Cognates

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linguoboy
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Re: Cognates

Postby linguoboy » 2018-03-12, 14:28

(fr) mégot fag end
(cy) maidd whey
(ga) meadhg whey

According to Wiktionary, the French term is derived from Gaulish.
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Re: Cognates

Postby Michael » 2018-03-14, 15:49

(el) με with
(sq) me with < PA *me(t)
(grc) μετά (w/gen.) with, (w/acc.) after
(en_old) mid with (wiþ used to mean "against")
(de) mit
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„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-05-07, 21:00

English (en) swine, sow
Latin (la) sūs - pig
Urdu (ur) سؤر‎ / Hindi (hi) सूअर [ˈsuwəɾ] - pig
Sanskrit (sa) सूकर sūkará - boar, hog, pig, swine, hog-deer, a kind of fish, white rice :?: , potter :!: :shock:, a kind of hell
Telugu (te) సూకరము sūkaramu - hog, pig

Apparently, this word was borrowed into Khmer and Thai, too, via Pali. I was surprised to discover yesterday that I'd never made the connection between the first three of these words. I think that's because I learned them all very separately.

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Re: Cognates

Postby Homine.Sardu » 2018-05-08, 7:53

(en) chariot
(sc) carriottu - little cart, wagon

(en) mattock
(sc) matzocca - club, cudgel

(en) to jump
(sc) jampare, jumpare - to cross a road or a creek with a jump

(en) spleen
(sc) isprene
(from Latin "splen-splenis")

(en) crow
(sc) crobu (southern Sardinian)

IpseDixit

Re: Cognates

Postby IpseDixit » 2018-05-08, 10:42

Homine.Sardu wrote:(en) to jump
(sc) jampare, jumpare - to cross a road or a creek with a jump


Isn't this a loanword?

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Re: Cognates

Postby Homine.Sardu » 2018-05-08, 11:13

IpseDixit wrote:
Homine.Sardu wrote:(en) to jump
(sc) jampare, jumpare - to cross a road or a creek with a jump


Isn't this a loanword?


I don't think so; think also to the Italian "zompare" = saltare; maybe they derive from some ancient germanic loanword dating back to the late-roman age, or from some obscure verb from Vulgar Latin.

P.S.
I don't think also that our grandparents knew a single word of English

P.P.S.
I've found a mention of the verb in the article below (page 273), apparently it derives from the Vulgar Latin "jumpare".

https://ia801603.us.archive.org/33/item ... 289425.pdf

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-05-08, 12:17

I'm pretty sure that article is saying that jump and the Sardinian verb are not cognate.

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Re: Cognates

Postby Homine.Sardu » 2018-05-08, 12:26

vijayjohn wrote:I'm pretty sure that article is saying that jump and the Sardinian verb are not cognate.


I've realized it after having found this article :D

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-05-13, 22:03

Malayalam (ml) മരിക്കുക [məˈɾikʲʊga] - to die
Tamil (ta) மரிக்க marikka - to die
Telugu (te) మరణించు maraṇintsu / మరించు marintsu - to die
Urdu (ur) مرنا / Hindi (hi) मरना [məɾˈna] - to die

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Re: Cognates

Postby voron » 2018-05-14, 8:22

vijayjohn wrote:English (en) swine, sow
Latin (la) sūs - pig
Urdu (ur) سؤر‎ / Hindi (hi) सूअर [ˈsuwəɾ] - pig
Sanskrit (sa) सूकर sūkará - boar, hog, pig, swine, hog-deer, a kind of fish, white rice :?: , potter :!: :shock:, a kind of hell
Telugu (te) సూకరము sūkaramu - hog, pig

(ru) свинья - pig

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Re: Cognates

Postby voron » 2018-05-14, 8:31

vijayjohn wrote:Malayalam (ml) മരിക്കുക [məˈɾikʲʊga] - to die
Tamil (ta) மரிக்க marikka - to die
Telugu (te) మరణించు maraṇintsu / మరించు marintsu - to die
Urdu (ur) مرنا / Hindi (hi) मरना [məɾˈna] - to die

Are Malayalam and Tamil words loans from Hindi?

Also this may be obvious but this list continues in "my" languages:
(ku) mirin - to die
(ru) умирать - to die

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-05-14, 14:27

voron wrote:Are Malayalam and Tamil words loans from Hindi?

Nope, the Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu words are all loans from (Classical) Sanskrit, and of course, the Hindi word is inherited from Old Indo-Aryan a.k.a. Vedic Sanskrit (which is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages and the language Classical Sanskrit is based on). :)

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Re: Cognates

Postby Homine.Sardu » 2018-05-16, 13:25

(en) monkey
(sc) monìnca

(en) cuckoo
(sc) cùccu

(en) magpie
(sc) piga

(en) truck
(sc) tracca (traditional Sardinian cart, typical of south Sardinia)

(en) to await
(sc) (northern Sardinian) abbaitàre, abbaidàre - to watch
(es) aguaitar - to spy, to observe
(it) agguato - ambush

(en) to cast (to cast a glance = to watch)
(sc) (southern Sardinian) castiài (in origin "castiari") - to watch

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-07-23, 19:06

English (en) to dub
English (en)Tagalog (tl) adobo
French (fr) adouber - to dub (a knight), to name (a minister, successor, etc.), to adjust a piece in a board game (hence j'adoube in chess)
Spanish (es) adobo - delicacy of marinated meat; I marinate

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Re: Cognates

Postby IpseDixit » 2018-07-24, 3:26

vijayjohn wrote:English (en) to dub
English (en)Tagalog (tl) adobo
French (fr) adouber - to dub (a knight), to name (a minister, successor, etc.), to adjust a piece in a board game (hence j'adoube in chess)
Spanish (es) adobo - delicacy of marinated meat; I marinate


In Italian we have addobbo meaning "decoration" (and the related verb addobbare - to decorate), don't know if it's a cognate too.

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Re: Cognates

Postby linguoboy » 2018-07-25, 21:19

(fa) بیکار jobless, idle
(tr) bekar bachelor
(hu) betyár rogue
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Re: Cognates

Postby Michael » 2018-07-26, 14:28

linguoboy wrote:(fa) بیکار jobless, idle
(tr) bekar bachelor
(hu) betyár rogue

(sq) beqar, -e single (i.e. not engaged or married)
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-07-27, 1:47

Michael wrote:
linguoboy wrote:(fa) بیکار jobless, idle
(tr) bekar bachelor
(hu) betyár rogue

(sq) beqar, -e single (i.e. not engaged or married)

Urdu (ur) بیکار / Hindi (hi) बेकार [beˈkaɾ] - jobless, idle, useless

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Re: Cognates

Postby voron » 2018-07-29, 14:39

vijayjohn wrote:
Michael wrote:
linguoboy wrote:(fa) بیکار jobless, idle
(tr) bekar bachelor
(hu) betyár rogue

(sq) beqar, -e single (i.e. not engaged or married)

Urdu (ur) بیکار / Hindi (hi) बेकार [beˈkaɾ] - jobless, idle, useless

Turkish "bekar" (and consequently Albanian "beqar") have a different etymology. They come from the Arabic root بكر
https://www.etimolojiturkce.com/kelime/bekâr

while in the Iranian languages be- is a prefix "without", and kar is "job".

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Re: Cognates

Postby linguoboy » 2018-08-10, 20:56

The German Vettel "hag" is derived from Latin vetula, making it a cognate of French vieille, Italian vecchia, etc.
"Richmond is a real scholar; Owen just learns languages because he can't bear not to know what other people are saying."--Margaret Lattimore on her two sons


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