Veps (vepsän kel')

Linguaphile
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Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-14, 17:07

Personal pronouns

Nominative
1s: minä
2s: sinä
3s: hän
1p: mii = mö
2p: tii = tö
3p: hii = hö

Genitive
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Partitive
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Inessive
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Illative
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Elative
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Adessive
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Allative
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Ablative
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Translative
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Comitative
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Abessive
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Propinquative
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Approximative
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Egressive
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Terminative
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Prolative
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Last edited by Linguaphile on 2018-07-19, 2:02, edited 1 time in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-15, 15:14

I just came across this book in Finnish for learning Veps:
Vepsän kielioppi by Riho Grünthal. It is available as a free pdf (as well as for sale as a book) from Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-19, 2:06

Conjugation of the verb olda (to be)

1s minä olen I am
2s sinä oled you (singular) are
3s hän om he/she is
1p mö olem we are
2p tö olet you (plural) are
3p hö oma they are

1s minä olin I was
2s sinä olid you (singular) were
3s hän oli he/she was
1p mö olim we were
2p tö olit you (plural) were
3p hö oliba they were

1s minä en ole I am not
2s sinä ed ole you (singular) are not
3s hän ei ole he/she is not
1p mö em olgoi we are not
2p tö et olgoi you (plural) are not
3p hö ei olgoi they are not

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-22, 21:45

Family words in Veps

mamoi = mam = mother
dadoi = tat = iža = father
tütär = daughter
poig = son
veľľ = brother
veik = older brother
sizar = sister
čikoi = čiža = older sister
baboi = bab = grandmother
dedoi = ded = grandfather
lapsenlaps = grandchild
poiganpoig = grandson (son's son)
tütrenpoig = grandson (daughter's son)
poigantütär = granddaughter (son's daughter)
tütrentütär = granddaughter (daughter's daughter)
ezibaboi = ezibab great grandmother
ezidedoi = ezided = great grandfather
tädi = aunt
däd' = uncle
vellenpoig = nephew (brother's son)
vellentütär = niece (brother's daughter)
sizarenpoig = nephew (sister's son)
sizarentütär = niece (sister's daughter)
mužik = husband
ak = wife
ap = father-in-law
anop' = mother-in-law
vävu = son-in-law
mind' = daughter-in-law
küdu = brother-in-law
nado = sister-in-law

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-08-09, 23:06

Vegetation

mec = forest
pu = tree
koiv = birch
paju = willow
pedai = pine
vahtar’ = maple
hab = aspen
lep = alder
kuz' = spruce, fir
pihl' = rowan
penzaz = shrub, bush
marj = berry
bol = lingonberry
sestrikaine = currant
garbol = garič = cranberry
manzikaine = strawberry
mustikaine = blueberry
babarm = raspberry
kadag = juniper
hein = hay, grass
änik = flower
änikoita = blossom
jur' = root
barb = branch
lehtez = leaf
negl = needle, thorn
käbu = cone
pähkim = nut
sen' = mushroom
samal = moss
karbe = lichen
sänijaug = fern

:arrow: for comparisons
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2018-09-02, 4:36, edited 1 time in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-08-27, 0:34

Bodies of water

vezikogo = body of water
vezi = water
maged vezi :?: = fresh water
solavezi = salt water, brine
purtkevezi = spring water
purde = spring
kaiv = well
oja = creek, brook
jogi = river
jogipohj = riverbed
järv = lake
uit = pond
so = marsh, bog
kos'k = waterfall, cascade, rapids
kend = kendäk = shore
rand = shore, beach
randišt = coast
abaj = bay, gulf :?:
kaiduz = sal'm = strait
meri = sea
lainiž = laineh = wave
sar' = island

:arrow: for comparisons

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-09-02, 4:29

Examples of case declension for nouns

Singular forms of 'mec' (forest)

Nominative: mec
Genitive: mecan
Accusative: mecan
Partitive: mecad
Illative: mecha
Inessive: mecas
Elative: mecaspäi
Allative: mecale
Adessive: mecal
Ablative: mecalpäi
Translative: mecaks
Terminative: mechasai
Essive: mecan
Abessive: mecata
Comitative: mecanke
Prolative: mecadme
Propinquitive: mecanno
Approximative: mecanno = mecannoks
Aditive: mechapäi
Egressive: mecannopäi

Plural forms of 'mecad' (forests)
Nominative: mecad
Genitive: mecoiden
Accusative: mecad
Partitive: mecoid
Illative: mecoihe
Inessive: mecoiš
Elative: mecoišpäi
Allative: mecoile
Adessive: mecoil
Ablative: mecoilpäi
Translative: mecoikš
Terminative: mecoihesai = mecoilesai
Essive: mecoin
Abessive: mecoita
Comitative: mecoidenke
Prolative: mecoidme
Propinquitive: mecoidenno
Approximative: mecoidenno = mecoidennoks
Aditive: mecoihepäi = mecoilepäi

:arrow: for comparison

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-12-26, 21:13

Time-related expressions in Veps

Aig = time
Om-ik sinai aiga? = do you have time?
Ka, minai om aiga = yes, I have time
Minai ei ole aiga = I don't have time
Om aigoiš völ = it's still early
Om möhä jo = it's already late

Nügüd’ = now
Kerdalaz = right away
Kaiken = always
Sagedan = often
Erasti = sometimes
Harvas = rarely
Nikonz = never

Homendest = in the morning
Päiväd = during the day; in the afternoon
Pol’päivad = at midday
Ehtad = in the evening
Öd = at night

Äjak aigad om? = what time is it?
Kak’s časud = it's two o'clock
Kaks’toštkümne časud = it's twelve o'clock
Pol’ üht = it's half past twelve
Pol’ koumed = it's half past two
Ükstoštkümne nelländeseta = it's a quarter to eleven
Kümme minutad kaht = it's ten past two

Üks’ minut = one minute
Kaks’ minutad = two minutes
Kaks’ časud = two hours

Päiv = day
Üks’ päiv = one day
Kaks’ päiväd = two days
Kümme päivad = ten days

Mitte dat tämbei om? / Mitte kunpäiv tämbei om? = what's today's date?
Mitte päiv tämbei om? = what day is today?
Tämbei om ezmärg = today is Monday
Tämbei om tožnarg = today is Tuesday
Tämbei om koumanz’päiv = today is Wednesday
Tämbei om nellänz’päiv = today is Thursday
Tämbei om videnz’päiv / Tämbei om pätnič = today is Friday
Tämbei om sobat = today is Saturday
Tämbei om pühäpäiv = today is Sunday

Endeglašt = the day before yesterday
Eglai = yesterday
Tämbei = today
Homen = tomorrow
Homnesjäl’gen = the day after tomorrow

Päivez = day (24-hour period)

Täl nedalil = this week
Tulebal nedalil = next week
Täs kus = this month
Tulebas kus = next month
Männudes kus = last month

Uden voden = new year
Täl vodel = this year
Muloi = last year

Keväz’ = spring
Kevädel = in spring
Keza = summer
Kezal = in summer
Sügüz = autumn
Sügüsel = in autumn
Tal’v = winter
Tal’vel = in winter

Vilaku = January
Uhoku = February
Keväz’ku = March
Sulaku = April
Semendku = May
Kezaku = June
Heinku = July
Eloku = August
Sügüz’ku = September
Reduku = October
Kül’mku = November
Tal’vku = December

:arrow: for comparison

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-06-29, 22:25

Conjugation of verbs eläda "to live" and tulda "to come"

Infinitives:
eläda tulda

Indicative present, affirmative
1s elän tulen
2s eläd tuled
3s eläb tuleb
1p eläm tulem
2p elät tulet
3p elädas, eläba tuldas, tuleba

Indicative present, negative
1s en elä en tule
2s ed elä ed tule
3s ei elä ei tule
1s em elägoi em tulgoi
2s et elägoi et tulgoi
3p ei elägoi ei tulgoi

Indicative simple past, affirmative
1s elin tulin
2s elid tulid
3s eli tuli
1p elim tulim
2p elit tulit
3p eliba tuliba

Indicative simple past, negative
1s en eländ en tulend
2s ed eländ ed tulend
3s ei eländ ei tulend
1s em elänugoi em tulnugoi
2s et elänugoi et tulnugoi
3p ei elänugoi ei tulnugoi

Past perfect, affirmative
1s olen elänu olen tulnu
2s oled elänu oled tulnu
3s om elänu om tulnu
1p olem elänud olem tulnud
2p olet elänud olet tulnud
3p oma elänud oma tulnud

Past perfect, negative
1s en ole elänu en ole tulnu
2s ed ole elänud ed ole tulnu
3s ei ole elänud ei ole tulnu
1s em olgoi elänud em olgoi tulnud
2s et olgoi elänud et olgoi tulnud
3p ei olgoi elänud ei olgoi tulnud

Imperative
2s elä! tule!
3s elägaha! tulgaha!
1p elägam! tulgam!
2p elägat! tulgat!
3p elägahazoi! tulgahazoi!

Imperative, negative
2s ala elä! ala tule!
3s algahaz elägoi! algahaz tulgoi!
1p algam elägoi! algam tulgoi!
2p algat elägoi! algat tulgoi!
3p algahazoi elägoi! algahazoi tulgoi!

:arrow: for comparison

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-14, 17:23

Vowel harmony in Veps:

Front vowelsBack vowelsNeutral
ä ö üa o ue i

Vowel harmony in Veps is much more limited than it is in some other Finnic languages such as Votic or Finnish. Front vowels (ä ö ü) only occur in the first two syllables of the word (or the first one-two syllables of each component of a compound, or of a suffix; this is why front vowels occur after the "first two syllables" in words like pühäpäiv, poigantütär, and lidnaspäi), so vowel harmony generally only applies in the second syllable of a word or component of a compound (and not always then), and is not used for most inflectional endings.

Examples:
  • without vowel harmony: küzund = question (presence of ü in the first syllable does not affect the u of the second syllable; compare South/Kihnu Estonian küsümüs, in which all vowels are the back vowel ü)
  • with vowel harmony: tütär = daughter (presence of ü in the first syllable requires ä rather than a in the second; compare standard Estonian tütar, which does not have vowel harmony). The same rationale applies to poigantütär, where the word poigan (poiga-) has back vowels and the word tütär has front vowels.

:arrow: for comparison

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Veps (vepsän kel')

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-28, 22:01

Animals and birds in Veps:

živat = animal
murahaine = ant
kondi = bear
bobr = beaver
mezjäine = bee
bumbak = beetle
lind = bird
viga = bug
härg = bull
lipkaine = butterfly
kaži = cat
kana = chicken
lehm = cow
variš = crow
kägi = cuckoo
pedr = deer
koir = dog
sorz = duck
orl = eagle
hirb’ = elk, moose
kala = fish
kärbhäne = fly
reboi = fox
samba, lotoi, löc = frog
koza = goat
koskhaine = grasshopper
hanh’ = goose
habuk = hawk
neglik = hedgehog
hebo = horse
jumalanlehme, merenemä = ladybug
šihlik = lizard
imetaiživat = mammal
säs’k = mosquito
hir’ = mouse
pulo, hir'pulo = owl
siga = pig
gulupkene, gulune = pigeon, dove
jäniš = rabbit, hare
kukoi = rooster
kajag = seagull
lambaz = sheep
kü = snake
mado = snake, worm
pajolind = songbird
paskač, herelindune = sparrow
hämähouk = spider
orav = squirrel
kurg = stork, crane
joucen = swan
bapshaine = wasp
händikaz = wolf

Sources: Vepsä–lätläine vajehnik, Vepsän verkkosanasto, NorthEurLex, Eesti etümoloogiasõnaraamat.

:arrow: for comparison


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