Cognates

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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-01-31, 2:38

IpseDixit wrote:
vijayjohn wrote:Pashto (ps) ژرنده jranda - mill
Western Punjabi (pa.Arab) جندر jandar - mill
Pashto (ps) جندره jandra - padlock
Western Punjabi (pa.Arab) جندرا jandrā - padlock
Malayalam (ml) യന്ത്രം [jən̪ˈd̪rəm] - machine, device

Both of the Pashto words were borrowed from Western Punjabi but at different times, and both of the Punjabi words come from the same Sanskrit word. The Malayalam word is (nearly) identical to the Sanskrit word it's borrowed from.


I wonder if they have anything to do with "veranda".

Nope. However, they are apparently cognate with "image."

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Re: Cognates

Postby aaakknu » 2018-02-07, 22:13

(id) cinta love
(tl) sinta love

(id) membaca to read
(tl) magbasa to read
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Re: Cognates

Postby atalarikt » 2018-02-08, 14:47

wos word
Fijian (fj) vosa word
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ۝
"And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge." (Ar-Rum: 22)

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Re: Cognates

Postby aaakknu » 2018-02-10, 15:33

(id) Tuhan - God
(ty) Atua - God

Is there a cognate in Tagalog? Panginoon and Bathala don't seem to be related.
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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-02-10, 18:34

Not as far as I can tell. Maranao has Tohan as a loanword from Malay, though.

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Re: Cognates

Postby linguoboy » 2018-02-15, 17:39

medley and melee. How did this not occur to me before?
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Re: Cognates

Postby aaakknu » 2018-02-17, 16:54

(tl) sulat - letter; writing
(id) surat - letter

(tl) magbayad - to pay
(id) membayar - to pay
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Re: Cognates

Postby linguoboy » 2018-02-19, 21:52

(en) sheet
(de) Schoß lap

Again, a connexion that never would have occurred to me, even though one of the meanings of "lap" in English is "flap of cloth". I'd always assumed that this was a body metaphor being applied to clothing; it didn't occur to me that the transfer might have worked the other way around.
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Re: Cognates

Postby Multiturquoise » 2018-02-26, 20:49

(tr) ata father
ata father

UniLang won't let me post or even preview my post when I try to write this using the Lydian alphabet.
بسی رنج بردم در این سال سی
عجم زنده کردم بدین پارسی

فردوسی

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Re: Cognates

Postby linguoboy » 2018-02-26, 20:56

Multiturquoise wrote:(tr) ata father
ata father

UniLang won't let me post or even preview my post when I try to write this using the Lydian alphabet.

How do you know those are true cognates and not just the sort of coincidence that's common with with nursery words?
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Re: Cognates

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-02-26, 22:25

linguoboy wrote:
Multiturquoise wrote:(tr) ata father
ata father

UniLang won't let me post or even preview my post when I try to write this using the Lydian alphabet.

How do you know those are true cognates and not just the sort of coincidence that's common with with nursery words?

Also, ata apparently goes back to Old Turkic, which wasn't spoken anywhere near Lydian...

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Re: Cognates

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-02-27, 6:01

(fi) kirja book
(fi) kirjata to log, to register
(fi) kirjasto library
(fi) kirjava multicolored, mottled
(fi) kirjoittaa to write, to spell

(et) kirja (kiri) letter
(et) kirju multicolored, mottled
(et) kirjutama to write, to spell
(et) kirjeldama to describe
(et) kireslane Zygaenidae moth
(et) kirev colorful

(lud) kirď pattern

(vep) kirj pattern, sign
(vep) kirjav multicolored, mottled
(vep) kirjišt library
(vep) kirjamišt alphabet
(vep) kirjutim pen

(liv) kirī spotted cow
(liv) kēra pattern, writing
(liv) kērabi mottled, colorful, patterned
(liv) kēratõ to write, to spell

(vro) kirä letter
(vro) kiräs spotted cow
(vro) kirriv multicolored, mottled
(vro) kirotama to write, to spell

(vot) tširja book
(vot) tširjava multicolored, mottled
(vot) tširjo spotted cow
(vot) tširjottaa to register, to write down
(vot) tširjuttaa to write, to spell

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Re: Cognates

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-02-27, 14:27

Adding some more to yesterday's post.
Linguaphile wrote:(fi) kirja book
(fi) kirjata to log, to register
(fi) kirjasto library
(fi) kirjava multicolored, mottled
(fi) kirjoittaa to write, to spell

(et) kirja (kiri) letter
(et) kirju multicolored, mottled
(et) kirjutama to write, to spell
(et) kirjeldama to describe
(et) kireslane Zygaenidae moth
(et) kirev colorful

(lud) kirď pattern

(vep) kirj pattern, sign
(vep) kirjav multicolored, mottled
(vep) kirjišt library
(vep) kirjamišt alphabet
(vep) kirjutim pen

(liv) kirī spotted cow
(liv) kēra pattern, writing
(liv) kērabi mottled, colorful, patterned
(liv) kēratõ to write, to spell

(vro) kirä letter
(vro) kiräs spotted cow
(vro) kirriv multicolored, mottled
(vro) kirotama to write, to spell

(vot) tširja book
(vot) tširjava multicolored, mottled
(vot) tširjo spotted cow
(vot) tširjottaa to register, to write down
(vot) tširjuttaa to write, to spell

(smi-sma) kirje book, letter
(smi-sma) kirjerááju library
(smi-sma) kirjáá multicolored, mottled

(smi-sms) ǩeʹrjj book, letter
(smi-sms) ǩeʹrjjpõrtt library
(smi-sms) ǩeʹrjjes multicolored, mottled
(smi-sms) ǩeʹrjjted to write, to spell

(smi-sme) girje book
(smi-sme) girjerájus library

(smi-smn) gærja book
(smi-smn) gærjagåetie library

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Re: Cognates

Postby Ashucky » 2018-02-27, 15:10

vijayjohn wrote:
linguoboy wrote:
Multiturquoise wrote:(tr) ata father
ata father

UniLang won't let me post or even preview my post when I try to write this using the Lydian alphabet.

How do you know those are true cognates and not just the sort of coincidence that's common with with nursery words?

Also, ata apparently goes back to Old Turkic, which wasn't spoken anywhere near Lydian...

Those two are false cognates, similar only by chance. Lydian ata(s?) is a direct cognate to Hittite attaš "father", and Proto-Slavic *otъ (→ *otьcь, whence Russian отец, Slovene oče, etc.), potentially also to English dad/daddy, all from Proto-Indo-European *atta "father" (which itself is probably a nursery word originally). Its reflexes can also be found in other Germanic languages, Italic (Latin), Celtic, Albanian, Ancient Greek, and Ossetic.
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Re: Cognates

Postby Naava » 2018-02-28, 8:14

Linguaphile wrote:Adding some more to yesterday's post.

You could also add
kirje - letter
kirjo - spectrum / multicoloured / having many different parts eg. lintukirjo - lots of different bird species
kirjain - letter (alphabets)
kirjonta, kirjailu - embroidery
kirjailla, kirjoa - to embroider

Maybe also kirjoitus - 'a text' and kirjaimellinen - 'literal'. It's been a very popular stem. :mrgreen:

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Re: Cognates

Postby h34 » 2018-03-06, 21:48

(fi) kehä - ring, circle
(kv) кытш (kytš)* - ring, circle
(mhr) кече (keče) - sun, day
(myv) чи (či) - sun, day

According to Wiktionary, all derived from Proto-Uralic *keččä

* or киш (kiš), according to Wiktionary. Perhaps another dialect.

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Re: Cognates

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-03-06, 22:06

h34 wrote:(fi) kehä - ring, circle
(kv) кытш (kytš)* - ring, circle
(mhr) кече (keče) - sun, day
(myv) чи (či) - sun, day

According to Wiktionary, all derived from Proto-Uralic *keččä

* or киш (kiš), according to Wiktionary. Perhaps another dialect.

So are these:
(et) keha - body
(liv) kejā - body, container

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Re: Cognates

Postby Naava » 2018-03-06, 22:16

Linguaphile wrote:So are these:
(et) keha - body
(liv) kejā - body, container

And (fi) keho - body, which was borrowed from Estonian in the 1940s. :D

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Re: Cognates

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-03-07, 1:38

Adding some more (and grouping them by similarity of meaning, which also more or less creates a continuum of similarities in pronunciation).

(liv) kejā - body, container
(et) keha - body
(fi) keho - body (borrowed from Estonian in the 1940s)
(vro) kihä - body
kehä - yarnwindle (device for winding yarn: this thing)
(lud) kehä - ball of birch fibre (this thing)
(fi) kehä - ring, circle
(olo) kehä - hoop, ring
(mns) кис (kis) - barrel hoop
(kv) кытш (kytš)* - ring, circle
(mhr) кече (keče) - sun, day
(mrj) кечӹ (kečə̈) - sun, day
(myv) чи (či) - sun, day
(mdf) ши (ši) - sun, day

all derived from Proto-Uralic *keččä - circle, ring

* or киш (kiš), according to Wiktionary. Perhaps another dialect.

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Re: Cognates

Postby Ciarán12 » 2018-03-09, 17:24

(pt-br) - (it) is (spoken abbreviation of está)
(ga) - (it) is (present tense conjugation of - to be)

Both from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- - to stand (which is also a cognate of these)


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