Full gradation

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Jonne
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Full gradation

Postby Jonne » 2005-12-18, 19:14

If someone's interested:

Weak-Strong

đđ - đ
ff - f
ll - l
nn - n
rr - r
ss - s
ŧŧ - ŧ
vv - v
hcc - hc
hčč - hč
hkk - hk
hpp - hp
htt - ht
hc - z
hk - g
hp - b
ht - đ
bb - pp
dd - tt
gg - kk
zz - cc
žž - čč
rdn - rtn
dn - tn
pm - m
tn - n
kŋ - ŋ
ddj - dj
llj - lj
dj - j
ib - ibb
id - idd
ig - igg
il - ill
is - iss
it - itt
iv - ivv
ld - ldd
lg - lgg
lk - lkk
lp - lpp
lv - lvv
ŋg - ŋgg
rd - rdd
rf - rff
rg - rgg
rs - rss
rv - rvv
sk - skk
st - stt
tk - tkk
vd - vdd
vk - vkk
vl - vll
vp - vpp
vr - vrr
ibm - imm
idn - inn
lbm - lmm
vdn - vnn
rst - rstt
kc - vcc
kč - včč
ks - vss
kt - vtt

*next are written with only two letters but said with three*

fff - ff
lll - ll
mmm - mm
nnn - nn
rrr - rr
sss - ss
vvv - vv

So actually that goes like
ff - ff
ll - ll etc.

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Mulder-21
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Mulder-21 » 2012-06-09, 19:18

Is this Northern Sami only? Or does it apply to others too?
Gløgt er gestsins eyga. (Føroyskt orðafelli)
Wise is the stranger's eye. (Faroese saying)
L'occhio dell'ospite è acuto. (Proverbio faroico)
Hosťovo oko je múdre. (Faerské uslovie)

Fluent: Faroese, Danish, English, German
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chung
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Re: Full gradation

Postby chung » 2012-06-18, 16:28

For sure it applies to Northern Saami. The sets of alternations in the other languages differ. Unfortunately I can't find anything on the internet which shows the full patterns but rather examples as found here for Inari, Skolt Saami.

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Virankannos
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Re: Full gradation

Postby Virankannos » 2013-11-10, 19:17

I've compiled a little more comprehensive gradation table than the one in the first post (no offense :) ). The consonants and consonant clusters have been divided into nine groups depending on their gradation patterns. Q means quantity: Q III = overlong, Q II = long, Q I = short. NB! This only applies for Northern Sámi. Other Sámi languages have different types of gradation or no gradation at all.

Group 1: Overlong geminate - geminate - single consonant
Q IIIQ IIQ I
đđđđđ
fffff
hllhllhl
hrrhrrhr
lllll
lljlj
mmmmm
nnnnn
nnjnnjnj
ŋŋŋŋŋ
rrrrr
sssss
ššššš
ŧŧŧŧŧ
vvvvv

Group 2: Preaspirated stop or affricate in Q III and Q II, single stop or affricate in Q I
Q IIIQ IIQ I
hcchcz
hččž
hkkhkg
hpphpb
htthtđ

Group 3: Plosive and nasal in Q III and Q II, single nasal in Q I
Q IIIQ IIQ I
bmpmm
dntnn
dnjtnjnj
ŋ

Group 4: Partly voiced geminates
Q IIIQ II
bbpp
ddtt
ddjdj
ggkk
zzcc
žžčč

Group 5: The palatalised geminate stop
Q IIQ I
djj

Group 6.1: A cluster of a sonorant and a preaspirated stop or affricate
Q IIIQ II
icicc
ikikk
ipipp
ititt
lklkk
lplpp
ltltt
mpmpp
ncncc
nčč
ntntt
ŋkŋkk
rcrcc
rčč
rkrkk
rprpp
rtrtt
vkvkk
vpvpp
vtvtt

Group 6.2: A cluster of a sonorant and any other consonant
Q IIIQ II
đbđbb
đgđgg
đjđjj
đvđvv
ibibb
ididd
ififf
igigg
ihlihll
ihmihmm
ihnihnn
ilill
irirr
isiss
ivivv
lblbb
ldldd
lflff
lglgg
lslss
lšš
lvlvv
mbmbb
ndndd
nsnss
ŋgŋgg
rbrbb
rdrdd
rfrff
rgrgg
rjrjj
rsrss
ršš
rvrvv
vdvdd
vgvgg
vhlvhll
vjvjj
vlvll
vrvrr
vzvzz
vžž

Group 6.3: A cluster of s/š/t and a consonant
Q IIIQ II
skskk
smsmm
ststt
škškk
šmšmm
špšpp
tktkk
tmtmm

Group 6.4: Rare triple consonant clusters
Q IIIQ II
iskiskk
ististt
mškmškk
nsknskk
nstnstt
rskrskk
rstrstt
stmstmm
vskvskk
vstvstt

Group 7: A cluster of đ/i/l/v, a voiced stop and a nasal
Q IIIQ II
đbmđmm
đgŋđŋŋ
ibmimm
idninn
igŋiŋŋ
lbmlmm
ldnlnn
lgŋlŋŋ
vdnvnn
vdnjvnnj

Group 8: A cluster of a trill, a voiced stop and a nasal
Q IIIQ II
rbmrpm
rdnrtn
rdnjrtnj
rgŋrkŋ

Group 9: A cluster of k and a consonant, where k alternates with v
Q IIIQ II
kcvcc
včč
ksvss
kstvstt
všš
ktvtt


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