Full gradation

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Jonne
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Full gradation

Postby Jonne » 2005-12-18, 19:14

If someone's interested:

Weak-Strong

đđ - đ
ff - f
ll - l
nn - n
rr - r
ss - s
ŧŧ - ŧ
vv - v
hcc - hc
hčč - hč
hkk - hk
hpp - hp
htt - ht
hc - z
hk - g
hp - b
ht - đ
bb - pp
dd - tt
gg - kk
zz - cc
žž - čč
rdn - rtn
dn - tn
pm - m
tn - n
kŋ - ŋ
ddj - dj
llj - lj
dj - j
ib - ibb
id - idd
ig - igg
il - ill
is - iss
it - itt
iv - ivv
ld - ldd
lg - lgg
lk - lkk
lp - lpp
lv - lvv
ŋg - ŋgg
rd - rdd
rf - rff
rg - rgg
rs - rss
rv - rvv
sk - skk
st - stt
tk - tkk
vd - vdd
vk - vkk
vl - vll
vp - vpp
vr - vrr
ibm - imm
idn - inn
lbm - lmm
vdn - vnn
rst - rstt
kc - vcc
kč - včč
ks - vss
kt - vtt

*next are written with only two letters but said with three*

fff - ff
lll - ll
mmm - mm
nnn - nn
rrr - rr
sss - ss
vvv - vv

So actually that goes like
ff - ff
ll - ll etc.

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Mulder-21
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Mulder-21 » 2012-06-09, 19:18

Is this Northern Sami only? Or does it apply to others too?
Gløgt er gestsins eyga. (Føroyskt orðafelli)
Wise is the stranger's eye. (Faroese saying)
L'occhio dell'ospite è acuto. (Proverbio faroico)
Hosťovo oko je múdre. (Faerské uslovie)

Fluent: Faroese, Danish, English, German
Almost fluent: Norwegian, Swedish
Basic: Slovak (studying), Spanish
Have studied: Hebrew, Russian
Interests: Ukrainian, Romanian, Italian, Albanian, Armenian, Ossetic, Hungarian, Estonian, Baltic languages

chung
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Re: Full gradation

Postby chung » 2012-06-18, 16:28

For sure it applies to Northern Saami. The sets of alternations in the other languages differ. Unfortunately I can't find anything on the internet which shows the full patterns but rather examples as found here for Inari, Skolt Saami.

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Virankannos
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Virankannos » 2013-11-10, 19:17

North Saami

I've compiled a little more comprehensive gradation table than the one in the first post (no offense :) ). The consonants and consonant clusters have been divided into nine groups depending on their gradation patterns. Q means quantity: Q III = overlong, Q II = long, Q I = short.

Group 1: Overlong geminate - geminate - single consonant
Q IIIQ IIQ I
đđđđđ
fffff
hllhllhl
hrrhrrhr
lllll
lljlj
mmmmm
nnnnn
nnjnnjnj
ŋŋŋŋŋ
rrrrr
sssss
ššššš
ŧŧŧŧŧ
vvvvv

Group 2: Preaspirated stop or affricate in Q III and Q II, single stop or affricate in Q I
Q IIIQ IIQ I
hcchcz
hččž
hkkhkg
hpphpb
htthtđ

Group 3: Plosive and nasal in Q III and Q II, single nasal in Q I
Q IIIQ IIQ I
bmpmm
dntnn
dnjtnjnj
ŋ

Group 4: Partly voiced geminates
Q IIIQ II
bbpp
ddtt
ddjdj
ggkk
zzcc
žžčč

Group 5: The palatalised geminate stop
Q IIQ I
djj

Group 6.1: A cluster of a sonorant and a preaspirated stop or affricate
Q IIIQ II
icicc
ikikk
ipipp
ititt
lklkk
lplpp
ltltt
mpmpp
ncncc
nčč
ntntt
ŋkŋkk
rcrcc
rčč
rkrkk
rprpp
rtrtt
vkvkk
vpvpp
vtvtt

Group 6.2: A cluster of a sonorant and any other consonant
Q IIIQ II
đbđbb
đgđgg
đjđjj
đvđvv
ibibb
ididd
ififf
igigg
ihlihll
ihmihmm
ihnihnn
ilill
irirr
isiss
ivivv
lblbb
ldldd
lflff
lglgg
lslss
lšš
lvlvv
mbmbb
ndndd
nsnss
ŋgŋgg
rbrbb
rdrdd
rfrff
rgrgg
rjrjj
rsrss
ršš
rvrvv
vdvdd
vgvgg
vhlvhll
vjvjj
vlvll
vrvrr
vzvzz
vžž

Group 6.3: A cluster of s/š/t and a consonant
Q IIIQ II
skskk
smsmm
ststt
škškk
šmšmm
špšpp
tktkk
tmtmm

Group 6.4: Rare triple consonant clusters
Q IIIQ II
iskiskk
ististt
mškmškk
nsknskk
nstnstt
rskrskk
rstrstt
stmstmm
vskvskk
vstvstt

Group 7: A cluster of đ/i/l/v, a voiced stop and a nasal
Q IIIQ II
đbmđmm
đgŋđŋŋ
ibmimm
idninn
igŋiŋŋ
lbmlmm
ldnlnn
lgŋlŋŋ
vdnvnn
vdnjvnnj

Group 8: A cluster of a trill, a voiced stop and a nasal
Q IIIQ II
rbmrpm
rdnrtn
rdnjrtnj
rgŋrkŋ

Group 9: A cluster of k and a consonant, where k alternates with v
Q IIIQ II
kcvcc
včč
ksvss
kstvstt
všš
ktvtt
Last edited by Virankannos on 2019-03-22, 6:56, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Full gradation

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-25, 5:56

Pite Sami gradation

ff - f
ll - l
l'l - l
mm - m
nn - n
n'n - nn
ŋŋ - ŋ
rr - r
r'r - r
ss - s
s's - ss
vv - v
v'v - vv

bbm - bm
bm - m
dj - j
ddj - j
ddn - dn
dn - n
tn - n
ddnj - dnj
dnj - nj
fft - ft
gŋ - ŋ
ggŋ - gŋ
lld - ld
lldn - ldn
llj - lj
llt - lt
lltj - ltj
mmb - mb
mmp - mp
mmst - mst
nnd - nd
nnj - nj
nnt - nt
nnts - nts
nntj - ntj
ŋŋg - ŋg
ŋŋk - ŋk
pps - ps
ppt - pt
bbts - bts
ppts - pts
pptj - ptj
s'sj - ssj
ssj - sj
ssjk - sjk
ssk - sk
ssm - sm
ssn - sn
ssp - sp
sst - st

bbj - bj
bbd - bd
bbl - bl
bdn - bn
bbnj - bnj
bbr - br
bbtj - btj
bbts - bts
jjb - jb
jbm - jm
jjd - jd
jdn - jn
jjg - jg
jjk - jk
jjl - jl
jjp - jp
jjr - jr
jjs -js
jjsk - jsk
jjst - jst
jjt - jt
jjtj - jtj
jjts - jts
jjv - jv
llb - lb
lbm - lm
llg - lg
llk - lk
llf - lf
llp - lp
lls - ls
llsj - lsj
llv - lv
mmg - mg
mmsj - msj
mms - ms
nnsk - nsk
nnst - nst
rrb - rb
rrd - rd
rrf -rf
ttf - tf
rrg -rg
ddg - dg
rrj - rj
rrk - rk
ttk - tk
rbm - rm
rdn - rn
rrs - rs
rrt - rt
rrtj - rtj
rrts - rts
rrv - rv
vvd - vd
vdn - vn
vdnj - vnj
vvg - vg
vvk - vk
vvl - vl
vvr - vr
vvs - vs
vvsk - vsk
vvst - vst
vvtj - vtj
vvts - vts

hk - g
hkk - hk
hp - v
hpp - hp
hpp - hp
ht - d
htt - ht
hts - ts
htts - hts
htj - tj
httj - htj

kks - ks
vvs - vs
kksj - ksj
kkt - kt
kktj - ktj

Linguaphile
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-25, 6:06

Lule Saami gradation

ff - f
ll - l
l'l - l
mm - m
nn - n
n'n - nn
ŋŋ - ŋ
rr - r
r'r - r
ss - s
s's - ss
vv - v
v'v - vv

bbm - bm
bm - m
dj - j
ddj - j
ddn - dn
dn - n
tn - n
ddnj - dnj
dnj - nj
fft - ft
gŋ - ŋ
ggŋ - gŋ
lld - ld
lln - ldn
llj - lj
llt - lt
lltj - ltj
mmb - mb
mmp - mp
mmst - mst
nnd - nd
nnj - nj
nnt - nt
nnts - nts
nntj - ntj
ŋŋg - ŋg
ŋŋk - ŋk
pps - ps
ppsj - psj
ppt - pt
bbts - bts
ppts - pts
pptj - ptj
s'sj - ssj
ssj - sj
ssjk - sjk
ssk - sk
ssm - sm
ssn - sn
ssp - sp
sst - st

bjj - bj
bdd - bd
bll - bl
bnn - bn
bnnj - bnj
brr - br
bttj - btj
btts - bts
jbb - jb
jmm - jm
jdd - jd
jnn - jn
jgg - jg
jkk - jk
jll - jl
jpp - jp
jrr - jr
jss -js
jssk - jsk
jsst - jst
jtt - jt
jttj - jtj
jtts - jts
jvv - jv
lbb - lb
lmm - lm
lgg - lg
lkk - lk
lff - lf
lpp - lp
lss - ls
lssj - lsj
lvv - lv
mgg - mg
mssj - msj
mss - ms
nssk - nsk
nsst - nst
rbb - rb
rdd - rd
rff -rf
rgg -rg
rjj - rj
rkk - rk
rmm - rm
rnn - rn
rss - rs
rtt - rt
rttj - rtj
rtts - rts
rvv - rv
vdd - vd
vnn - vn
vnnj - vnj
vgg - vg
vkk - vk
vll - vl
vrr - vr
vss - vs
vssk - vsk
vsst - vst
vttj - vtj
vtts - vts

hk - g
hkk - hk
hp - b
hpp - hp
ht - d
htt - ht
hts - ts
htts - hts
htj - tj
httj - htj

dtj - ttj
dts - tts
sj - tj
sj - ttj

bb - pp
dd - tt
gg - kk

ks - vs
ksj - ksj
kt - vt
ktj - vtj

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Virankannos
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Virankannos » 2019-03-20, 17:04

Inari Saami

Notes:
1) The dot below the letter indicates half-long consonant.
2) The geminate /jj/ and consonant clusters beginning in /j/ may be written either with <iC> or <jC> depending on the preceding vowel: if the preceding vowel is /i/, it's written as <jC>; if any other vowel, it is written as <iC>.
3) In h ~ ḥ, s ~ ṣ and š ~ ṣ̌ there is variation between individual speakers: some have a half-long consonant, others have a short consonant.

Group 1: Geminate - (half-long geminate) - single consonant
Q IIIQ IIQ I
bbb
cccs
ččč
ddd
đđđ̣đ
ggg
h ~ ḥṿ
ij/jjj
kkh
kkk
lll
mmm
nnn
ŋŋŋ̣ŋ
pppv
rrr
sss ~ ṣs
ššš ~ ṣ̌š
tttđ
vvṿv
zzz
žžž

Group 2.1: Consonant cluster where the first consonant is long (not indicated in spelling), only quantitative gradation
Q IIIQ II
bdbd
blbl
đfđf
đgđg
đjđj
đmđm
hlhl
htht
ib/jbib/jb
id/jdid/jd
iđ/jdiđ/jđ
ig/jgig/jg
il/jlil/jl
im/jmim/jm
in/jnin/jn
iŋ/jŋiŋ/jŋ
ir/jrir/jr
iv/jviv/jv
lblb
ldld
lglg
ljlj
lmlm
lnln
lsls
lvlv
mbmb
mnmn
ndnd
njnj
nznz
ŋgŋg
pcpc
psps
ptpt
rbrb
rdrd
rfrf
rgrg
rhrh
rjrj
rmrm
rnrn
rsrs
rvrv
sksk
smsm
snsn
spsp
stst
svsv
škšk
šmšm
šnšn
štšt
vdvd
vgvg
vjvj
vlvl
vmvm
vnvn
vrvr
vzvz

Group 2.2: Consonant cluster where the first consonant is long, with qualitative gradation
hcvc
htvt
ksvs
tkđh

Group 3: Consonant cluster where the second consonant is long
Q IIIQ II
icc/jccic/jc
ikk/jkkih/jh
itt/jttit/jt
lcclc
lčč
lkklh
lpplp
lssls
lšš
lttlt
mppmp
nccnc
nssns
nttnt
ŋkkŋk
rccrc
rčč
rkkrh
rpprp
rssrs
ršš
rttrt
vkkvh
vppvp
vttvt

Group 4: Three-consonant clusters
Q IIIQ II
đhmđhm
ihl/jhlihl/jhl
ihm/jhmihm/jhm
isk/jskisk/jsk
kstvst
nsknsk
rskrsk
vskvsk
Last edited by Virankannos on 2019-03-22, 6:55, edited 2 times in total.

Linguaphile
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-03-21, 4:38

Linguaphile wrote:Thanks!
By the way, how do you make the tables? I would have done it with the ones I posted too, but I couldn't figure out how.

I think I figured out how. Giving it a try with Estonian (I know this thread started out as Saami gradation, but since it's a Uralic forum now and the title of the thread just says "full gradation", I'm going to add Estonian here too.)

Estonian has three grades of quantity. The full set of three is only distinguished in writing for the following:


Q IIIQ IIQ I
kkkg
pppb
tttd

For all others the spelling of Q III is identical to Q II (i.e., written as a double letter) and Q I is written as a single letter.

For grammatical purposes, it is useful to think of gradation in terms of "strong" and "weak" rather than the above three quantities. This is because a Q II consonant can be either strong or weak grade depending on the word, for example:

Q IIIQ IIQ Imeaning
sepp (strong)sepa (weak)-smith
-karp (strong)karbi (weak)box


Estonian gradation:

Group 1.1: quantitative gradation only (Q III to Q II)
strong (QIII)weak (QII)
kkk
ppp
ttt
sss


Group 1.2: quantitative gradation only (Q II to Q I)
strong (QII)weak (QI)
kg
pb
td


Group 1.3: quantitative gradation (Q II to Q I and Q III to Q II) for which the difference between QIII and QII is not reflected in orthography:
Q IIIQ IIQ I
hhhhh
h*h*h
lllll
mmmmm
nnnnn
rrrrr
sssss
*after long or overlong vowels/diphthongs.

The same with vowels:
Q IIIQ IIQ I
aaaaa
eeeee
iiiii
ooooo
uuuuu
õõõõõ
äääää
ööööö
üüüüü
The same gradation can also happen with diphthongs as well but in that case there is no difference in orthography at all, so, I am not going to list all of the possible diphthongs here.

Group 1.4: quantitative gradation only (Q III to Q II)
strong (QIII)weak (QII)
fff
ššš


Group 1.5: quantitative gradation only (Q III to Q I)
strong (QIII)weak (QI)
jjj
vvv


Group 2: qualitative gradation (voiceless to voiced)
strong (QI)weak (QI)
bv
dj
bj


Group 3.1a: qualitative gradation (omission of consonant)
strongweak
b
d
g
lgl
rgr
sks
hkh
hth


Group 3.1b: qualitative gradation (omission or change of consonant along with a vowel change). This is just a subset of the above, and if we are only focusing on consonants it probably shouldn't be listed here at all (since the consonant changes are identical to those in 3.1a) but it is useful to know.
strongweak
idaea
iduei
igaea
igueo
ubaoa
ugeoe
uguoo
üdeöe
ügaöa


Group 3.1c: qualitative + quantitative gradation (omission of consonant from a cluster, remaining consonant is lengthened)
strongweak
mbmm
ldll
ndnn
rdrr


Group 3.2a: qualitative gradation (omission or change of consonant) with a second strong form (for example, the first strong form is used for the nominative, the weak form for the genitive, and the second strong form for the partitive)
strongweakstrong
stt
rsrrrt
kshht


Group 3.2b: qualitative gradation (omission of consonant along with a vowel change) with a second strong form. Again. this is just a subset of 3.2a with vowel changes that occur due to the gradation process.
strongweakstrong
üsiöeütt


Note that many of these changes can occur in either direction, i.e. strong to weak or weak to strong, so where I have written (for example) "Q II to Q I" above the change can also be in the other direction (Q I to Q II) and so on. Grammar rules generally require that a word that starts out as strong will change to the weak grade in certain forms and vice versa.

:arrow: for comparison

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Virankannos
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Virankannos » 2019-03-21, 16:40

Skolt Saami

Notes:
1) Table only contains the non-palatalized variants of the consonants and consonant clusters. In the presence of suprasegmental palatalization (indicated by <ʹ>, eg. äiʹǧǧ 'time'), some consonants have a palatalized variant:
ʹ + k = ʹǩ (jokk 'river' : joʹǩǩe 'to the river')
ʹ + g = 'ǧ (kaggâd 'to lift' : kaʹǧǧe 'they lifted')
ʹ + ǥ = ʹj (juâǥǥam 'I share' : jueʹjj '(you) share!'
2) <llj> and <nnj> are not consonant clusters but digraphs denoting the sounds /ʎʎ/ and /ɲɲ/ respectively
3) If a consonant cluster beginning in <u> /v/ or <i> /j/ is preceded by the vowel /u/ or /i/, they are written as <v> and <j> to avoid confusion, as two adjacent vowel letters denote a long vowel.

Group 1.1: Consonant cluster where the second consonant is long, only quantitative change
Q IIIQ II
bddbd
bǯǯ
bjjbj
bllbl
brrbr
bttbt
ckkck
đjjđj
đvvđv
fttft
hkkhk
iccic
iddid
ikkik
illil
immim
innin
iŋŋ
ippip
irrir
issis
ittit
ivviv
kssks
lbblb
lcclc
lčč
lǯǯ
lddld
lkklk
lmmlm
lnnln
lŋŋ
lpplp
lttlt
lvvlv
mbbmb
mjjmj
mnnmn
mppmp
mšš
nccnc
nddnd
nssns
nttnt
ŋggŋg
ŋkkŋk
pccpc
pčč
pkkpk
pssps
pšš
pttpt
rbbrb
rccrc
rčč
rǯǯ
rddrd
rjjrj
rkkrk
rmmrm
rnnrn
rŋŋ
rpprp
rssrs
ršš
rttrt
rvvrv
skksk
smmsm
snnsn
sppsp
sttst
škkšk
šmmšm
šnnšn
šttšt
tkktk
tmmtm
tnntn
uʒʒ
uǯǯ
uddud
ujjuj
ukkuk
ullul
ummum
unnun
unnjunj
uŋŋ
uppup
urrur
uttut

Group 1.2: Consonant cluster where the second consonant is long, with qualitative change
Q IIIQ II
dggđǥ
igg
lgg
rgg
ugg

Group 1.3: Consonant cluster beginning with h-, with qualitative change
Q IIIQ II
hccuc
hčč
hssus
hšš
httut

Group 2.1: Overlong geminate - long geminate - single consonant
Q IIIQ IIQ I
đˈđđđđ
jˈjjjj
lˈllll
mˈmmmm
nˈnnnn
nˈnjnnjnj
ŋˈŋŋŋŋ
rˈrrrr
vˈvvvv

Group 2.2: Overlong geminate - long geminate
Q IIIQ II
ʒˈʒʒʒ
ǯˈǯǯǯ
bˈbbb
dˈddd
gˈggg
lˈljllj

Group 2.3: Voiceless overlong geminate - voiceless long geminate - voiced geminate
Q IIIQ IIQ I
cˈcccʒʒ
čˈčččjj
sˈssszz
šˈšššžž

Group 2.4: Overlong geminate plosive - long geminate plosive - voiced fricative
Q IIIQ IIQ I
kˈkkkǥǥ
pˈpppv
tˈtttđ

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Virankannos
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Virankannos » 2019-03-23, 20:19

Ume Saami (source: Umesamiska.nu - Umesamisk ortografi)

Notes on spelling:
<sj> /ʃ/
<nj> /ɲ/
<ts> /ʦ/
<tj> /ʧ/

Group 1
Q IIIQ IIQ I
hpphpb
htthtd
hkkhkg
httshtsts
httjhtjtj

Group 2
Q IIIQ IIQ I
jjjjj
lllll
mmmmm
nnnnn
nnjnnjnj
ŋŋŋŋŋ
rrrrr
sssss
vvvvv

Group 3
Q IIIQ II
kssks
kssjksj
kttkt
kttjktj
kttskts
pkkpk
pssps
pssjpsj
pttpt
pttjptj
pttspts
bddbd
bđđ

Group 4
Q IIIQ IIQ I
bmbmm
dndnn
dnjdnjnj
ŋ

Group 5
Q IIIQ II
bdnbdn
bnbn
bdnjbdnj
bnjbnj

Group 6
Q IIIQ II
bjjbj
bllbl
brrbr
gllgl

Group 7
Q IIIQ II
ssjmsjm
ssjksjk
ssjvsjv
ssksk
ssmsm
ssnsn
ssŋ
sspsp
sstst
ssvsv

Group 8
Q IIIQ II
đđđ
đđđđ
đggđg
đgŋđgŋ
đvvđv
ŧkkŧk
ŧmmŧm
hđđhđđ
hfhf
hllhll
hnhn
hrhr
hvhv

Group 9
Q IIIQ II
lttjltj
rttsrts
rttjrtj
vttsvts
vttjvtj
jttsjts
jttjjtj
jssjs
jssjjsj
lfflf
lssls
lssjlsj
rffrf
rssrs
rssjrsj
vđđ
vssvs
vssjvsj
jlljl
jrrjr
jvvjv
lljlj
lvvlv
rjjrj
rvvrv
vjjvj
vllvl
vrrvr

Group 10
Q IIIQ II
jbmjm
jdnjn
jgŋ
lbmlm
ldnln
ldnjlnj
lgŋ
vdnvn
vdnjvnj
vgŋ
rbmrbm
rdnrdn
jhnjhn
lhnlhn
lhvlhv
rhnrhn
rhvrhv
vhnvhn

Group 11
Q IIIQ II
mkkmk
mppmp
ŋkkŋk
mttjmtj
nttnt
nttjntj
nttsnts
mbbmb
mggmg
ŋggŋg
nddnd
njggnjg
mssms
nssns
ŋssŋs

Group 12
Q IIIQ II
jsskjsk
jsstjst
lssklsk
nssknsk
nsstnst
ŋsstŋst
rsskrsk
vsstvst

Group 13
Q IIIQ II
gggg
bbbb
dddd
đđđđ
dtsdts
dtjdtj
btjbtj
jjjj
mmmm
nnnn
rrrr
ssss
ssjssj
vvvv


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