma ei ole = I am not
s2 sa ei ole = you are not
s3 ta ei ole = he/she is not
p1 me ei ole = we are not
p2 te ei ole = you are not
p3 nad ei ole = they are not

s1 ma olin = I was
s2 sa olid = you were
s3 ta oli = he/she was
p1 me olime = we were
p2 te olite = you were
p3 nad olid = they were
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2018-07-22, 21:49, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-22, 21:03

Personal pronouns in Estonian

Nominative
1s: mina = ma
2s: sina = sa
3s: tema = ta
1p: meie = me
2p: teie = te
3p: nemad = nad

Reflexive
Singular: ise
Plural: ise

Genitive
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Partitive
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Illative
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Inessive
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Elative
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Allative
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Adessive
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Ablative
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Translative
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Terminative
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Essive
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Abessive
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Comitative
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Naava
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Re: conjugation of olema in Estonian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-22, 21:46

Linguaphile wrote:s3 ta olete = he/she is

You sure? :D Tbh I've just noticed I've made a few mistakes in my latest post, too. Lol. I'll come back tomorrow, it's so late atm that I'd just make it worse if I tried to do anything now.

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-23, 16:45

I've updated my list of pronouns. I kinda forgot that reciprocal and reflexive pronouns can be declined... :ohwell: And it's still lacking the plural declination of some pronouns. We'll see how many times I end up editing that post!

Linguaphile
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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-08-09, 2:35

"Vegetation" words in Estonian:

taimestik = vegetation
mets = forest
salu = grove, copse
taiga = taiga
tundra = tundra
puu = tree
okaspuu = conifer
kask birch
paju = willow, willow shrub
remmelgas = willow, willow tree
mänd = pine
tamm = oak
pärn = linden
vaher = maple
seeder = cedar
haab = aspen
lepp = alder
lehis = larch
kuusk = spruce, fir
nulg = fir
saar = ash
pihlakas = rowan
toomingas = bird cherry
põõsas = shrub, bush
mari = berry
pohl = lingonberry
tikker = karusmari = gooseberry
sõstar = currant
mustsõstar = blackcurrant
jõhvikas = cranberry
maasikas = strawberry
metsmaasikas = wild strawberry
mustikas = blueberry
murakas = cloudberry
põldmurakas = blackberry
vaarikas = raspberry
kadakas = juniper
rohi = grass, weed
muru = grass, lawn
hein = hay
lill = flower
õis = blossom
juur = root
oks = branch
leht = leaf
okas = thorn, needle
krabisema = to rustle (dry leaves), to make a crunchy sound
krabin = rustling, crunchy rustle
sahisema = to rustle (leaves), to make a soft sound as breeze in a tree
sahin = rustling, soft rustle
käbi = cone
pähkel = nut
seen = mushroom
sirmik = parasol mushroom
sammal = moss
samblik = lichen
sõnajalg = fern
õitsev sõnajalg = flowering fern
kilpjalg = bracken

:arrow: for comparisons

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-08-27, 0:44

Bodies of water in Estonian

veekogu = body of water
vesi = water
magevesi = fresh water
merevesi = sea water
allikavesi = spring water
allikas = spring
kaev = well
oja = brook, creek
jõgi = river
jõesäng = riverbed
jõekallas = riverbank
järv = lake
tiik = pond
lomp = puddle, small pond
soo = marsh
raba = bog
veehoidla = reservoir
kosk = juga = waterfall
kärestik = cascade, rapids
jõesuu = jõesuue = mouth of the river
kallas = shore
rand = beach
rannik = coast
laht = bay, gulf
väin = strait
meri = sea
laine = wave
saar = island
laid = small island, islet
poolsaar = peninsula
silmapiir = horizon

:arrow: for comparisons

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Naava
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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-08-27, 9:31

Family - Southern Ostrobothnian

äitee = mother (human)
emo, emä = mother (animals)
emakko = sow
issee = father
tyttö (tytär) = daughter
poika = son
lapsi = child (family)
kersa, lapsi = child ('not adult')
veli = brother
siskoo = sister
mumma / momma / mummi / mummu / mamma / isooäitee / isuäitee / isu = grandmother
paapa / paappa / pappa / tuffa / vaari = grandfather
lapsenlapsi = grandchild
tytöntyttö = granddaughter (daughter's daughter)
pojaantyttö / poijjaantyttö / pojantyttö = granddaughter (son's daughter)
tyttärempoika = grandson (daughter's son)
pojaampoika / poijjaampoika / pojampoika = grandson (son's son)

täti = aunt
enoo = uncle (mother's brother)
setä = uncle (father's brother)
velientyttö = niece (brother's daughter)
siskoontyttö = niece (sister's daughter)
veliempoika = nephew (brother's son)
siskoompoika = nephew (sister's son)

pualiso = spouse
miäs, isäntä = husband
akka, vaimo, emäntä = wife

appi = father-in-law
anoppi = mother in-law
miniä = daughter-in-law
käly = sister-in-law

serkku / orpana = cousin *
pikkuserkku = second cousin
sokeriserkku = third cousin

(* There's lots of variation in how second and third cousins are called; these are the names my family has taught me.)

I took the names for grandparents from this article, this map of grandmother names and this map of grandfather names. Personally, I've had mumma and paapa, and now that my niece has a great-grandmother, she's called vanha mumma (lit. 'old grandmother'). I don't know if that's a common practice or just our solution to the problem of having several 'grandmothers'. :)
It's also possible to use other names for grandmother and grandfather, such as fammu or ukki. I didn't include these, because they're not originally Southern Ostrobothnian names.

I added the word lapsi, 'child', because it's very common to talk about your child instead of your daughter or son. I also added the word kersa because I thought it's interesting how both lapsi and kersa can be translated as 'child' but IMO it's rare to use kersa for anything else than "not-adult"; eg. my mother is definitely not kersa anymore, but she's still my grandmother's lapsi. (But I can't really make a poll about this, so it's possible there are people who use lapsi and kersa as synonyms. However, I tried to google and I didn't find any examples where kersa would be used like 'daughter/son'.)

Also, FYI: akka and kersa are pejorative names for woman and child in standard Finnish, but in Southern Ostrobothnia (and in some other Finnish dialects, too) they're neutral. Akka is also cognate with áhkku (North Saami), áhkko (Lule Saami), ákku (Inari Saami), áhkká (Ume Saami) (='grandmother') and ak (Veps, 'wife').
Last edited by Naava on 2018-08-27, 9:59, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-08-27, 9:53

Family - Standard Finnish

äiti = mother (human)
emo, emä = mother (animals)
emakko = sow
isä = father
tytär = daughter
poika = son
lapsi = child
veli = brother
sisko, sisar = sister
isoäiti = grandmother
isoisä = grandfather
lapsenlapsi = grandchild
tyttärentytär = granddaughter (daughter's daughter)
pojantytär = granddaughter (son's daughter)
tyttärenpoika = grandson (daughter's son)
pojanpoika = grandson (son's son)

täti = aunt
eno = uncle (mother's brother)
setä = uncle (father's brother)
veljentytär = niece (brother's daughter)
sisarentytär, siskontytär = niece (sister's daughter)
veljenpoika = nephew (brother's son)
sisarenpoika, siskonpoika = nephew (sister's son)

(avio)puoliso = spouse
(avio)mies = husband
(avio)vaimo = wife

appi = father-in-law
anoppi = mother in-law
miniä = daughter-in-law
käly = sister-in-law

serkku = cousin
pikkuserkku = second cousin

FYI: sisko ('sister') and tyttö ('girl)' were originally diminutives of sisar ('sister') and tytär ('daughter'). There's a diminutive of poika, too: poju.

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-09-02, 3:51

Examples of case declension of nouns in Estonian

Singular forms of the word 'mets' (forest)

Nominative: mets
Genitive: metsa
Partitive: metsa
Illative: metsa = metsasse
Inessive: metsas
Elative: metsast
Allative: metsale
Adessive: metsal
Ablative: metsalt
Translative: metsaks
Terminative: metsani
Essive: metsana
Abessive: metsata
Comitative: metsaga

Plural forms of the word 'metsad' (forests)
Nominative: metsad
Genitive: metsade
Partitive: metsi = metsasid
Illative: metsadesse
Inessive: metsades
Elative: metsadest
Allative: metsadele
Adessive: metsadel
Ablative: metsadelt
Translative: metsadeks
Terminative: metsadeni
Essive: metsadena
Abessive: metsadeta
Comitative: metsadega

:arrow: for comparison

Linguaphile
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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-09-03, 22:20

Examples of case declension of nouns in Finnish

Singular forms of the word 'metsä' (forest)

Nominative: metsä
Nominative-accusative: metsä
Genitive-accusative: metsän
Genitive: metsän
Partitive: metsää
Illative: metsään
Inessive: metsässä
Elative: metsästä
Allative: metsälle
Adessive: metsällä
Ablative: metsältä
Translative: metsäksi
Essive: metsänä
Abessive: metsättä

Plural forms of the word 'metsät' (forests)
Nominative: metsät
Accusative: metsät
Genitive: metsien
Partitive: metsiä
Illative: metsiin
Inessive: metsissä
Elative: metsistä
Allative: metsille
Adessive: metsillä
Ablative: metsiltä
Translative: metsiksi
Essive: metsinä
Abessive: metsittä
Instructive: metsin
Comitative: metsineen

:arrow: for comparison

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-09-03, 22:30

Examples of case declension of nouns in Kven Finnish

Singular forms of the word 'mettä' (forest)

Nominative: mettä
Genitive: mettän
Partitive: mettää
Illative: metthään
Inessive: mettässä
Elative: mettästä
Allative: mettäle = mettälet
Adessive: mettälä
Ablative: mettältä
Translative: mettäksi
Abessive: mettättä

Plural forms of the word 'mettät' (forests)
Nominative: mettät
Genitive: mettin = mettitten
Partitive: mettiä = metti
Illative: metthäin
Inessive: mettissä
Elative: mettistä
Allative: mettile = mettilet
Adessive: mettilä
Ablative: mettiltä
Translative: mettiksi
Essive: mettinä
Comitative: mettine

:arrow: for comparison

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Naava
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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-09-04, 6:11

Examples of case declension of nouns in Southern Ostrobothnian

Singular forms of the word 'mettä' (forest)

Nominative: mettä
Genitive: mettän
Nominative-accusative: mettä
Genitive-accusative: mettän
Partitive: mettää
Illative: mettähän
Inessive: mettäs
Elative: mettästä
Allative: mettälle
Adessive: mettällä
Ablative: mettältä
Translative: mettäksi
Abessive: mettättä

Plural forms of the word 'mettät' (forests)
Nominative: mettät
Genitive: mettien = mettään
Accusative: mettät
Partitive: mettiä
Illative: mettihin = mettiihin
Inessive: mettis
Elative: mettistä = mettiistä
Allative: mettille = mettiille
Adessive: mettillä = mettiillä
Ablative: mettiltä = mettiiltä
Translative: mettiksi = mettiiksi
Essive: mettinä = mettiinä
Comitative: mettinensä = mettiinensä

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-11-28, 1:31

Weather terms in Estonian

ilm = weather
ilmaennustus weather forecast
ilus ilm = nice weather
halb ilm = bad weather
selge ilm = clear weather
päike = päikene = sun
päikesepaisteline = sunny
päike paistab = the sun is shining
pilv = cloud
pilvine = cloudy
kuiv = dry
tuul = wind
tuuline = windy
kerge tuul = nõrk tuul = light wind
tugev tuul = kange tuul = strong wind
torm = storm
maru = raju = (big) storm, tempest
tormine = stormy
müristama = to thunder
äikesepilv = kõuepilv = piksepilv = thundercloud
pikne = kõu = thunder and lightning
äike = thunder
välk = lightning
udu = fog
udune = foggy
tihe udu = dense fog
sademed = precipitation
vihm = rain
vihmane = rainy
vihma sajab = it's raining
vihmahoog = hoovihm = rainshower, driving rain
valing = downpour
lumi = snow
lumine = snowy
sajab lund = it's snowing
tuisuhoog = snow flurry
lörts = sleet
rahe = hail
sajab rahet = it's hailing
hall = öökülm = frost
härm = rime
jää = ice
jäine = icy
pakane = hard freeze
külm = cold
soe = warm
kuum = hot
palav = sweltering
niiske = humid, muggy, damp
kaste = dew

:arrow: for comparison

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-12-21, 0:20

Time expressions in Estonian

Aeg = time
Kas sul on aega? = do you have time?
Jah, mul on aega = yes, I have time
Mul ei ole aega = I don't have time
Praegu on veel vara = it's still early
Praegu on juba hilja = it's already late

Nüüd = now
Praegu = currently, right now
Kohe = right away
Otsekohe = right away, immediately

Alati = always
Sageli / Tihti = often
Mõnikord = sometimes
Harva = rarely
Mitte kunagi = never

Hommikul = in the morning
Päeval = during the day
Keskpäeval = at midday
Pärastlõunal = in the afternoon
Õhtul = in the evening
Ööl = at night

Mis kell on? / Kui palju kell on? = what time is it?
Kell kaks = two o'clock
Kell kaksteist = twelve o'clock
Pool üks = half past twelve
Pool kolm = half past two
Kolmveerand üksteist = a quarter to eleven
Viie minuti pärast kaks = five minutes to two
Kümme minutit kaks läbi = ten minutes after two

Üks minut = one minute
Paar minutit = a couple of minutes
Paar tundi = a couple of hours

Päev = day
Üks päev = one day
Kaks päeva = two days
Kümme päeva = ten days

Mis kuupäev täna on? = what is today's date?
Mis päev täna on? = what day is today?
Täna on esmaspäev = today is Monday
Täna on teisipäev = today is Tuesday
Täna on kolmapäev = today is Wednesday
Täna on neljapäev = today is Thursday
Täna on reede = today is Friday
Täna on laupäev = today is Saturday
Täna on pühapäev = today is Sunday

Üleeile = the day before yesterday
Eile = yesterday
Täna = today
Homme = tomorrow
Ülehomme = the day after tomorrow

Ööpäev = day (24-hour period)

Sel nädalal = this week
Järgmisel nädalal = next week
Sel kuul = this month
Järgmisel kuul = next month
Eelmisel kuul = last month

Uus aasta = new year
Tänavu = Sel aastal = this year
Mullu = Eelmisel aastal = last year

Kevad = spring
Kevadel = in spring
Suvi = summer
Suvel = in summer
Sügis = autumn
Sügisel = in autumn
Talv = winter
Talvel = in winter

Jaanuar = January
Veebruar = February
Märts = March
Aprill = April
Mai = May
Juuni = June
Juuli = July
August = August
September = September
Oktoober = October
November = November
Detsember = December

:arrow: for comparison

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Naava
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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2019-01-19, 15:19

Conjugation of the verb 'to be' (olla) in Finnish

s1 minä olen = I am
s2 sinä olet = you are
s3 hän on = he/she is
p1 me olemme = we are
p2 te olette = you are
p3 he ovat = they are

s1 minä en ole = I am not
s2 sinä et ole = you are not
s3 hän ei ole = he/she is not
p1 me emme ole = we are not
p2 te ette ole = you are not
p3 he eivät ole = they are not

s1 minä olin = I was
s2 sinä olit = you were
s3 hän oli = he/she was
p1 me olimme = we were
p2 te olitte = you were
p3 he olivat = they were

lol took me long enough to notice that I hadn't done this yet

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2019-01-19, 17:34

Vegetation in Finnish

kasvillisuus = vegetation
metsä = forest
lehto = grove, copse
taiga = taiga
tundra = tundra
puu = tree
havupuu = conifer
koivu = birch
paju = willow
mänty = pine
honka, petäjä = old, great pine
tammi = oak
lehmus = linden
vaahtera = maple
setri = cedar
haapa = aspen
leppä = alder
lehtikuusi = larch
kuusi = spruce, fir
pihta, jalokuusi = fir
saarni = ash
pihlaja = rowan
tuomi = bird cherry
pensas = shrub, bush
marja = berry
puolukka = lingonberry
karviainen, karviaismarja = gooseberry
viinimarja, herukka = currant
mustaviinimarja, mustaherukka = blackcurrant
karpalo = cranberry
mansikka = strawberry
ahomansikka, metsämansikka = wild strawberry
mustikka = blueberry
lakka, hilla, suomuurain, muurain = cloudberry *
karhunvatukka = blackberry
vadelma = raspberry
kataja = juniper
ruoho = grass
rikkaruoho = weed
nurmi, nurmikko = grass, lawn
heinä = hay
kukka = flower
kukka, kukinto = blossom
juuri = root
oksa = branch
lehti = leaf
oka, oas, ora = thorn, needle
kahista, rapista = to rustle (dry leaves), to make a crunchy sound
kahina, rapina = rustling, crunchy rustle
suhista = to rustle (leaves), to make a soft sound as breeze in a tree
suhina = rustling, soft rustle
käpy = cone
pähkinä = nut
sieni = mushroom
ukonsieni = parasol mushroom
sammal, sammale = moss
jäkälä = lichen
saniainen = fern
sananjalka = bracken
kukkiva sananjalka = flowering bracken **

* Cloudberry has different names in different dialects. Moreover, sometimes the same word can mean 'cloudberry' in general in one dialect and 'raw cloudberry, not yet edible' in another one; it's a mess. (An example of the use of lakka and hilla in dialects, and here's a map showing where muurain means 'ripe cloudberry' (kypsä) and where it means 'raw cloudberry' (raaka). The red line shows the border between the Western and Eastern Finnish dialects.)
Sometimes people didn't want to (or couldn't) choose just one word from one dialect for standard Finnish; this is one of these cases, and that's why we have now at least three official names for the same berry. It's up to you, your personal preference, and your dialect to decide which name you want to use.

** Finns share the same belief as Estonians: ferns can flower at midsummer's night. However, sananjalka in Finnish refers to only one type of fern, unlike in Estonian.
Last edited by Naava on 2019-01-20, 13:11, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-01-19, 17:42

Naava wrote:sananjalka = bracken
kukkiva sananjalka = flowering bracken **

** Finns share the same belief as Estonians: ferns can flower at midsummer's night. However, sananjalka in Finnish refers to only one type of fern, unlike in Estonian.

Do you have any idea of the etymology of this word? 'Cause it's word-foot in several Finnic languages.... :hmm:

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2019-01-19, 18:17

Linguaphile wrote:Do you have any idea of the etymology of this word? 'Cause it's word-foot in several Finnic languages.... :hmm:

I do! There's an article about it here. Short summary:

Jalka refers to its stem. (Think about table legs, for example.) The 'word' part probably refers to the pattern that you can see in the stem if you cut it near the root: it looks like some letter or house mark*. The article says that the word sana had a broader meaning than today, including 'letter' and 'house mark'. Other meanings were 'syllable' and 'spell'; I wouldn't be surprised if the latter one had something to do with ferns. After all, they were magical plants! :D

*In Finnish, the word puumerkki ("insignia") means a distinguishing mark or sign used by illiterate persons as a replacement of a written signature in official documents. (Wikipedia)

I think this an example of what the article tries to describe:
► Show Spoiler

FYI: Apparently young people would cut the fern (or bracken) to see the first letter of their future spouse's name. I don't know how well that worked... :)

There's also a note that people didn't really bother to give separate names for different subspecies of ferns, which I believe explains why Finnish and Estonian disagree what exactly sananjalka/sõnajalg is.

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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-01-19, 22:43

Naava wrote:
Linguaphile wrote:Do you have any idea of the etymology of this word? 'Cause it's word-foot in several Finnic languages.... :hmm:

I do! There's an article about it here. Short summary:

Jalka refers to its stem. (Think about table legs, for example.) The 'word' part probably refers to the pattern that you can see in the stem if you cut it near the root: it looks like some letter or house mark.

Thanks! I've been wondering about that for a long time. :D

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Naava
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Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2019-01-20, 13:31

At first I was a bit hesitant to do this because lots of the names are the same as in standard Finnish or there are only small phonological changes, but then I thought - why not. If nothing else, you can compare how the phonology differs from standard language. :P

Vegetation in Southern Ostrobothnia

(kasvillisuus, kasvit = vegetation)*
mettä = forest
(lehto = grove, copse)**
(taiga = taiga)**
(tundra = tundra)**
puu = tree
havupuu = conifer
koivu = birch
paju = willow
mänty = pine
honka, petäjä = old, great pine
tammi = oak
lehmus = linden
vaahtera = maple
setri, seetri = cedar
haapa = aspen
leppä = alder
lehtikuusi = larch
kuusi = spruce, fir
pihta, jalokuusi = fir
saarni = ash
pihilaja = rowan
tuami = bird cherry
pensas, puska = shrub, bush
marija = berry
pualukka, pualaan = lingonberry
karviaanen, karviaasmarija = gooseberry
viinimarija, herukka = currant
mustaviinimarija, mustaherukka = blackcurrant
karpalo = cranberry
mansikka = strawberry
mettämansikka = wild strawberry
mustikka = blueberry
lakka, valokki, muuraan = cloudberry ***
karhuvvatukka = blackberry
varelma, vattu = raspberry
kataja = juniper
ruaho = grass
rikkaruaho = weed
nurmikko, ruaho = grass, lawn
heinä = hay
kukka = flower, blossom
juuri = root
oksa = branch
lehti = leaf
oka, oas, ora, piikki = thorn, needle
kahista, rapista, krapista = to rustle (dry leaves), to make a crunchy sound
kahina, rapina, krapina = rustling, crunchy rustle ****
suhista = to rustle (leaves), to make a soft sound as breeze in a tree
suhina = rustling, soft rustle
käpy = cone
pähkinä = nut
siäni = mushroom
ukoonsiäni = parasol mushroom
sammal, sammale = moss
jäkälä = lichen
saniaanen, sanajjalaka = fern*****
kukkiva sanajjalaka = flowering fern

An extra word that is different in Southern Ostrobothnian and in standard Finnish:

luhurikka - Arctic bramble/raspberry (standard FI 'mesimarja')

* Dialects generally lack scientific jargon. I would probably just say "kasvit" if I ever wanted to talk about vegetation IRL, but you could also borrow the word kasvillisuus from standard Finnish.
** I don't remember hearing these words IRL that often.
*** Valokki is the original name; muuraan is raw cloudberry; lakka has spread from neighbouring dialects & standard language.
**** This has two conjugations: something krapisoo or krapajaa.
***** I'm doubtful whether brackets are distinguished from ferns; I thought they're the same plant for years but I'm not sure if it's just me or if people actually use these words interchangeably


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