Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Linguaphile
Posts: 2909
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-11-11, 3:59

The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA), more properly called the Finno-Ugric Transcription System, was first used by Eemil Nestor Setälä in 1901 and can be used to transcribe Uralic languages and is used especially for transcribing pronunciation differences among dialects. It is also known as SUT (in Finnish: Suomalais-ugrilainen tarkekirjoitus; in Estonian: Soome-ugri transkriptsioon). UPA transcription is always written in italics.

Consonants:

Bilabial stops: p ʙ b
Bilabial clicks: p˿ b˿
Labiodental stops: p͔ ʙ͔ b͔
Alveolar stops: t ᴅ d
Alveolar clicks:t˿ d˿
Palatalized (dentipalatal) stops: ť ᴅ́ ď
Velar stops: k ɢ g
Velar clicks: k˿ g˿
Postvelar stops: k͔ ɢ͔ g͔
Palatalized (prepalatal) stops: ḱ ɢ́ ǵ

Bilabial fricatives: φ β
Labiodental fricatives: f v
Dental fricatives:ϑ δ
Alveolar fricative: ᴙ s ᴢ š ž
Palatalized (dentipalatal) fricatives: ś ᴢ́ ź š́ ž́
Velar fricatives: χ γ
Postvelar fricatives: χ͔ γ͔
Palatalized (prepalatal) fricatives: χ́ j

Alveolar laterals: ʟ l
Palatalized (dentipalatal) laterals: ʟ́ ĺ
Postvelar lateral:

Bilabial trills: ᴪ ψ
Alveolar trills: ʀ r
Palatalized (dentipalatal) trills: ʀ́ ŕ
Uvular trills: ᴩ ρ

Bilabial nasals: ᴍ m
Labiodental nasals: ᴍ͔ m͔
Alveolar nasals: ɴ n
Palatalized (dentipalatal) nasals: ɴ́ ń
Velar nasals: ᴎ ŋ
Postvelar nasals: ᴎ͔ ŋ͔
Palatalized (prepalatal) nasals: ᴎ́ ŋ́

A small capital indicates an unvoiced sound or, in the case of the letters ʙ ᴅ ɢ, a partially devoiced sound.
A macron (ā) indicates a long vowel, but indicating this with a double vowel is also accepted.
Superscript letters (a) indicate a very short sound.
A rotated letter (ᴞ) indicates a reduced form. It can either be rotated 90° (ᴞ) or 180° (ᴲ).
There is much more to it, but I'm still learning!

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Links:
Uralic Phonetic Alphabet at Wikipedia
Foneetilise transkriptsiooni ülevaade overview, in Estonian
Suomalais-ugrilainen tarkekirjoitus SUT
Suomalais-ugrilainen tarkekirjoitus overview in Finnish
Klaviatuuripaigutus soome-ugri transkriptsioonis tekstide sisestamiseks keyboard layout, in Estonian
Näpunäiteid tekstide lugemiseks overview in Estonian of a slightly modified version

A few examples:
(et) le̮una "south"
(vro) hu·mmòɢ "morning"
(smi-sms) nĭė̆ī̭ᴅ̄ᴬ "girl"
(udm) miśkᴉ̑nᴉ̑ "to wash"
(mrj) pᴞ·ńᴅ́ᴢ̌́ö̭ "pine"
(yrk) ŋàrŋū̬"ᴲ "nostril"

Linguaphile
Posts: 2909
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-11-11, 4:17

Nenets sample:
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Estonian dialect sample in handwriting:
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Kamas sample:
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Sample demonstrating a UPA font:
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Linguaphile
Posts: 2909
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-11-11, 5:05

This is a transcription of a text fragment from Hargla (Valga County, Estonia), in Võro. The UPA transcription is followed by standard orthography in Võro, an Estonian translation and an English translation.
The transcription and Estonian translation are taken from here on pages 221-222.
The standard Võro version (mine) represents a very slightly different dialect from the used in the transcription; mainly, the speaker pronounces the comitative case ending a bit differently from the way it is written in standard orthography and leaves off several glottal stops. These are dialect differences. She also has some personal variation in the way she pronounces certain words, such as the vowel sound in "lehm" which she pronounces sometimes as le·h̀m with an e but other times as li·h̀m with an i.
You can also hear the text here in a recording from 1973 spoken by an 86-year-old woman named Emmi Nurm. The portion transcribed below is the first 38 seconds of that text.

me·íl oī' üt̀'ś le·h̀m mǖwäʔ // ja sìs̀ nī niɢu pü·m̀mek̆kezeɢe tuī' / vī·jät‿teᴅä tahaʔ / ke·s̀'kuste͔‿vai ke·ŕiɢu‿me̮ìzaᴅe͔ vai sǟ·l oī' / sǟ·lt̀ si̯s̀ pańt'ti a·uttu‿ʙǟle // ē·v́iɢe sis̀ mi lät̀'si tu̯d li·h̀mä vî̭·mä // ja mul̀l‿is̀ ole͔m‿mi·ŋ̌ɢaɢ́i tu̯d li·h̀mä / is̀‿sâ üt̀teɢ́i vi·t̀sa ve̮ettus̀ tû̯ li·h̀m is̀ taha e̮·ìɢe͔ᴅe͔ mi·ňnäj‿ja ma lät̀'si sä́̅·lt̀ et̀ ma muřra ütte pe·ᴅäjä‿ošsa // ja ni·k̆ka e·s̀sü ē·v́ist ä·räk̆́kiʔ // ja ē·v́i lät̀t‿iḱs mi·néme ma he̮ĭɢu ê·v́i ê·v́i // ē·v́i ei ka·eḱki min̆nu enämʙ ta·kka ja ma· jä·ije ē·v́ist ma·haʔ // ja ē·v́i lät̀‿e̮ḱs ke·ŕiɢu‿me̮ìzaᴅe͔ // rut̀tas sin̆nal‿le·h̀mäɢe et̀ sä̂·l pant̂tas au·ttul li·h̀m pǟ·le‿ja piat̀ ke·llä‿aos̀ sä̂·l oɫè̮me̮ //

(vro) Meil olľ ütś lehm müvväq. Ja sis nii nigu pümmekesegaq tulľ viiäq tedä tahaq, keskustõ vai kerigumõisadõ vai, sääl olľ, säält sis panti auto pääle. Eevigaq sis miiq lätsi tuud lehmä viimä. Ja mulľ es olõq minkagiq tuud lehmä, es saaq üttegiq vitsa võettus, tuu lehm es taha õigõdõ minnä ja ma lätsi säält, et ma murre ütte pedäjäossa. Ja nika essü Eevist äräkiq. Ja Eevi lätt õks minemä, ma hõigu "Eevi! Eevi!" Eevi ei kaeki minno enamb taka ja ma jäi Eevist maha. Ja Eevi lätt õks kerigumõisadõ. Rutaś sinna lehmägaq, et sääl pandas autol lehm pääle ja piät kellä aus sääl olõma.

(et) Meil oli üks lehm müüa. Ja siis nii poolhämarikus tuli viia teda sinna, keskusesse või kirikumõisa või, seal oli, sealt siis pandi ta auto peale. Eeviga siis me läksime seda lehma viima. Ja mul ei olnud millegagi seda lehma, ei saanud ühtegi vitsa kaasa võetud, see lehm ei tahtnud kuigi hästi minna ja ma läksin sealt, et ma murran ühe männioksa. Ja selle ajaga kaotasin Eevi silmist äragi. Ja Eevi läheb ikka edasi, ma hõigun: "Eevi! Eevi!" Eevi ei vaatagi minu poole enam tagasi ja ma jäin Eevist maha. Ja Eevi läheb ikka kirikumõisa, ruttab sinna lehmaga, et seal pannakse autole lehm peale ja peab õigeks ajaks seal olema.

(en) We had one cow to sell. And then right at dusk we had to take her there, to the city center or to the church manor or, it was there, then from there she was put in the car. Then I went with Eevi to take that cow. And I didn't have anything for that cow, I didn't manage to bring even one twig, that cow didn't want to go properly and so I left, to go break off a pine branch. And that's when I lost sight of Eevi. And Eevi went on ahead, and I shouted "Eevi! Eevi!" Eevi didn't look back in my direction and I lost her. And Eevi went on towards the church manor, she hurried there with the cow, in order to put the cow in the car and get there at the right time.
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2019-11-12, 1:21, edited 1 time in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2909
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-11-12, 1:14

Transcription and Estonian translation are taken from here on pages 221-222. You can also hear the text here (this portion is 0:38 through 0:55).

noh̀ hä̂ kü·lh̀ // nak̆ka ma‿sis sí̅·s̀t me̮t̀sa mṷ̈̂ᴅä mi·néme // et̀ mak‿ka·‿k̀s ľähä si·nnaʔ / ke·ŕiɢu‿me̮ìza vai si·n̆nap‿pōle͔ e͔k̀s ke·ŕiɢu pōle͔ no·h / nō ja·h̄ / et̀ si·n̆nap‿pōle͔ e͔k̀s sä̂l o·m̀ meìl keś̀kus̀‿ka·h / sä̂l ke·ŕiɢu kot̀tal pi·à / sí̅h̀ɴpṷ́̅l ke·ŕik̆kut̀ ve·ĭᴅ̀ik̆keze //

(vro) Noh hää külh. Nakka ma sis siist mõtsa müüdä minemä, et maq ka õks läha sinnaq, kerigumõisa vai sinnapoolõ õks kerigu poolõ, noh. Noo jah, et sinnapoole õks sääl om meil keskus kah, sääl kerigu kottal pia siihnpuul kirikut veidikese.

(et) No hea küll. Hakkan ma siis siit metsa mööda minema, et ma ka ikka lähen sinna, kirikumõisa või sinnapoole, ikka kiriku poole, noh. No jah, et sinnapoole ikka, seal on meil keskus kah, seal kiriku juures peaaegu, siinpoole kirikut natuke.

(en) Well alright. I start to go from there around the forest, so that I can also go there too, to the church manor or in that direction, well, towards the church. Well, also in the same direction, we have a center there too, there almost beside the church, just a little bit this way from the church.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2909
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-11-12, 1:27

Test of font displays:

Initially I thought using the IPA tag that is available from forum menu would help because it makes the line spacing more even and therefore "looks cleaner", at least from a distance. Turns out that using IPA tags improves the line spacing a bit but stacks the diacritics so that where multiple diacritics are used, they become illegible:
ṷ̈̂ versus ṷ̈̂
Another font issue is that the letter i with diacritics should actually retain the dot with the diacritics above it, but I can't figure out how to make that happen here. The symbol under e͔ should also be larger, more like <.

With IPA tag:
noh̀ hä̂ kü·lh̀ // nak̆ka ma‿sis sí̅·s̀t me̮t̀sa mṷ̈̂ᴅä mi·néme // et̀ mak‿ka·‿k̀s ľähä si·nnaʔ / ke·ŕiɢu‿me̮ìza vai si·n̆nap‿pōle͔ e͔k̀s ke·ŕiɢu pōle͔ no·h / nō ja·h̄ / et̀ si·n̆nap‿pōle͔ e͔k̀s sä̂l o·m̀ meìl keś̀kus̀‿ka·h / sä̂l ke·ŕiɢu kot̀tal pi·à / sí̅h̀ɴpṷ́̅l ke·ŕik̆kut̀ ve·ĭᴅ̀ik̆keze //

Without IPA tag:
noh̀ hä̂ kü·lh̀ // nak̆ka ma‿sis sí̅·s̀t me̮t̀sa mṷ̈̂ᴅä mi·néme // et̀ mak‿ka·‿k̀s ľähä si·nnaʔ / ke·ŕiɢu‿me̮ìza vai si·n̆nap‿pōle͔ e͔k̀s ke·ŕiɢu pōle͔ no·h / nō ja·h̄ / et̀ si·n̆nap‿pōle͔ e͔k̀s sä̂l o·m̀ meìl keś̀kus̀‿ka·h / sä̂l ke·ŕiɢu kot̀tal pi·à / sí̅h̀ɴpṷ́̅l ke·ŕik̆kut̀ ve·ĭᴅ̀ik̆keze //

Linguaphile
Posts: 2909
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-11-13, 4:58

This is a transcription of a text fragment from Podmotsa (Võru County, Estonia), in the Setu dialect of Võro. The UPA transcription is followed by standard orthography in Võro, an Estonian translation and an English translation.
The transcription and Estonian translation are taken from here on pages 227-228. Standard orthography for Võro and English translation are mine.
You can also hear the text here in a recording from 1964 spoken by a 77-year-old woman named Ann Aaspõld. The portion transcribed below is the first 42 seconds of that recording.

No ku·iś̀ üt̀'ś ju·t̆tuk̆ke͔ne͔ oī' // et̀ va·nast ol̆'l̆i kuńìɢa tüt̆ä̀ŕ // ol̆'li kuńìɢa tüt̆ä̀ŕ // ja sis̄ // tä·l̄ ol̆'lit‿tsu·v̆vat‿tet̀tüʔ // üt̀'ś ol̆'l̆i ki·r̆ʙu·nahast / ja tḙ̄·ne͔ oī' tä·í‿nahast tet̄ ja·ɫ̀ɢa // ja / ki̭·ik̀́ aet̀ ko·k̀ko / ke·s̄ üt̀les̀ ä·rʔ // miŋk̀ na·hast // timä tü·t̀rel tsuv̆va om̆maʔ jalah̀ // a ki·äḱki ei tī·jä üt̆teľᴅäʔ / ki̭·ik̀́ ki̭·ik̀́ tśi·r̆ɢu‿nah̀k // üt̀'ś ol̆'l̆i ki·r̆ʙu‿nahast tḙ̄·ne͔ oī' tä·í‿nahast / ja ku·ńiɢas‿ai ki̭·ik̀ ko·k̀ko / ke·s̄ üt̀les̀ ä·rʔ // mı̣‿st timä tü·t̀rel tsuv̆vaʔ om̆mavaʔ // sis̄ aǹᴅ tō͘le͔ nā·ze͔st //

(vro) No kuis ütś juttukõnõ ol', et vanast olli kuningatütäŕ. Olli kuningatütäŕ ja sis, täll olli tsuvva tettüq. Ütś olli kirbunahast ja tõõnõ oll' täinahast tett jalga. Ja kõiḱ aet kokko, kes ütles ärq, mink nahast timä tütrel tsuvva ommaq jalan. A kiäkiq ei tiiä ütel'däq. Kõiḱ-kõiḱ tsirgunahk. Ütś olli kirbunahast tõõnõ oll' täinahast. Ja kuningas ai kõiḱ kokko, kes ütles ärq, mist timä tütrel tsuvvaq ommavaq, sis and toolõ naasõst.

(et) No kuidas üks muinasjutt siis oli, et vanasti oli kuningatütar. Oli kuningatütar ja siis, talle olid pastlad tehtud. Üks oli kirbunahast ja teine oli täinahast tehtud jalga. Ja kõik kosilased kutsutud kokku, kes arvab ära, mis nahast on kuninga tütrel pastlad jalas. Aga keegi ei osanud öelda. Kõik-kõik arvasid, et linnunahk. Üks oli aga kirbunahast, teine oli täinahast. Ja kuningas kutsus kõik kokku, kes kosilastest arvab ära, mis nahast tema tütre pastlad on, siis annab tütre sellele naiseks.

(en) Well according to an old tale, long ago there was a princess. There was a princess and then, she had moccasins made. One was made of the skin of a flea, and the other was made of the skin of a louse. And all of her suitors were invited together to see who could guess what type of leather the king's daughter's moccasins were. But no one could say. Everyone thought that they were of bird skin. But one was of flea skin, the other of louse skin. And the king called everyone together, to see who could guess what type of leather his daughter's moccasins were, and then he would give his daughter to him as a wife.


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