Afrikaans Sentence Structures

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Requiescat
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Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Requiescat » 2014-04-18, 16:14

Hi,
Does anyone still frequent the Afrikaans section? I have some lengthy questions I would like to put forward about word order in various constructions, if there is a native speaker who could critique my analysis of these structures I would be very extremely grateful, particularly as resources are quite scant.

Regards
Marcus

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Bittereinder
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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Bittereinder » 2014-04-18, 20:48

Hello

Sure, post it.
Openbaring 21:6
"Verder sê Hy vir my: Dit het klaar gebeur. Ek is die Alfa en die Omega, die Begin en die Einde. Aan elkeen wat dors het, sal Ek te drinke gee uit die fontein met die water van die lewe, verniet. "

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Requiescat » 2014-04-21, 14:08

The first issue I'm not certain about is the constructions after conjunctions, particularly the second and third group conjunctions. Again, the examples I have produced are:

Active & Passive Subordinate Clauses (Group 1, 2 & 3)

Past
G2: [although] I read the book yesterday
G2: [al] het ek gister die boek gelees
G2: [al] het die boek gister [[color=#800080]deur] ek gelees[/color]

G3: [because] I read the book yesterday
G3: [omdat] ek gister die boek gelees het
G3: [omdat] die boek gister [deur] ek gelees is

Present
G2: [although] I read the book
G2: [al] lees ek die boek
G2: [al] lees die boek [deur] ek

G3: [because] I read the book
G3: [omdat] ek die boek lees
G3: [omdat] die boek [deur] ek gelees word

Future
G2: [although] I will read the book tomorrow with my sister in the garden
G2: [al] sal ek moré met my suster in die tuin lees
G2: [al] sal die boek moré met my suster in die tuin [deur] ek gelees

G3: [because] I will read the book
G3: [omdat] ek moré die boek met my suster in die tuin sal lees
G3: [omdat] die boek moré met my suster in die tuin [deur] ek gelees sal word

The next issue I have is related to the continuous and perfect continuous tenses in both the active and passive voice. It is to my understanding that these are the various ways of rendering these constructions in Afrikaans. Again the examples I have produced are:

Active & Passive Continuous

Past
I was reading the book yesterday with my sister in the garden
Ek het gister die boek met my suster in die tuin gelees
Ek was besig om gister die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was gister die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek was reeds gister die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek was reeds besig om gister die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees

Die boek het gister met my suster in die tuin [deur] ek gelees

Present
I am reading the book with my sister in the garden
Ek lees die boek met my suster in die tuin lees
Ek is besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek is die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees

Die boek word met my suster in die tuin [deur] ek gelees

Future
I will be reading the book tomorrow with my sister in the garden
Ek sal moré die boek met my suster in die tuin lees
Ek sal besig wees om moré die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek sal moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek sal dan besig wees om moré die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek sal reeds moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees

Die boek sal moré met my suster in die tuin [deur] ek gelees word

Active & Passive Perfect Continuous

Past
I had been reading the book yesterday with my sister in the garden
Ek was toe besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was toe die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek was reeds besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was toe reeds die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees

Passive ?

Present
I have been reading the book with my sister in the garden
Ek was besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees

Die boek word met my suster in die tuin gelees

Future
I will have been read the book tomorrow with my sister in the garden
Ek sal moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het
Ek sal dan moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het
Ek sal dan reeds besig om moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het
Ek sal dan al moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het
Passive ?

And lastly, the passive forms of the modals. I did learn that all the modals may be used passively, so the examples I produced are the following. I am not very certain about quite a few of them.

The book [had been] read by Jan - Die boek was deur Jan gelees
The book [would have been] read by Jan - Die boek sou deur Jan gelees word
The book [could be] read by Jan - Die boek kon deur Jan gelees word
The book [could have been] read by Jan - Die boek kon deur Jan gelees word
The book [should have been] read by Jan - Die boek moes deur Jan gelees word
The book [would have been able] to have been read by Jan - Die boek sou kon deur Jan gelees word
The book [would have had to have been] read by Jan - Die boek sou moes deur Jan gelees word
The book [ought to have been] read by Jan - Die boek behoort deur Jan te gelees word het
The book [must have been] read by Jan - Die boek moet deur Jan gelees word
The book [may not be] read by Jan - Die boek mag nie deur Jan gelees word nie
The book [can be] read by Jan - Die boek kan deur Jan gelees word
The book [ought to be] read by Jan - Die boek behoort deur Jan gelees word
The book [will be] read by Jan - Die boek sal deur Jan gelees word
The book [will have to be] read by Jan - Die boek sal deur Jan gelees word het
The book [will have to have been] read by Jan - Die boek ?
The book [would have to be] read by Jan - Die boek sou moet deur Jan gelees word
The book [would have to have been] read by Jan - Die boek ?
The book [would be] read by Jan - Die boek sou ?
The book [must be] read by Jan - Die boek moet deur Jan gelees word
The test [would not be required to have been] taken by Jan - Die boek sou nie hoef nie ?
The book [would have been] read by Jan - Die boek sou deur Jan gelees gewees het
The book [could be] read by Jan - Die boek kon deur Jan gelees word

That's quite a lot to digest, so any time spent in answering me is very appreciated. I have tried the bet I can to work as much out for myself as possible but the resources are very few and in asking some native speakers I have gathered some conflicting information - some of whom I believe don't speak good Afrikaans. A breakthrough here would be crucial for me. Thanks for your time.

Regards,
Marcus

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Requiescat » 2014-04-29, 14:30

Did I scare everyone off? lol.

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Brus » 2014-04-29, 15:41

Requiescat wrote:Did I scare everyone off? lol.


Jan het gegaan om 'n boek te lees.

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Bittereinder » 2014-04-29, 18:42

Sorry, I've been very busy, but I'll reply in parts:

Past
G2: [although] I read the book yesterday
G2: [al] het ek gister die boek gelees
G2: [al] is die boek gister [deur] my gelees

G3: [because] I read the book yesterday
G3: [omdat] ek gister die boek gelees het
G3: [omdat] die boek gister [deur] my gelees is

Present
G2: [although] I read the book
G2: [al] lees ek die boek
G2: [al] word die boek [deur] my gelees

G3: [because] I read the book
G3: [omdat] ek die boek lees
G3: [omdat] die boek [deur] my gelees word

Future
G2: [although] I will read the book tomorrow with my sister in the garden
G2: [al] sal ek moré met my suster in die tuin lees
G2: [al] sal die boek moré in die tuin gelees word [deur] ek en my suster

G3: [because] I will read the book
G3: [omdat] ek moré die boek met my suster in die tuin sal lees
G3: [omdat] die boek moré in die tuin gelees sal word [deur] ek en my suster
Openbaring 21:6
"Verder sê Hy vir my: Dit het klaar gebeur. Ek is die Alfa en die Omega, die Begin en die Einde. Aan elkeen wat dors het, sal Ek te drinke gee uit die fontein met die water van die lewe, verniet. "

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Requiescat » 2014-04-30, 10:37

Thanks for replyI understand,you're under no pressure to rush.

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Bittereinder » 2014-05-03, 16:53

Active & Passive Continuous

Past
I was reading the book yesterday with my sister in the garden
Ek het gister die boek met my suster in die tuin gelees
Ek was gister besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was gister die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek was reeds gister die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek was reeds besig om gister die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Die boek is gister in die tuin [deur] ek en my suster gelees

Present
I am reading the book with my sister in the garden
Ek lees die boek met my suster in die tuin lees
Ek is besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek is die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Die boek word in die tuin [deur] ek en my suster gelees

Future
I will be reading the book tomorrow with my sister in the garden
Ek sal moré die boek met my suster in die tuin lees
Ek sal more besig wees om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek sal moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek sal dan more besig wees om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek sal reeds moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Die boek sal moré in die tuin [deur] ek en my suster gelees word

Active & Passive Perfect Continuous

Past
I had been reading the book yesterday with my sister in the garden
Ek was toe besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was toe die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Ek was reeds besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was toe reeds die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Passive:
Die boek is toe deur ek en my suster gelees

Present
I have been reading the book with my sister in the garden
Ek was besig om die boek met my suster in die tuin te lees
Ek was die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees
Die boek word in die tuin gelees deur ek en my suster

Future
I will have been read the book tomorrow with my sister in the garden
Ek sal moré die boek met my suster in die tuin al gelees het.
Ek sal dan moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het
Ek sal dan reeds besig om moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het
Ek sal dan al moré die boek met my suster in die tuin aan die lees gewees het

I bear little knowledge on the sentences in red. In Afrikaans there is no present perfect or past perfect so one can't really directly translate those sentences.
Openbaring 21:6
"Verder sê Hy vir my: Dit het klaar gebeur. Ek is die Alfa en die Omega, die Begin en die Einde. Aan elkeen wat dors het, sal Ek te drinke gee uit die fontein met die water van die lewe, verniet. "

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Requiescat » 2014-07-25, 18:33

Hi Bittereinder,
Thanks for the post, very much what I needed. Anything maybe on the modals? That would pretty much wrap everything up.

Regards

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Bittereinder » 2014-07-25, 19:02

With regards to actives and passives Afrikaans mainly uses the following:

Past:

is
The house was built by them.
Die huis is deur hulle gebou(built).

Present:

word
The house is being built by them
Die huis word deur hulle gebou.

Future:

sal (will [be])
The house will be built by them.
Die huis sal deur hulle gebou word.

In actives the following modals are usually used:
Kan (can)
Wil (want to)
Moet (must)
Mag (may)
Sal (will)

They can build the house:
Hulle kan die huis bou

They want to build the house:
Hulle wil die huis bou.

They must build the house:
Hulle moet die huis bou.

They may build the house:
Hulle mag die huis bou.

They will build the house:
Hulle sal die huis bou.

Of course the actives of the above mentioned passive sentences will look as follows:

Past:
They built the house.
Hulle het die huis gebou.

Present:
They are building the house.
Hulle bou die huis.

Future:
They will build the house.
Hulle sal die huis bou.
Openbaring 21:6
"Verder sê Hy vir my: Dit het klaar gebeur. Ek is die Alfa en die Omega, die Begin en die Einde. Aan elkeen wat dors het, sal Ek te drinke gee uit die fontein met die water van die lewe, verniet. "

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Requiescat » 2014-07-29, 12:51

Thanks for the swift response! I'm going to print this thread out and get stuck into writing sentences :)

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Bittereinder » 2014-07-30, 17:58

Hope it helps and it's a pleasure. :D
Openbaring 21:6
"Verder sê Hy vir my: Dit het klaar gebeur. Ek is die Alfa en die Omega, die Begin en die Einde. Aan elkeen wat dors het, sal Ek te drinke gee uit die fontein met die water van die lewe, verniet. "

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Gonzo » 2014-09-18, 11:12

Hey this is a really great thread, lots of stuff I havent seen anywhere else! Do you guys mind if I post some sentences later and see what you all think? I just have to wait for my new dictionary to arrive then I'll be all set. It's really hard to get info on Afrikaans so this is a great opportunity to try my hand at putting sentences together.

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Re: Afrikaans Sentence Structures

Postby Bittereinder » 2014-09-18, 18:42

Gonzo wrote:Hey this is a really great thread, lots of stuff I havent seen anywhere else! Do you guys mind if I post some sentences later and see what you all think? I just have to wait for my new dictionary to arrive then I'll be all set. It's really hard to get info on Afrikaans so this is a great opportunity to try my hand at putting sentences together.


Sure!
Openbaring 21:6
"Verder sê Hy vir my: Dit het klaar gebeur. Ek is die Alfa en die Omega, die Begin en die Einde. Aan elkeen wat dors het, sal Ek te drinke gee uit die fontein met die water van die lewe, verniet. "


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