Ok, so I'm mainly writing this for myself, because writing things down helps me memorize. But since I'm doing this, I thought it could be a nice idea to share it with others, although I doubt many people will be intersted! So here's my personal Ladin course.
(Do not expect a regular posting though...)
Feel free to ask if something is not clear!
The variety I'm studying is Fascian
. Spoken in Val de Fascia
[flag=]lld[/flag]HOW TO FORM THE PLURAL
So, first of all some clarification about pronunciation:
final c ---> /ʨ/ (when it's not final it's /ʨ/ if followed by i and e and /k/ if followed by a, o and u)
final sc ---> /ʃ/ (when it's not final it's /ʃ/ if followed by i and e and /ʃk/ if followed by a, o and u)
j ---> /ʒ/
ch ---> /k/
sch ---> /ʃk/
cs ---> /ks/
sć ---> /ʃʨ/
gn ---> /ɲ/
Hope my IPA is correct, I suck at it FEMININE -a
(plus the doubling of the final s of the root, e.g: clas ---> classes)-f
(and the f becomes voiced, e.g: sief ---> sieves)-sc
(and the sc becomes voiced, e.g: ousc ---> oujes)MASCULINESigmatic plural:-c
sometimes -f and -sc become voiced, e.g: ruf--->ruves, usc--->ujes but sometimes not: sbauf--->sbaufes, sbrisc--->sbrisces
[exception: om--->omegn (not oms)]-consonant + -er
---> sometimes you just add -es
, e.g: tisler--->tisleres, sometimes you also change the root: chèder--->chèdr
, e.g: bèrba---> bèrbes, stema--->stemes -é
---> add -es and don't write the accent: codé--->codees, londò--->londoes, nevó--->nevoes.
[exceptions: pe--->piesc, bo--->bues]-ai
---> you eliminate i
and add -es
: rai--->raes, parei--->parees, bedoi--->bedoes-ui
: molin--->molins, comun--->comuns-ich
(non tonic)---> -ics
---> -esPlural in -i-al
(mul ---> mui)
[irregular nouns: peil--->pei, fideil--->fidei, soul--->soi]-el
---> sometimes -ìe
(martel--->martìe) sometimes -ei
(lenzel--->lenzei)With non assimilated loanwords:-o
(còmplize--->còmplizi)for past participle:-ì
(contegnù ---> contegnui)
[exceptions: dì--->dis, fi--->fies]Plural with palatalization:-s
(non tonic) ---> -esc
(tonic) ---> -isc-à
(tobià ---> tobié)
[exception: fra--->fredes]Hybrid forms-ch
(and tonic syllable)---> sometimes -ches
(e.g. pach-->-ches), sometimes -c
---> sometimes -sches
(chiosch--->chiosches), sometimes -sć
(desch ---> desć)-an
is usually used for words of recent origin)-ent
or -oncUnvaried plural ( for feminine words)
-used with foreign wordsUnvaried plural (for masculine words) is used with:
- neologisms and foreign words
- compound nouns
- some nouns ending in -sc
[flag=]lld[/flag]PERSONAL SUBJECT PRONOUNS
The Ladin PSP are divided into two classes:
the latter devided in:
--- affirmative weak
STRONG PSP:1 sing: Gé2 sing: Tu3 masc. sing: El3 fem. sing: Ela1 masc. pl: Nos / nos etres1 fem. pl: Nos / nos autres2 masc. pl: Vo / voetres 2 fem. pl: Vo / voautres3 masc. pl: Ic3 fem. pl: Eles
This form is usually used to highlight the subject or to express a contrast between two subjects.
Vo is also the courtesy form, in this case it must be always capitalized. Adjectives and nouns follow the logical gender, not the grammatical one.
AFFIRMATIVE WEAK PSP 1 sing: -2 sing: Te / T'
(t' is used with words beginning with a vowel)3 masc. sing: L / L'
(l' is used with words beginning with a voewl)3 fem. sing: La / L'
(l' is used only with the verb aer - to have
)1 pl: -2 pl: -3 masc. pl: I3 fem. pl: Les
This class of pronouns is used:
with the 2nd singular
person, also when it also has the strong form: tu t'es belot, tu te ves n muie de roba
- with the 3rd singular and plural
person when the subject isn't otherwise expressed.
- in subordinated clauses (with percheche-because, se-if, endena che - during etc etc)
- in coordinated clauses [ that's to say with e/o - end/or] (at least usually)
- in appositive relative clauses with che
- when the subject is separated from the verb by incisive clauses.
It is not used with:
- 1st singular and plural person
- 2nd plural person
- restrictive relative clauses.
- when the subject is already expressed by a noun, a strong PSP or other kinds of pronouns
- when the conjugated verb is not repeated: l'à soprescià, fat da magnèr, lavà jù
The negative form of the PSP is formed by adding no
between the pronoun and the verb.
For the weak form the form no+pronoun+verb is also accepted, but it's considered colloquial. This kind of order is compulsory
for the impersonal l
:no l pief, no se capesc nia, no ge volessa esser massa spevesc.
INTERROGATIVE FORM (enclitic)1 sing: -(e)2 sing:-te3 masc. sing: -(e)l3 fem. sing: -(e)la1 pl: -e2 pl:
-3 masc. pl: -(e)i2 fem. pl: -(e)les
- in the first singular person
the verb esser - to be has an enclitic form:Gé son---> sone
- in the 3rd singular and plural persons, phonetic changes may occur, e.g:L depenc---> depénjel
- the 1st plural person has an enclitic form only for those form ending with consonants.Cherdon---> cherdone
[flag=]lld[/flag]DIRECT & INDIRECT PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Both indirect and direct pronouns are divided in a strong and a weak form.INDIRECT PRONOUN (i.e: dative [to me, to you etc etc]), WEAK FORM
1 sing: me
2 sing: te
3 sing: ge
1 plur: ne
2 plur: ve
3 plur: geINDIRECT PRONOUN, STRONG FORM
1 sing: a mi
2 sing: a ti
3 masc. sing: a el
3 fem sing: a ela
1 plur: a nos
2 plur: a vo
3 masc. plur: a ic
3 fem. plur: a elesDIRECT PRONOUN (i.e: accusative), WEAK FORM
1 sing: me
2 sing: te
3 masc. sing: l (l') - lo
(l' is to be used with words beginning with vowel)
3 fem sing: la (l')
(the l' form is used only with the verb aer-to have
and only when the conjugated forms of aer begin with a
1 plur: ne
2 plur: ve
3 masc. plur: i - li
3 fem. plur: lesDIRECT PRONOUN, STRONG FORM
1 sing: me
2 sing: te
3 masc. sing: el
3 fem sing: ela
1 plur: nos
2 plur: vo
3 masc. plur: ic
3 fem. plur: elesHOW TO USE THE PRONOUNS:
The 2 strong forms are used:
- in order to highlight the object. La ge à dat l liber a el
. (she gave the book to him
[not to someone else]); Ujèna ama el
(Ujèna loves him
[and not someone else]
- the direct strong form is also used with other prepositions different from a
, e.g: per ela
-for her, con ic
The weak pronouns must always precede the verb, except for the affermative imperative, e.g: me dèr ( to give me) becomes dame
! (give me!)
When the verb is compound, there are different cases:
- you usually have to put the pronoun between the first verb and the infinitive, e.g: tu te cogn l dir
- you have to say that.
-in certain idioms ( which represents a "conceptual unit") it must be put before the two verbs, e.g: no poder veder
means "to not stand", so it's gé no l posse veder
- I can't stand him. But if it means "not being able to see", then it's: gé no posse l veder
- with factive verbs, then again the pronoun must be put before the two verbs.
- lo and li are used in place of l and i when l and i are also the personal subject pronoun of the sentence (see lesson number 2), e.g: L lo vel
- he (L) wants (vel) it (lo, and not l); I li vèrda
- they watch them.
- The indirect object pronoun must be used also when the dative is expressed by another term, e.g:Tu te cognes ge dèr 10 euro a Zezilia.
(you have to give 10 euros to Zezilia). Even though the dative is already expressed by a Zezilia
must be added anyway. A word-for-word translation would be: you have to give to her 10 euros to Zezilia.
- When they're both in the weak form, the direct pronoun follows the indirect one, e.g: el vel ge (indirect) l (direct) dir
- he wants to tell him/her that.