Niltze! Welcome to Lesson number 18
. This time we are going to see the imperative form, how to express need and capacity, and a few phrases, but first some vocabulary.VOCABULARY
Itechpa = about (talk about, think about, etc.)
Tzompilli / tzompilahui = a cold/ the flu
Tlamachtilcalli/tlamachtilcalco/tlamachtiloyan = school
Nahuatia = to let know, to notify
Techia = to wait for someone
Choloa = to flee, to escape
Ihiyotia / ihiyoana = to breath
Tahtaca = to scratch (becomes reflexive when the person scratches him/herself)
Papachoa = to pamper, to aid (this is where the Spanish verb apapachar comes from)
Iciuhcac = fast, quickly
Xinechtlapopolhui = I’m sorry, excuse me
Canah = somewhere, some place(s)
Canah quiahui canah amo quiahui = in some places it rains in some others it doesn’t
(Mo)teca = to lay down (reflexive)
Cuica = to sing
Mihtotia = to dance
(Mo)tlalia = to sit down (reflexive)
Yece / Auh = but
Mama = to carry
Coni = to drink
Tzahtzi / tzahtzilia = to shout, to scream
Tlahuelcui / cualania = to get mad, to get angry
Tilmatlahuatzaloni = towel
Tepoztlecuilli = stove
Nenemilia = to think
Nenemi = to walk
(Mo)centlalia = to meet, to gather (reflexive)
Namaca = to sell
Moquetza = to stand up
Tilana = to pull
Mayana = to be hungry
Polihui = to be missing
Amo tla = nothing (like “Amitla”, but this one is used more often with verbs: amo tla polihui – “nothing’s missing”).
Huetzca = to laugh
Zan quezqui = just a few
Mehua = to get upNEED / HAVE TO & CAN / CAN’T
MONEQUI literally means “It is wanted (that)”, and that’s the verb we use to express a need. The verb next to it should be in the future tense. We will conjugate the verb that follows MONEQUI. Examples:
Monequi niyaz = I have to go
Monequi ticholoz = you have to escape
Monequi anquicuaz = you guys have to eat it
Amo monequi nitequitiz = I don’t have to work
HUEL / HUELI / HUELITI is the verb for “to be able to”. Its usage is similar to that of MONEQUI, but the second verb doesn’t have to be in the future tense. And the negative form can be AMO HUEL(I) or AHUEL. Examples:
Huel nicchihuaz = I’ll be able to do it
Ahuel nicochi = I can’t sleep
Note: HUEL can also mean “very”, as in “tlazohcamati huel miac” = thank you very much.IMPERATIVE
In Nahuatl all 6 persons have an imperative form. For the first and third persons in both singular and plural (I, he, we, and they), we add the particle MA before the conjugation pronoun, some verbs lose their ending, and in the plural we add the suffix CAN. Examples (Tlayeyecolli):
I (For the first person, we can translate it as “let’s” or simply “do it!”, when you talk to yourself)
Ma nicochi = let’s sleep (Me and myself
Ma nitequiti = let’s work
Ma ninalti = let’s take a bath
Ma nitenahuati = let’s notify...
Ma nitechia = let’s wait (for them, for people)
Ma ninocehui = let’s rest
Ma nicholo = let’s escape
Ma nihiyoti = let’s breath
HE / SHE (for the third person, we can translate it as “may he/she…”)
Ma tlacua = may he eat
Ma moteca = may he lay down
Ma momachti = may he study
Ma cuica = may he sing
Ma mihtoti = may he dance
Ma motlali = may he sit
WE (For the first person in plural, we can translate it as “let’s”)
Ma titlacuacan = let’s eat
Ma tihuiyacan = let’s go (irregular)
Ma titlamamacan = let’s carry
Ma ticonican = let’s drink
THEY (For the thrid person in plural, we can translate it as “may they…”)
Ma tepahtican = may they heal (people)
Ma tzahtzican = may they scream
For the second person in both singular and plural, we are going to add a “XI” prefix to the verb, while the conjugation pronoun disappears. The plural still has the “CAN” suffix. Examples:
Xitlachia = look!
Xicpohua = count it!
Xitlacuilo = write!
Xiccaqui = listen to it!
Xinechmaca = give me!
Ximocentlalican = get together!, gather!
Ximoquetzacan = stand up!
Ximotilanacan = pull!
Now, there are two suffixes that we can use in the imperative form to indicate direction: TI and QUI. The TI suffix means “go to”, and the suffix QUI means “come to”.
Xitlacuati = go eat something!
Xitlacuaqui = come to eat something!
Xicochiti = go to sleep!
Xicochiqui = come to sleep!
Xitequititi = go to work!PHRASES
Ichpocatl, ticmati nahuatlahtolli? = Young man, do you know Nahuatl?
Quema, zan tepitzin = Yes, a little bit
Amo huel cualli = Not very good
Cualli nictencaqui, yece ahueli nictenehua = I understand well, but I can’t pronounce it
Cualli nicamapohua = I read it well
Zan quezqui tlahtoltin nicmati = I only know a few words
Amo nictencaqui = I don’t understand it
Amo tla nicmati = I don’t know anything
Monequi ninomachtiz = I have to study
Ahueli nictenehua, ohuitic = I can’t pronounce it, it’s hard
Tlen otiquihto? = What did you say?
Tinechtencaqui? = Do you understand me?
Quema, nochi nictencaqui = Yes, I understand it all
Tehuatl titlahtoa iciuhca = You speak fast
Yolic xitlahto, nimitztlatlauhtia = Speak slowly, I beg you
Xinechtlapopolhui, amo nitencaqui = Excuse me, I don’t understand you
Quen tica Xochitl? = How are you, Xochitl?
Cualli, tlazohcamati = I’m doing well, thank you
Campa tiyauh? = Where are you going?
Niyauh ichan María = I’m going to Maria’s house (I’m going to her house María)
Axcan chicome tiyaz Chiconcuac? = Are you going to Chiconcuac next week?
Amo, nehuatl niyaz Xochimilco = No, I’ll go to Xochimilco
That’s all for today, see you next time!!