[Kazakh] Grammar Studies

Moderator: eskandar

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

[Kazakh] Grammar Studies

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-06, 6:19

I take my liberties to present You a Brief Sketch on Qazaq Grammar, I've developped a while ago based on my own knowledge as the native speaker as well as on the various materials on Qazaq language available for me. It is classical one. Some places might be "crude", however, as the game progresses, I will add extra materials, if any, and amend, supersede, correct the older ones.

Introduction

The Qazaq (Kazakh) language differs from the Indo-European languages by its structure, namely, in the part of word creation scheme - the Qazaq language is the agglutinative language, while the Indo-European languages are mostly inflectional languages. Genetically, the Qazaq language is attributed to the Turkic languages, while, for example, the English language belongs to German branch of the Indo-European languages family. In Qazaq, as in the other Turcik languages, the new words and its various forms are formed, mainly, by means of adding (agglutinating) various word-formative affixes to the word's stem (roote). Thus, you can represent the whole sentence (conjugated, declined, put in various tenses, moods, aspects, etc.) only in one word. It is very convenient way! For example, the verb "жазу" - to write (infinitive) may have the follwoing forms:

жаз - the stem/root of the verb "to write", to which all other formatives are added ; the Imperative form for "write" (write this)
жазу - the writing - verbal noun; noun of action
жазушы - the writer
жазушылар - the writers
жазушыларым - my writers
жазушыларымыз - our writers
жазушыларымызда - at/in/with our writers (Locative Case)
жазушыларымыздағы - that, which is at/in/with our writers (adjective - "which one?")
жазушыларымыздағылар - those, which are at/in/with our writers
жазушыларымыздағылардан - from those, which are at/in/with our writers (Elative Case)

тіл - the language, tongue
тілші - the correspondent (the reporter)
тілшілер - the correspondents
тілшілерім - my correspondents
тілшілеріміз - our correspondents
тілшілерімізден - from our correspondents (Elative Case)
тілшілеріміздегі - that, which is at/in/with our correspondents (Adjective - "which one?")
тілшілеріміздегілер - those, which are at/in/with our correspondents
тілшілеріміздегілерден - from those, which are at/in/with our correspondents (Elative Case)

тілдей - as/like the language (Adverb - how, in what way, in which manner)
тілшідей - as/like the correspondent
тілшімдей - as/like my correspondent
тілшіміздей - as/like our correspondent
тілшілердей - as/like the correspondents
тілшілерімдей - as/like my correspondents
тілшілеріміздей - as/like our correspondents
тілшілеріміздегідей - as/like that, which are at/in/with our correspondents
тілшілеріміздегілердей - as/like those, which are at/in/with our correspondents
etc.

The root remains without any change; the affixes are in harmony with the root, i.e. if the root (basically, the latter syllable of the root) has the front vowel (а, о, ұ, ы, and у), then all other following affixes connected to the root shall have the front vowel, and vice verca, - if the root has the back vowel (ә, е, и, і, ө, ү, and у), then the following affixes shall have the back vowel.

What is really interesting and peculiar with the way of creating various verbal forms is the agglutination (addition) of different kind of affixes, which may be multiple and versitile in their nature. I must point out, that, generally, the verb in Qazaq language, as in in other Turkic languages, is the immensely and highly developped part of speech.

In Qazaq language you can derive various kinds of words from one root (e.g. бар - go, бару- to go) by adding different affixes, for example:

бар - the stem of infinitive verb - "бару"; the Imperative mood - go!
бару - infinitive verb - to go
бара - gerund, adverbial participle - going (while / keeping going)
бармау - negative infinitive verb - to do not go
барма - the stem of negative infinitive verb; Imperative - do not go!
барғалы - the verbal form, of which the meaning is equal to that of "to be going to go", and to the Perfect - e.g. "since comming", "since I've come" (I'll say later about the choices)
барғызу - Causative infinitive from the infinitive verb бару - to compel / make/ cause somebody/something to go.
барғыз - Causative Imperative - compel/cause/make somebody/something to go!
For example: "Арманды дүкенге барғыздым" - "I have made Arman to go to the shop" as similar to "I said to Arman to go to the shop"
барғыздырту - Transferred/Overextrapolated Causative Infinitive - to compel/cause/make somebody/something to compel/cause/make third party to go.
For example: "Арманға Бауыржанды барғыздырттым" - "I have caused Arman to cause Bauyirzhan to go to the shop" as similar to "I said to Arman let he made Bauyirzhan to go to the shop" (Eng. Subjunctive) "make Bauyirzhan to go to the shop (I said to Arman)". Me - action - Arman - action - Bauyirzhan. The 3rd party (Bauyirzhan) implements the action you want through the agency of the 2nd (Arman) party... OMG... :para:
Such verbal forms can be represented in other languages by voices, aspects and moods, apart or at the same time. (maybe I'll develop that further).
бармақ - to want, wish, intent to go
барса - if he/she goes / will go
баршы - from "please, go" to even "go, dont bother me" as similar to polite "f*uk off" :lol: because it is in Imperative Mood (see above my explanations about "қараңыз", "тыңдаңыз"), so which form is used depends on the context and intonation. While барыңызшы - is definitely polite of "please, go" because of polite ending of 2nd person - "ңыз".
барсайшы - the emphasized asking / insisting the 2nd person to go (the direct form) (see, "қараңыз", "тыңдаңыз")
барсаңшы - almost the same as барсайшы the direct form of 2nd person - please, go!
барсаңызшы - 2nd person's polite form - please, go!
Note: there is no 2nd person's polite form for "барсайшы" (барсайызшы), only for (барсаңшы - барсаңызшы).
барар - probably, would go in the future (Subj)
барыңқырау - to go in driblets / slightly / little by little / gradually. without "у" - the Imperative - go slightly!
барғандарымызға - to those of us, who went, etc.
etc.

The root remains unchanged, the affixes harmonize with the root (e.g. - кел, келсе, келіңкіре, etc.). Unfortunately, such tables are created only in the present days, and the information given in the Qazaq textbooks is unsatisfactory, since the developpers of such textbooks, manuals, usually, copy (to be frankly translate into Qazaq language) textbooks written in Russian and the least is the importance they pay to inner laws of the Qazaq language's development.
From the one part, there are lot of kinds of suffixes (of the pronous, verbs), from the other part, - the adjectives, mostly, do not change. There is no concordance between adjective and noun.
Qazaq adjective is unchangeable word class; change in numbers, by cases and possessiveness substantivizes the word, i.e. when the word becomes noun.
Non-changeability of the Qazaq adjective and its chageability by gender, number and cases, for example, in Russian (or Spanish) language can be demonstrated by the following table:
Russian







Singular
MasculineNeutralFeminine
И. белый каменьбелое облакобелая бумага
Р. белого камнябелого облакабелой бумаги
Д. белому камнюбелому облакубелой бумаге
В. белый каменьбелое облакобелую бумагу
Т. белым камнембелым облакомбелой бумагой
П. о белом камнео белом облакео белой бумаге









Plural
MasculineNeutralFeminine
И. белые камнибелые облакабелые бумаги
Р. белых камнейбелыз облаковбелых бумаг
Д. белым камнямбелым облакамбелым бумагам
В. белые каменибелые облакабелые бумаги
Т. белыми камнямибелыми облакамибелыми бумагами
П. о белых камняхо белых облакахо белых бумагах


Qazaq:

































































CasesSingularPlural
Атау септік-Nominatveақ тас-белый каменьақ тастар
ақ бұлт-белое облакоақ бұлттар
ақ қағаз-белая бумагаақ қағаздар
Ілік септік-Genitiveақ тастыңақ тастардың
ақ бұлттыңақ бұлттардың
ақ қағаздыңақ қағаздардың
Барыс септік-Dativeақ тасқаақ тастарға
ақ бұлтқаақ бұлттарға
ақ қағазғаақ қағаздарға
Табыс септік-Accusativeақ тастыақ тастарды
ақ бұлттыақ бұлттарды
ақ қағаздыақ қағаздарды
Жатыс септік-Locativeақ тастаақ тастарда
ақ бұлттаақ бұлттарда
ақ қағаздаақ қағаздарда
Шығыс септік- Elativeақ тастанақ тастардан
ақ бұлттанақ бұлттардан
ақ қағазданақ қағаздардан
Көмектес септік-Instrumentalақ таспенақ тастармен
ақ бұлтпенақ бұлттармен
ақ қағазбенақ қағаздармен

P.S. Sorry, the table formatting here is arranged a bit weird for me. I could not use properly such attributes as table width, table border, cellspacing, cellpadding, bordercolorlight, bordercolordark, bgcolor, etc. This BBL coding is tough, unlike bare html.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-07, 1:25

So let's continue...

As you see from that tables the adjective "ақ" remains unchagable; it is not changed by genders, because, as I've mentioned above, the Qazaqs language as well as all other Turkic languages have no grammatical category of gender; neighter it is changed by numbers, cases and possessiveness, since such changes are not typical for the adjectives in Qazaq and the Turkic languages, in these languages they are typical for noun. That is why each single change by the said categories (cases, numbers, genders) results in substantivization of the word being changed, i.e. the word becomes noun, undergoes substantivization (e.g. ағы, ақтар, ақтың) and shall be perceived as the noun only. One shall figure out that the modern Qazaq literary (standard) language belongs to the richest literary languages ever. You can set or lay down almost every masterwork onto Qazaq. For example, many masterpieces of Pushkin - the Russian poet of extraordinary genius - and other Russian classics, the compositions of the modern outstanding Russian writers had been translated into Qazaq language. The labours of the preceding Soviet Era: the fundamental artworks of Marksist-Leninist classists were translated into Qazaq, - these witnesses the enormous development of the modern Qazaq Literary Language!

Yet, one shall acknowledge the fact that the modern Russian literary language also made (and still is making) great and beneficial influence on the development and enhancement of Qazaq language. This can be proved if we compare the language of some pre-October Qazaq Art and Op-Ed printworks with the language laid in the pieces written in the same genres over the post-October period (October Revolution, 1917). Substantial social-economic changes in the Qazaqs's life over those decades - the change-over to socialism, bypassing the capitalistic phase, and then "regaining back" the capitalistic order with the market-oriented economy - could not set aside the Qazaq language inalterably. The Qazaq language underwent certain changes. But the base philosophy remains the same, The language did not experience any essential change. It acquired new and junked some obsolete elements. The obsolete, archaic words and expressions gave place to newer words (neologisms) and expressions.

Primarily, strong change occured in the lexis. The phonic structure incorporated some new alterations as well (new sounds appeared: в, ф, ц, ч, etc. (although, some specific sounds as в, ф were known to Qazaqs from the earlist Islamic times)), we also may observe the effect of disbalance in sounds harmony; either we can see remarkable shifts in the clauses' subordination. More flexible structures, which render the values of purpose, cause, effect (consequence), time, condition had appeared. Lexis of the contemporary Qazaq language experienced significant changes; it was enriched tremendously.

Such enrichment was due to following trends:
    a) Reunderstanding of words, using the words having concrete (substantial) meaning in more general and abstract sense or using them as the terms, e.g. the word "құн" in the pre-revolutionary Qazaq language meant "vindictive damages", "penalty cost", "penalty charge" for human murder (Qazaqs, usually, charged on that penalty in kind). In modern Qazaq language құн means the cost, price; қосымша құн - surplus value, added value. In pre-revolutionary Qazaq the word "бай" was used. mostly, to convey three meanings; бай (noun) - the richman, the exploiter; the husband - only with possessive affixes: байым - my husband, байың - your husband, байы - her husband, байға тию - to marry; and бай - rich (adjective)... Болсам да малға жарлы, сөзге баймын - Although I am poor (indigent), I am rich for words... In modern Qazaq the word бай serves as the adjective: бай өлке - wealthy region. In the pre-revolutionary Qazaq the word "жарыс", basically, had the following meanings - racing, cuvent, contest (mainly, horseracing), while in the modern it means "competion" as well - ат жарыс - horseracing, and экономикалық-нарықтық жарыс - economical-market competition. The modern ағым had in the early Qazaq only a fixed meaning - the current (e.g. of water, river), while today it also the means the current (political), tendencies, maneuvers (political), i.e. they are used also in another, more general and abstract meaning. The early Qazaq word "құбылыс" meant "unsteady, fluctuating, alternating, changing condition", while in the modern Qazaq it either means "the phenomenon", "occurrence", etc., i.e. it acquired more general, abstract meaning too. In the pre-revolutionary Qazaq the word "шама" had the meanings of "approximity"; "power", "ability", and today it is either used in terms of term :): шама - value, amount, volume (in physics and mathematics). Whilst earlier on the word "зат" - thing was used in terms of менің заттарым - my things, today it is used also as the term and means the "thing", "materia", "substance" (philosophy, chemistry)
    b) Formation of mew words to express new concepts (emergence of vast amount of neologisms), e.g.: in the pre-revolutionary Qazaq the word "әлеумет" meant "community" (as latin "socium"), while the modern Qazaq mostly uses its derivative form әлеуметтік, which has the "social" meaning, e.g.: әлеуметтік экономика терминдері - social-economic terms, socioeconomic terms. Early, the word "шығар" meant "let out", "release" (Imperative) and used also as auxillary verb, while the modern Qazaq developed its derivative "шығарма" having the meaning of "composition", "art piece": Абайдың шығармалары - the masterpieces of Abai. Before XVIII c. the word "құр" meant "construct" "establish" (Imperative), the modern Qazaq has құрылыс (new formation) - "construction", "building"; алып құрылыстар - giant building sites; жаңа құрылыстар - new constructions, etc.
    c) Qazaq vocabulary filled with the vast amount of words borrowed from Russian, of which the rich vocabulary benefitted for working out and enhancement of scientific-technical and socio-political terminology, secondly, there were a lot of so-called calque-words, loaned and directly borrowed words transferred out from Russian, English, Latin, etc. languages: грамматика - grammar, компьютер - computer, халықаралық - international, etc.
    d) Beside, Qazaq embodied an abundance of collocations, set expressions, many of which are phraseological loan-translated calques from other languages: табыстан табысқа - from success to success, etc.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-07, 2:43

About alphabet (Әліпби)

(Pre-note: Speaking about modern Qazaq I do imply the period within the mid of 17th c. and 21st c.)

The modern Qazaq qyrillic alphabet consists of 42 letters, 15 of them serve to depict vowels: а, ә, о, ө, ы, і, у, ұ, ү, е, и, я, <ё, э, ю>, ; and 25 letters to depict consonants: б, г, ғ, д, ж, з, й, қ, к, л, м, н, ң, п, р, с, т, х, һ, ш, <щ, в, ф, ц, ч + 2 graphic signs - ъ, ь>; the latter two signs are encountered only in the words borrowed from Russian language, used in the functions in the way they used in Russian spelling.

The letters а, б, в, г, д, е, ё, ж, з, и, й, к, л, м, н, о, п, р, с, т, у, ф, х, ц, ч, ш, щ, э, ю, я, depict the same sounds as in Russian "abc", the letters ғ, қ, ң, һ, ы, і, ұ, ү, ө, ә depict specific Qazaq sounds.

Today's Qazaq qyrillic alphabet is based on the distinct peculiarities of the phonetic system of Qazaq language. Some scientists argue that the Qazaq alphabet based on the Arabic graphics could not cover the specifity of Qazaq language's vocalism and consonantism. They say, for example, that Arabic-Qazaq abc had only such letters, which depicted the consonants characteristic of Arab language and absolutely alien to the Qazaq language. Either that scientists adhere to an opinion that Qazaq-Latin abc could not reflect Qazaq phonetic system in the full extent (see, Kazakh alphabet, and Казахский алфавит)
However, let us address this issue for other investigators.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-08, 2:45

Phonetics (Фонетика)

Existing textbooks divide Qazaq vowels into front (жіңішке дауыстылар) and back (жуан дауыстылар) vowels:

Front Vowels: ә, е, и, і, ө, ү
Back Vowels: а, о, ы, ұ, у

Based on the tongue position (lift, raise):
Wide (ашық): а, ә, о, ө, е (э)
Narrow (қысаң): и, і, ы, ұ, у, ү

Based on the lips participation in sound producing:
Labialized (Rounded): о, ө, ұ, у, ү
Non-labialized (Unrounded): а, ә, е, и, і, ы,(э)

Qazaq Phonetics. Table 1

Qazaq consonants are provided for in the following table:
In the table specific Qazaq consonant as well as the vowels are depicted by the letters of today's Qazaq alphabet; ғ, қ (guttural), ң (guttural, nasal, obstruent).

Qazaq language has д'ж' affricate (conjoint, media, dental), but this sound is not a phoneme, i.e. is not used as distinctive sound, so the modern Qazaq abc doesn't hold specific sign to depit it. In the table, the sound is given in brackets as complex д'ж'.

Qazaq Phonetics. Table 2

Bilabial, fricative consonant is given by the sign y as in the modern Qazaq alphabet, e.g. the word тау - mountain, etc.

Jot sound (j) has no special sign in the modern Qazaq alphabet (as well as in Russian).

The Table also include "non-Qazaq-specific" sounds - в, ф, ц.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-08, 5:42

Word Composition

There are root and affixes distinguished in the structure of Qazaq words. The word's stem may function independently (to convey substantivity, action and condition, quality-properties, features, relation of words within the clause (sentence), etc.). The affixes, if used with the roots, vary depending on the sound composition of the stem and express certain meanings only in conjuction with them.

Depending on the structure, all the words can be divided as follows:

ДАРА СӨЗДЕР (SIMPLE WORDS)

1. We call 'simple' the stems consisting of one root, e.g.: тас (stone), көз (eye), оқы (read!), ақ (white), бес (five), жаз (write!, summer, stretch!, cure!, etc.), су (water).

2. We call 'simple derivatives' the stems consisting of the root and formative affixes, e.g.: балықшы - (fisherman): балық - fish + шы (word-formative affix); оқыт - teach!: оқы - read! (learn!) + т (genus/voice affixe); қашқын - runaway/escapee: қаш - run! + қын (formative affix), etc.

КҮРДЕЛІ СӨЗДЕР (COMPOUND WORDS)

1. Connected words (Біріккен сөздер) are the words, which consist of two or more roots rendering entire concept-meaning:
    a) with the stems changed phonetically, e.g.: бүгін - today: бұл күн - this day; - ашутас (ашудас) - aluminium potassium sulphate: - ашы (ашшы/ащы) - bitter/acidy + тас- a stone;
    b) with the stems not changed phonetically, e.g.: алтыбақан - name of game: алты - six + бақан - pole; ақсақал - elder/grandfather/patriarch/respectable/honourable elder man: ақ - white + сақал - beard, etc.
2. Alliterating words (Қос сөздер) are divided as follows:
    a) both components have the real meaning and correlate with each other as synonims: дос-жар - friend-associate: дос - friend, жар - comrade; қой-қозы - sheeps/small cattle (collective): қой - sheep / ewe + қозы - lamb; төсек-орын - bed: төсек - bed + орын - place;
    b) the compound words comprised by the synonims, where the first one refers to the second as the part to the whole or as the whole to the part; тау-тас - mountains: тау - mountain + тас - stone; ыдыс-аяқ - dishware: ыдыс - utensil + аяқ - cup/goblet; аман-есен - alive and well/safe and sound: аман - alive/safe + есен - well/sound, etc.
    c) the compound words with the first component having the real (active) meaning, and the second component, which lost its real meaning, e.g.: бала-шаға - (family, children);
    g) the compound words comprised by the antonyms; аға-іні: аға - the elder brother + іні - younger brother, үлкенді-кішілі - adults/elders and youngs: үлкенді - adults/elders + кішілі - youngs, etc.

Affixes. The affixes have no real, independent (distinct, substancial) value. They are featured with their acoustic variants. There are three groups of affixes:

1 Word formative Affixes: шы: балық+шы - fisherman); лық: - бала+лық - childhood; лы: таулы - mountainy (adj.) and the like;
2. Morphological Affixes: рек: кіші+рек - less, кітап+ша - tiny book/booklet; бар+ған - gone (Past Participle), etc.
3. Inflectional Affix, i.e. endings: 1) plurals: -лар, лер, дар, дер, тар, тер; 2) possessiveness: -м (-ым), ң (-ың), -сы; 3) case; 4) person

Inflectional affixes, in turn, are divided into:

    a) Affixes forming another word with new meaning inside that grammatical category, e.g.: етік - boot; етік+ші - bootmaker/shoemaker;
    b) Affixes forming another word and another word class (part of speech), e.g.: бас - a head (noun), бас+та - begin! (verb); бір - one (numeral), бір+лік - unity; тап - find!, табыс - achievement / success / income, etc.

СӨЗ ТУДЫРУ (WORD FORMATION)

There are following main ways of word formation in Qazaq language:

1. Affixal word formation, i.e. formation of new words by adding various affixes to the root or the word's stem;
2. Using two or more roots (words) to express certain notion, i.e. analytical word formation;
3. Lexical-semantical word formation. i.e. by changing the meaning of word, and borrowing words from other languages.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-09, 11:14

Yes, it is so... sadly... However, I'll try to do my best here, at least... untill there are a few listeners as you and Osprey... Maybe this would not change my mind... Someday this free knowledge, I hope, will be useful.

СӨЗ ТАБЫ (PART OF SPEECH)

I. ЗАТ ЕСІМ (NOUN)

Qazaq noun has the forms of plurality, singularity, case and possessiveness; the noun being predicate may have predicative affixes.

The derivative nouns may be formed (derived) both from the nominal stems and from the stems of other word classes by force of formative affixes (derivational / word-building affixes).

I. Nouns Derivation from Nominal Stems:

    a) Affixes -шы (-ші), e.g.: балық - fish, балық+шы - fisherman; аң - wild animal/beast, аң+шы - (the hunter); кен - ore / mineral, кен+ші - miner / mine worker, mine-digger (It's like an English 'profession suffix' er - listen+er, etc.);
    b) Affixes -лас (-лес), -дас (-дес), -тас, (-тес), e.g.: сыр - secret, confidence, сыр+лас - like-minded person/confederate/soul mate; жол - a road, жол+дас - friend/companion, fellow-traveller, spouse; отан - motherland, отан+дас - compatriot; ауыл - auyl (aul) - Qazaq village-like settlement, ауыл+дас - fellow auyl-man, ayul/home folk
    c) Affix -лық (-лік), дық (-дік), тық (-тік), e.g.: бала - a child, бала+лық - childhood, жас - an age (noun), young (adj.), жас+тық - youth/youthfulness; бас - a head, бас+тық - a headman/chief; орын - a place, орын+дық - a chair; жақсы - good (adj. adv.), жақсы+лық - goodness/kidness, etc.

II. Nouns Derivation from Verbs:

    a) Affixes (-ы, -і),-м, -ма (-ме), -ба (-бе), -пе (-пе), e.g: тый - prhobit!/forbid!, тый-ым - prohibition; біл - know!, біл+ім - knowledge; жар - split!/crush!, жар+ма - grits/muesli/grain; кес - cut!, кес+пе - noodles/soba, etc.
    b) Affix -қ, (-к, -ық, -ік), e.g.: тара - comb! (a hair), тара+к - a comb, raker; күре - to rake up, күре-к - a shovel, spade; төсе - lay!, төсе-к - bed; көр - see!watch!look!, көр-ік - sight/appearance/look/outlook; еле - sieve!, еле-к - а sieve, etc.
    c) Affixes -қыш and its phonetic variants (-кіш), -ғыш (-гіш), e.g.: ат - shoot!/fire!, ат-қыш - a shooter/firer/gunslinger; қыр - scrape!, scrub!, scratch!, қыр-ғыш - scraper, scrubber; сүрт - erase!, wipe off!, clean!, сүрт-кіш - the thing/device with which this action is done (a wiper, a sponge, a swab & the like); тес - thirl!, drill!, bore out!, perforate!, pierce!, make a hole!, spike!, тес-кіш (a drill, a borer, a perforator, etc.), etc.
    d) Affix (-y) -шы, e.g.: оқу - to read/learn (or action noun, verbal noun), оқу-шы - a pupil/student; жазу - to write, жазу-шы - a writer, etc.
    e) Affixes (-т) -қы, -ғы, e.g.: сыпыр - sweep!, brush,!besom away!, сыпырт-қы - а broom, а besom; адар - spread out!, defibrize!, stretch!, extend!, rack, адар-ғы - a backset, rack, etc.

Of course, this list can not be complete and there are many other noun-derivational affixes not mentioned here. Maybe will speak about them further down the road.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2010-05-20, 14:20

Hey there! So decided to add one more info on grammar;)... But, I am still busy...

II. СЫН ЕСІМ (ADJECTIVE)

As I mentioned before, modification by number, cases and possessiveness is not typical for Qazaq adjective. Qazaq adjective, roughly, is non-changable part of speech (as in English). The adjective coupled with noun acts as an attribute, with the verb – as an adverbial modifier:
жақсы (attribute) бала - good boy; ол жақсы (adv. modifier) оқиды - he/she studies/learns good; it also can act as a predicate in the sentence: биыл қар қалың - this year the snow is deep.

The adjectives are divided into:

    1. Antiderivative, e.g.: қызыл - red; ақ - white; шұбар - mottled, pocked; қысқа - short; биік - high; терең - deep; жақсы - good; жаңа - new; ашшы/ащы - bitter; жұмсақ - soft, and the like.
    2. Derivative, which are formed out of:
    • nominal stems using the following affixes:
      • -лы (and its variants: -лі, -ды, -ді, -ты, -ті), e.g.: сай-лы - gully (adj.); кір-лі - dirty; мұз-ды - icy; ен-ді - wide; даңқ-ты - noble; мәдениетті - cultural/well-bred/tempered
      • -дай (and its variants: (-дей), -тай, (-тей)), e.g.: тау-дай - huge (as a mountain); үй-дей - as large as a house; сүт-тей - as a milk, etc.
      • -сыз (-сіз) (compare Deutch 'los', English 'less'), e.g.: су-сыз - waterless; ерік-сіз - unwilled/unwillingly (adverb), etc.
    • verbal stems using the following affixes:
      • -шақ (-шек), e.g.: ұмыт-шақ - forgetful; ерін-шек - lazy/shiftless, etc.
      • -аған (-еген), e.g.: қаб-аған ит - fierce (verb. snappish/hard-bitten) dog, сүз-еген сиыр - butty/hooky/apt to butt/apt to gore cow, etc.

Qualitative adjective has three degree of comparison:
  • Positive Degree
  • Comparative Degree, which is formed from Positive Degree by attaching the affix1: -рақ and its variants: (-рек), -ырақ, (-ірек), e.g.: қызықты-рақ - more interesing; кіші-рек - smaller, қалың-ырақ - thicker, сирег-ірек - more rare, etc.
  • Superlative Degree, which is formed by:
    • combination of positive degree with functional words, e.g.: өте жақсы - very good; тым биік - too high; ең әдемі - the most beautiful; аса мықты - the most strong; very powerful;
    • duplication of the adjective's initial syllable or adding '-ақ' particle, e.g.: жап-жақсы - quite/highly good; біп-биік - quite high, жақсы-ақ - very good, etc.


1 As for affixes -лау (with its variants: (-леу), -дау, (-деу), тау, (-теу)), e.g.: қысқа-лау - smallish; кір-леу - dingy; ұзын-дау - longish; үлкен-деу - biggish/largish; жұмсақ-тау - softish; көк-теу - blueish/greenish; some scholars are not inclined to beleive it is the adjective's comparative degree as described in many Qaz. grammar textbooks. But in all labours pertaining to Qaz grammar these affixes are attributed to the form of comparative degree
Last edited by Rakhimzhan on 2010-05-20, 20:39, edited 2 times in total.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Kazakh (Қазақ тілі)

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2011-01-22, 16:38

Guys, as we discussed on дан, ден, тан, тен, нан, нен ablative case endings, i would kindly present you some more information regarding its rest beautiful features

This case can also be used to express the cause, reason of something when used within verb structure.
It's like: because of, due to, on account of, owing to, by virtue of, in consequence of, in consideration of, etc.

First, we should know in which kind of verb forms it is occured in most cases. So, we allready know that verb formation process takes its start from the initial verb stem (aka 2nd person imperative). For example, бару, where бар - stem, and у - infinitive ending. What could we do with it? Word change, inflection and derivations are mostly lie in the domain of morphology. And this is also true for verbs. Such transformations affect changing of part of speech structure, derrivation of other word forms having the same lexeme, but different grammatical meanings, etc.
Of course, what i am talking about shall be covered in details under separate topic dedicated to that effect. This one is a brief, so to say, side introduction to supplement our base Verbs Abblavtive Case topic.
Morphological transformations of Qazaq verbs, include, inter alia, a convertion of Verb to such parts of speech, as Noun (секіргіштік) and Adjective (секіргіш), from the one hand, and - transition to non-personal verb forms, such as Participle (секіріп) and Adverbial participle (секіре) as well as to Verbal Noun (секірушілік), Noun of Action (секіруім), Verbal Adjective (секіруші, секірушіл, секіргек), from the other hand.
So lets analyze first some of those formation patterns of the verb бару as an introductory example to our main topic.

бару - to go (Infinitive)
бару - going (Noun of Action), fe - оның баруы - his going
барушы - goer (Adjective, Noun), fe қит етсе, мамасына жалынып, барушы екен - if anything happens, he immediately goes to whine to his mom. It also can be found in some verb copulas
ендігіден әрі, оған барушы болма! - from now and then (henceforth), dont even dare to go to him
барушыл - kin to go, eager to, of whose going is immanent characteristic (Verbal Adjective)
Шетелге барушылдардың саны күннен-күнге көбейіп бара жатыр - Number of people who like to go to foreign countries is rising day after day
барушылық - a feature describing person's quality to go (Verbal Noun) - a going, something like goingness
барушылдық - eagerness to go (Verbal Noun)
барған - went (Past Participle)
барғандық noun from барған (Verbal Noun)
барып - having gone (Past Adverbial Participle)
бара - being going (Transitive Adverbial Participle)
баратын - who/which goes (Transitive Participle)
баратындық - noun from баратын, going (Verbal Noun)
бармақ - going to go (Obligational Participle)
барар-бармас - wether goes (Suppositional Participle)
барғалы - in order to go (Intentional Adverbial Participle)
etc.

Most of those forms can be personified:
баруым
баруышылығым
барушылдығым
баратыным
барғаным
барарым
бармағым
барар-бармастығым

So, here with those forms Ablative Case can be used to convey a meanings: of from, and because of, since, etc.

барудан - from going. Дүкенге барудан пайда болмайды. There is no benefit from going to shop
баруымнан - from my going. Дүкенге баруымнан пайда шықпады. I've gained no benefit from going to shop. Менің унивеситетке әрдайым баруымнан болар, сабақ үлгерімім жоғары. It should be due to my attending to university classes, that my study progress is high.
барушылықтан - Mешітке барушылықтан сенің күнәларың кешіріледі. Worshipping in mosque will absolve your sins. Оған күнде ақша сұрап барушылықтан ұялмайды - He feels no sorries from daily going to him to ask money. Оған күнде ақша сұрап барушылықтан, жұрт оған қайыршы деген ат қойды. People called him beggar because of his daily going to him for asking money.
баратынымнан - Бизнес мектепке баратынынан адам байымайды. - One will not be rich just attending the business school. Зообаққа баратынынан балалардың көңіл-күйі көтерілді. Children rejoiced they go to zoo.
баратындығымнан - because of mine going. Отанға баратындығымнан көңілім көтерілді. Ive been exalted due to the fact that I go to Motherland
барғанымнан - Дәрігерге барғанымнан ауруым жазылды. My health is now cured because of my visits to doctor
барғандығымнан - Бизнес мектебіне барғандығымнан, қазір табысты бизнесменмін. Because of my earlier attending to business school, now i am successful businessman
барушылықтан - Шетелге барушылықтан оның біліп-көргені мол. He has now extended outlook due to his visiting foreign countries
барушылдығым - Зинақорларға барушылдығынан оның денсаулығы нашарлады. His health deteriorated since he got used to visit prostitues.
etc.

Mostly, нан goes along with атын (етін, йтын, йтін), ған (ген, қан, кен) and атындық (етіндік, йтындық, йтіндік), ғандық (гендік, қандық, кендік). For example:
ол жүгіруден шаршады - he got tired of running
ол жүгіруден шаршайды - he will get tired of running
ол жүгіретіндіктен шаршады - he got tired because of his running (Everyday)
ол жүгіретіндіктен шаршайды - he gets/will get tired because of his running (Everyday, Future)
ол жүгіргендіктен шаршады - he got tired because he had been running
ол жүгіргендіктен шаршайтын болар - he will get tired of having been running (Past in the Future)
etc.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Grammar Studies

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2011-01-23, 11:15

All grammatical issues are taught, considered, analyzed and discussed here.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2011-01-27, 18:16

Hey dudes! I thought the following lesson would be helpfulsome. It deals with pronouns.

Declination of personal pronouns.

Мен, сен, сіз, ол, біз, сендер, сіздер, олар
Менің, сенің, сіздің, оның, біздің (біздердің), сендердің, сіздердің, олардың
Маған, саған, сізге, оған, бізге (біздерге), сендерге, сіздерге, оларға
Мені, сені, сізді, оны, бізді (біздерді), сендерді, сіздерді, оларды
Менде, сенде, сізде, ода, бізде (біздерде), сендерде, сіздерде, оларда
Меннен, сеннен, сізден, одан, бізден (біздерден), сендерден, сіздерден, олардан
Менімен, сенімен, сізбен, онымен, бізбен (біздермен), сендермен, сіздермен, олармен

Personalization of personal pronouns:
Менмін (I am, Its me), сенсің (you are, its you), ол (he is, he), бізбіз (we are, its we), сендерсіңдер (you are, its you - plural), сіздерсіздер (You are, its You - plural), олар (They are, its them). For example:
- Алло, бұл кім? - Бұл менмін - Hello, who is that? - It's me!
Алманы кім алды? - Алманы алған мен - Who took the apple? - It's me who took the apple. While Алманы алған менмін means Its exactly, particularly me... Compare with simple Алманы мен алдым/алғанбын - I took the apple

There are the following types of possisveness. Note in the first type below the pronouns are in genetive case. They act as adjectives:
Менің, сенің, сіздің оның, біздің (біздердің), сендердің, сіздердің, олардың
Resembles with Spanish (Mi, tu, su), English - my, your

The second type of possessivenes pronous act as nouns
Менікі, сенікі, сіздікі, оныкі, біздікі (біздердікі), сендердікі, сіздердікі, олардікі
Resembles with Spanish (mio, tuyo, suyo), English - mine, yours

Also, the second type can be declined by cases:

Менікінің, сенікінің, оныкінің, біздікінің (біздердікінің), сендердікінің, сіздердікінің, олардікінің
Менікіне, сенікіне, сіздікіне, оныкіне, біздікіне (біздердікіне), сендердікіне, сіздердікіне, олардікіне
Менікін, сенікін, сіздікін, оныкін, біздікін (біздердікін), сендердікін, сіздердікін, олардікін
Менікінде, сенікінде, сіздікінде, оныкінде, біздікінде (біздердікінде), сендердікінде, сіздердікінде, олардікінде
Менікінен, сенікінен, сіздікінен, оныкінен, біздікінен (біздердікінен), сендердікінен, сіздердікінен, олардікінен
Менікімен, сенікімен, сіздікімен, оныкімен, бізздікімен (біздердікімен), сендердікімен, сіздердікімен, олардікімен
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Halbarad65
Posts: 71
Joined: 2010-12-10, 8:57
Real Name: Benoit BERTHE
Gender: male
Location: TOULOUSE
Country: FR France (France)

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Halbarad65 » 2011-01-27, 20:28

very useful, thanks Rakhimzhan :D
[flag]fr[/flag][flag]kk[/flag][flag]de[/flag][flag]en[/flag][flag]ar[/flag][flag]bg[/flag][flag]sw[/flag]

Bawirsaq
Posts: 2
Joined: 2011-01-27, 17:16
Gender: male
Location: Astana & Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Bawirsaq » 2011-01-28, 4:08

salem Rakhimzhan! qal qalai?
tusiniktemedegi keibir ozgerister:
Менмін (I am, It's me), сенсің (you are, it's you), ол (he is, it's him), бізбіз (we are, it's us), сендердсіңдер (you are, it's you - plural), сіздердсіздер (You are, it's You - plural), олар (They are, it's them).

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2011-01-28, 9:45

Bawirsaq wrote:salem Rakhimzhan! qal qalai?
tusiniktemedegi keibir ozgerister:
Менмін (I am, It's me), сенсің (you are, it's you), ол (he is, it's him), бізбіз (we are, it's us), сендердсіңдер (you are, it's you - plural), сіздердсіздер (You are, it's You - plural), олар (They are, it's them).

Сәлем, халым жақсы. Өзің қалайсың? Форумымызға хош келдің! Интернет алқаптарында қазақ тілі мен мәдениетінің игілігіне шама-шарқынша маңдай терін төгіп жүрген аты шулы әлгі Бауырсақ сенбісің? :) Олай болса, төрлет! Ықыластарымыз игі жандарға әрдайым ыстық!

П.С. Рахмет, көрсеткең қателерімді - артық "д" әрпін - түзеттім. Асығыста сондай-сондайлары бола береді енді. :wink: Хабарласып тұр.
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Osprey
Posts: 245
Joined: 2010-01-29, 22:28
Gender: female
Country: FI Finland (Suomi)

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Osprey » 2011-08-10, 17:56

Please help me, somebody! -қалы/-келі -ғалы/-гелі form drives me crazy... It really is not easy to understand. I have here a couple of sentences I tried to translate. Are my trys total bullshit? :D

Үйден шыққалы демалған жоқпын.
I have not rested since I left home.

Ауылға барып келгелі саған кірген жоқпін, сондықтан келдім.
I came, because I’ve not visited you since arriving at aul.

Сәуленің бұлбұлдай даусын естімегелі біраз болды.
I have not heard Säyle’s nightingale-like voice for long time.
Skype: lakeinen
CouchSurfing: lakeinen
My blogs: http://palinzon.wordpress.com/ http://sitkas.wordpress.com/

User avatar
Rakhimzhan
Posts: 170
Joined: 2010-04-21, 22:53
Real Name: Rakhimzhan
Gender: male
Location: Almaty
Country: KZ Kazakhstan (Қазақстан)
Contact:

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Rakhimzhan » 2011-08-10, 21:17

Osprey wrote:Please help me, somebody! -қалы/-келі -ғалы/-гелі form drives me crazy... It really is not easy to understand. I have here a couple of sentences I tried to translate. Are my trys total bullshit? :D

Үйден шыққалы демалған жоқпын.
I have not rested since I left home.

Ауылға барып келгелі саған кірген жоқпін, сондықтан келдім.
I came, because I’ve not visited you since arriving at aul.

Сәуленің бұлбұлдай даусын естімегелі біраз болды.
I have not heard Säyle’s nightingale-like voice for long some time.


I have not heard Säyle’s nightingale-like voice for long some time.
Wow! Amazing! You did it and I am impressed! )))
Paula you are awesome! Keep doing ;)
Өзге тілдің бәрін біл, өз тіліңді құрметте!
[flag=]kk[/flag] [flag=]ru[/flag] [flag=]en[/flag] [flag=]zh[/flag] [flag=]es[/flag] [flag=]fi[/flag]
skype:

User avatar
Osprey
Posts: 245
Joined: 2010-01-29, 22:28
Gender: female
Country: FI Finland (Suomi)

Re: Grammar Studies

Postby Osprey » 2011-08-11, 14:45

Rakhimzhan wrote:Wow! Amazing! You did it and I am impressed! )))
Paula you are awesome! Keep doing ;)

I did? :blush: Sometimes I impress even myself... :mrgreen:

This structure is not easy peace of cake, regardless the fact that we have something similar in Finnish language. Conjucation of qazaq verbs often complicates proper understanding, especially when I must translate via Russian or English. And negations make me to grit my teeth. I mean, such forms like шықпағалы, бармағалы in the middle of long and winding sentence...
Skype: lakeinen
CouchSurfing: lakeinen
My blogs: http://palinzon.wordpress.com/ http://sitkas.wordpress.com/


Return to “Turkic Languages”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 0 guests