Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Linguaphile
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Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-06-03, 18:22

Since h34 has made this thread linking to the number lists in Uralic languages that have already been posted here, it occurred to me that the three Uralic languages that have their own boards (Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian) do not have their numbers listed. Rather than post those lists on their individual boards, I decided to make a thread here for the numbers of those three languages here. For numbers in other Uralic languages, see the links in h34's thread above.

Numbers in Estonian:

0 = null
1 = üks
2 = kaks
3 = kolm
4 = neli
5 = viis
6 = kuus
7 = seitse
8 = kaheksa
9 = üheksa

10 = kümme

11 = üksteist
12 = kaksteist
13 = kolmteist

20 = kakskümmend
21 = kakskümmend üks
22 = kakskümmend kaks

30 = kolmkümmend
31 = kolmkümmend üks
32 = kolmkümmend kaks

40 = nelikümmend
50 = viiskümmend
60 = kuuskümmend
70 = seitsekümmend
80 = kaheksakümmend
90 = üheksakümmend

100 = sada
200 = kakssada
300 = kolmsada

1000 = tuhat
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2018-07-22, 20:55, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-06-03, 18:28

Numbers in Finnish:

0 = nolla
1 = yksi
2 = kaksi
3 = kolme
4 = neljä
5 = viisi
6 = kuusi
7 = seitsemän
8 = kahdeksan
9 = yhdeksän

10 = kymmenen

11 = yksitoista
12 = kaksitoista
13 = kolmetoista

20 = kaksikymmentä
21 = kaksikymmentäyksi
22 = kaksikymmentäkaksi

30 = kolmekymmentä
31 = kolmekymmentäyksi
32 = kolmekymmentäkaksi

40 = neljäkymmentä
50 = viisikymmentä
60 = kuusikymmentä
70 = seitsemänkymmentä
80 = kahdeksankymmentä
90 = yhdeksänkymmentä

100 = sata
200 = kaksisataa
300 = kolmesataa

1000 = tuhat

Linguaphile
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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-06-03, 18:34

Numbers in Hungarian:

0 = nulla
1 = egy
2 = kettő
3 = három
4 = négy
5 = öt
6 = hat
7 = hét
8 = nyolc
9 = kilenc

10 = tiz

11 = tizenegy
12 = tizenkettő
13 = tizenhárom

20 = húsz
21 = huszonegy
22 = húszonkettő

30 = harminc
31 = harmincegy
32 = harminckettő

40 = negyven
50 = ötven
60 = hatvan
70 = hetven
80 = nyolcvan
90 = kilencven

100 = száz
200 = kétszáz
300 = háromszáz

1000 = ezer

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Re: Numbers & other words in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-06-22, 0:06

Parts of the body - Estonian

pea = head
nägu = face
juuksed = hair
silm = eye
kulm = eyebrow
ripse = eyelash
nina = nose
suu = mouth
huul = lip
keel = tongue
kõrv = ear
kael = neck (front)
kukal = neck (back)
õlg = shoulder
küünarnukk = elbow
käsi = arm, hand
sõrm = finger
pöial = thumb
selg = back
rind = chest
kõht = stomach
jalg = leg, foot
põlv = knee
nahk = skin
lihas = muscle
süda = heart
aju = brain
kops = lung

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-06-22, 0:13

Parts of the body in Finnish:

pää = head
kasvot = face (näkö = sight, used as "face" in certain expressions)
hiukset = tukka = hair
silmä = eye
kulma = kulmakarva = eyebrow
ripsi = eyelash
nenä = nose
suu = mouth
huuli = lip
kieli = tongue
korva = ear
niska = neck (back)
kaula = neck (front)
hartia = area between shoulder and neck
olkapää = olka = shoulder
kyynärpää = elbow
käsi = arm, hand
sormi = finger
peukalo = thumb
selkä = back
rinta = chest, breast
rintakehä = chest
vatsa = stomach
jalka = leg, foot
polvi = knee
iho = skin (nahka = animal skin; used for human skin in certain expressions)
lihas = muscle
sydän = heart
aivot = brain
keuhko = lung
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2018-07-08, 14:53, edited 2 times in total.

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Naava
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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-08, 8:17

Nice work, Linguaphile!

What do you think, should we also include the shorter forms of numbers in Finnish? They're used when you need to count something fast - not really standard language, but everyone knows them. :hmm:

I could also "translate" these lists into Southern Ostrobothnian but I'm not sure if it's needed. It wouldn't help in studying because nobody can study a dialect without a standardized form, but maybe people would like to compare these lists. How interested are you in language variation? :mrgreen:

The list about body parts in Finnish: it's lacking some words!
Tukka is another word for 'hair'.
Niska is neck (back)
Kaula is neck (front)
Kulma/kulmakarva is eyebrow
Ripsi is eyelash
Shoulder can also be just olka
(FYI, the area between the shoulder joint and neck is called 'hartia'; as far as I know, that's also 'shoulder' in English)
Chest can also be rintakehä
Rinta is also breast.

Nahka is another word for 'skin'; in standard Finnish, iho refers to human skin while nahka is animal skin. However, there are some contexts where nahka is 'human skin' (eg. a very touchy person has 'sensitive skin'; they are herkkänahkainen). (I believe this is because 'nahka' means both human and animal skin in many dialects and in the spoken language.)
FYI, face is usually kasvot, but there's the expression päin näköä (literally 'against one's sight'), where näkö refers to the face.

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-08, 15:14

Naava wrote:What do you think, should we also include the shorter forms of numbers in Finnish? They're used when you need to count something fast - not really standard language, but everyone knows them. :hmm:

I could also "translate" these lists into Southern Ostrobothnian but I'm not sure if it's needed. It wouldn't help in studying because nobody can study a dialect without a standardized form, but maybe people would like to compare these lists. How interested are you in language variation? :mrgreen:

If you have time to add them, sure! :D

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-09, 11:10

Like I said in my previous post, the short forms of numerals are used when you count lots of things, you need to count fast or you need to count to X repeatedly*. These forms are only used for counting. If someone asked you "how many", you wouldn't answer "kol" or "koo". (Except 1, 2, 5, 6, and 20, 30 . . . 80, 90, which are the same as numerals in spoken Finnish; and 8, 9, and 10, which are the names of these numbers in spoken Finnish.)
There are two sets, the short ones and the super short ones. It's possible to count by saying each number separately (y - ka - ko - ne - vi - ku) or by merging them (ykakoneviku).

*for example, you're playing cards with your friends and you want to make sure everyone's got 5 cards

The groups #1 and #2 start to look like each other after 29. I don't think I've ever heard anyone counting 31, 32, 33 as ko-y, ko-ka, ko-ko. :hmm: If I'm wrong, I'll change it of course, but so far I have nothing else but my own experiences to help me. I also haven't heard any short forms for numbers over 100, which isn't surprising because you rarely need to count fast to 1000. :D


Short forms of numerals (Finnish) #1:

1 = yks
2 = kaks
3 = kol
4 = nel
5 = viis
6 = kuus
7 = sei
8 = kasi
9 = ysi

10 = kymppi

11 = yksto(i)
12 = kaksto(i)
13 = kolto(i)

20 = kakskyt(ä)
21 = kaks(kyt)yks
22 = kaks(kyt)kaks

30 = kolkyt(ä)
31 = kol(kyt)yks
32 = kol(kyt)kaks

40 = nelkyt(ä)
50 = viiskyt(ä)
60 = kuuskyt(ä)
70 = seitkyt(ä)
80 = kaheksakyt(ä)
90 = yheksäkyt(ä)


Short forms #2:

1 = y(y)
2 = ka(a)
3 = ko(o)
4 = ne(e)
5 = vi(i)
6 = ku(u)
7 = se(i) / see
8 = kas(i)
9 = ys(i)

10 = kymppi

11 = yto / yytoo
12 = kato / kaatoo
13 = koto / kootoo / kolto
14 = neto / neetoo / nelto
15 = vito / viitoo
16 = kuto / kuutoo
17 = seto / seetoo / seito
18 = kasito(o)
19 = ysito(o)

20 = kakskyt
21 = ka-y / kaayy
22 = ka-ka / kaakaa
23 = ka-ko(l) / kaakoo
24 = ka-ne(l) / kaanee
25 = ka-vi / kaavii

30 = kolkyt
31 = kol(l)yks
32 = kolkaks
33 = kolkol
34 = kolnel
35 = kolvii(s)

40 = nelkyt
41 = nel(l)yks
42 = nelkaks
43 = nelkol
44 = nelnel
45 = nelvii(s)

50 = viiskyt
60 = kuuskyt
70 = seitkyt
80 = kasikyt
90 = ysikyt
Last edited by Naava on 2018-07-09, 19:12, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-09, 11:18

Numbers in Southern Ostrobothnian (dialect of Finnish)

0 = nolla
1 = yks
2 = kaks
3 = kolome
4 = neliä
5 = viis
6 = kuus
7 = seittemän
8 = kahareksan
9 = yhyreksän

10 = kymmenen

11 = ykstoista / ykstoosta
12 = kakstoista / kakstoosta
13 = kolome(t)toista / kolome(t)toosta
14 = neliätoista / neliätoosta
15 = viistoista / viistoosta
16 = kuustoista / kuustoosta
17 = seittemäntoista / seittemäntoosta
18 = kahareksantoista / kahareksantoosta
19 = yhyreksäntoista / yhyreksäntoosta

20 = kakskymmentä
21 = kakskymmentäyks
22 = kakskymmentäkaks
23 = kakskymmentäkolome

30 = kolome(k)kymmentä
31 = kolome(k)kymmentäyks
32 = kolome(k)kymmentäkaks

40 = neliäkymmentä
50 = viiskymmentä
60 = kuuskymmentä
70 = seittemänkymmentä
80 = kahareksankymmentä
90 = yhyreksänkymmentä

100 = sata
200 = kakssataa
300 = kolome(s)sataa

1000 = tuhat

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-09, 14:37

Naava wrote:Short forms #2:

1 = y(y)
2 = ka(a)
3 = ko(o)
4 = ne
5 = vi
6 = ku(u)
7 = se(i) / see
8 = kas(i)
9 = ys(i)


Thanks!
In Estonian I've heard ük, kak, kolm, ne or üü, kaa, koo, nee used a few times, for example at the beginning of a song where the music starts after "ne(e)". I don't know any shortened "counting" numbers beyond that and don't know how common it is in Estonian. For all I know the use of it in songs was inspired by the Finnish usage, but, at least, it seems it does exist in Estonian too.
There are also shortened pronunciations of numbers used in fast speech of any kind, such as kakskend (for kakskümmend), kolmkend or kolkend or kolgend (for kolmkümmend), öeksand (for üheksakümmend) and so on. Those are not just used for counting, they are used in fast speech in any context, but not in writing. So you can end up with kaeksada kolgend öeksa for kaheksasada kolmkümmend üheksa (839) and so on.

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-09, 19:26

Linguaphile wrote:In Estonian I've heard ük, kak, kolm, ne or üü, kaa, koo, nee used a few times, for example at the beginning of a song where the music starts after "ne(e)". I don't know any shortened "counting" numbers beyond that and don't know how common it is in Estonian. For all I know the use of it in songs was inspired by the Finnish usage, but, at least, it seems it does exist in Estonian too.

Oh I hadn't written nee and vii on the list, oops. :P
I didn't know yy/üü, kaa, koo, nee is used in Estonian. Cool!

There are also shortened pronunciations of numbers used in fast speech of any kind, such as kakskend (for kakskümmend), kolmkend or kolkend or kolgend (for kolmkümmend), öeksand (for üheksakümmend) and so on. Those are not just used for counting, they are used in fast speech in any context, but not in writing. So you can end up with kaeksada kolgend öeksa for kaheksasada kolmkümmend üheksa (839) and so on.

Didn't know this either. I don't think this happens in Finnish (except with 20, 30, 40 etc), so 839 would be kaheksa(n)sataa kolkyt(ä) yheksä(n) in spoken Finnish (vs kahdeksansataa kolmekymmentä yhdeksän in standard Finnish, although it should be written without the spaces. Never miss a chance to make a word longer than is necessary!) The spoken Finnish numbers are almost identical to Estonian numbers, so I wonder why they're not shortened in fast speech... :hmm: Or maybe they are, but I'm just very deaf in this case.

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-09, 19:56

Naava wrote:I didn't know yy/üü, kaa, koo, nee is used in Estonian. Cool!

I think the other version (ük, kak, kolm, ne ) is more common though. And I don't think I've ever heard it other than at the beginning of songs, so I don't know it's its also used for regular counting (now that I think about it, I doubt I've ever heard anyone count anything I aloud in Estonian, so who knows).
I'm pretty sure I've also heard üt, kat, kolm, ne (at the beginning of songs again), but that's probably Võro or at least southern Estonian (in regular Võro the full versions are ütś, katś, kolm, nelli).

Naava wrote:
There are also shortened pronunciations of numbers used in fast speech of any kind, such as kakskend (for kakskümmend), kolmkend or kolkend or kolgend (for kolmkümmend), öeksand (for üheksakümmend) and so on. Those are not just used for counting, they are used in fast speech in any context, but not in writing. So you can end up with kaeksada kolgend öeksa for kaheksasada kolmkümmend üheksa (839) and so on.

Didn't know this either. I don't think this happens in Finnish (except with 20, 30, 40 etc), so 839 would be kaheksa(n)sataa kolkyt(ä) yheksä(n) in spoken Finnish (vs kahdeksansataa kolmekymmentä yhdeksän in standard Finnish, although it should be written without the spaces. Never miss a chance to make a word longer than is necessary!) The spoken Finnish numbers are almost identical to Estonian numbers, so I wonder why they're not shortened in fast speech... :hmm: Or maybe they are, but I'm just very deaf in this case.

Not just numbers, a lot of things are shortened. The -nud participles become -nd and some other sounds are dropped or shortened. Käinud becomes käind, olnud becomes olnd, tähendab becomes tändab, mõtlesin becomes mõtsin, lihtsalt becomes lihsat, tegelikult becomes tegelt. One of my Estonian textbooks has some of these in it and it's funny how you don't really hear them until learning about them, and then it's like "ooh, that really is what I'm hearing!" Otherwise your brain just fills in the missing sounds and thinks they were there. :D
That's cool that Finnish numbers in spoken language are almost the same as Estonian. I didn't realize that. Nothing ever teaches spoken Finnish, so.....

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-09, 20:17

Numbers in Kihnu dialect of Estonian:

0 = null
1 = üks
2 = ka(a)ks
3 = kolm
4 = ne(e)li
5 = viis
6 = kuus
7 = se(e)tse
8 = kahõksa
9 = üheksä

10 = kümme

11 = üksteist
12 = kaksteist
13 = kolmteist

20 = kakskümmen
21 = kakskümmen üks
22 = kakskümmen ka(a)ks

30 = kolmkümmen
31 = kolmkümmen üks
32 = kolmkümmen kaks

40 = ne(e)likümmen
50 = viiskümmen
60 = kuuskümmen
70 = se(e)tsekümmen
80 = kahõksakümmen
90 = üheksäkümmen

100 = sada
200 = kakssada
300 = kolmsada

1000 = tuhat

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-09, 20:27

Numbers in Mulgi dialect of Estonian

0 = nuľl
1 = üits
2 = kaits
3 = kolm
4 = neli
5 = viis
6 = kuus
7 = seidse
8 = katesse
9 = ütesse

10 = kümme

11 = üitstõist
12 = kaitstõist
13 = kolmtõist

20 = kaitskümment
21 = kaitskümment üits
22 = kaitskümment kaits

30 = kolmkümment
31 = kolmkümment üits
32 = kolmkümment kaits

40 = nelikümment
50 = viiskümment
60 = kuuskümment
70 = seidsekümment
80 = kateskümment
90 = üteskümment

100 = sada

1000 = tuhant

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-10, 9:13

Linguaphile wrote:Not just numbers, a lot of things are shortened. The -nud participles become -nd and some other sounds are dropped or shortened. Käinud becomes käind, olnud becomes olnd, tähendab becomes tändab, mõtlesin becomes mõtsin, lihtsalt becomes lihsat, tegelikult becomes tegelt. One of my Estonian textbooks has some of these in it and it's funny how you don't really hear them until learning about them, and then it's like "ooh, that really is what I'm hearing!" Otherwise your brain just fills in the missing sounds and thinks they were there. :D

I knew about nud > nd, which reminds me of Southern Karelian (dialect of Finnish), it has the same thing. For example, this awesome sentence I found here: "Joha mie sanoi vaikken mittää virkkant!" ("But I already told you that, although I didn't say anything.")
I guess you're right that it's hard to notice them in speech. I've seen some youtube videos in Estonian and I've never noticed any of those changes you listed. :D (Thanks for telling about them, btw!)

Dropping of sounds is very common in South Western dialects. If you're interested, Wikipedia has listed the features of those dialects quite well. (They're also closer to Estonian than any other Finnish dialect is!) It's also common in spoken Finnish, especially in South, but I think it only happens at the end of the words. :hmm: Except dropping of -i in unstressed dipthongs and menen > meen, tulen > tuun, panen > paan, olen > oon.

That's cool that Finnish numbers in spoken language are almost the same as Estonian. I didn't realize that. Nothing ever teaches spoken Finnish, so.....

Well, it's the same as with dialects - hard to teach if there's no standardized form... I've seen some spoken Finnish text books for foreigners, but most of them have made me cringe. They remind me of those "do you know what your teen means when s/he wrotes X?" articles. Technically correct, but probably 10 years behind and just makes you go "eeeeh...." when you see them. Another reason is that they seem to favour Southern type of spoken language, which is somewhat different from what I've heard my entire life.*
Wikipedia is surprisingly nice again (this time in English). I really like it that they explain that some of the features are used in certain regions but not everywhere. It's also great that they write about sandhi, too. And you can find the spoken Finnish numbers there! Awesome. :D

*For example, Wikipedia says that
/ie̯ uo̯ yø̯/ can become /iː uː yː/ when in contact with another vowel. In many cases this results from colloquial deletion of /d/. For example:

tiiän for standard tiedän "I know"
viiä for standard viedä" "to take away"
lyyä for standard lyödä "to hit"
ruuat for standard ruoat ~ ruuat "foods" (singular ruoka)
tuua for standard tuoda "to bring"


I'm from an area where /ð/ did not disappear but changed into /r/ or /ɾ/, so I'm used to [ʋiɛɾæ], [lyɛɾä], [tuɔɾä] or even [ʋiæræ], [lyæræ] and [tuärä]. For some reason, I have heard tiiän and I even use it myself every now and then. (More often in text than in speech, but still.)
-------------------------

I managed to find numbers in Savonian dialect (Finnish), but only for 1-10. :( I'll add them here anyway.

1= yks
2 = kaks
3 = kolome
4 = neljä
5 = viis
6 = kuus
7 = seehtemän
8 = kaheksan
9 = yheksän
10 = kymmenen

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-21, 17:03

Parts of the body in Southern Ostrobothnian (Finnish)

pää = head
naama = face
hiukset = tukka = hair
silimä = eye
kuluma = kulumakarva = eyebrow
ripsi = silimäripsi = eyelash
nenä = nose
suu = mouth
huuli = lip
kiäli = tongue
korva = ear
niska = neck (back)
kaula = neck (front)
hartia = area between shoulder and neck
olokapää = oloka = shoulder
kyynärpää = elbow
käsi = arm, hand
sormi = finger
peukalo = thumb
selekä = back
rinta = chest, breast
rintakehä = chest
vatta = maha = stomach
jalaka = leg, foot
polovi = knee
nahka = skin
lihas = muscle
syrän = heart
aivot = brain
keuhko = lung

Also two words that I know to be different from standard Finnish:
luntioomet = hips, pelvis
kaluumet = wrists
These are not used much anymore but you'll still see them in most Southern Ostrobothnian - Finnish - dictionaries.

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Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-22, 14:14

Hey there look I did a thing! :) This is what happens when I have stuff to do and I start to procrastinate... But it was kinda fun and it made me think about things that I usually don't pay any attention to, like does this word even have abessive case?? I'll probably come back if and when I find mistakes or other forms than what I've listed here.

Pronouns in Southern Ostrobothnian

Personal pronouns
Nominative:
1s: mä (minä)
2s: sä (sinä)
3s: se
1p: me
2p: te
3p: ne

(Minä & sinä can be used for emphasis.)

Genitive:
► Show Spoiler

Partitive:
► Show Spoiler

Accusative:
► Show Spoiler

Inessive:
► Show Spoiler

Elative:
► Show Spoiler

Illative:
► Show Spoiler

Adessive:
► Show Spoiler

Ablative:
► Show Spoiler

Allative:
► Show Spoiler

Translative:
► Show Spoiler

Essive:
► Show Spoiler

Possessive suffixes
1s: -ni
2s: -s
3s: -nsA (-AAn)
1p: -mmA
2p: -nnA
3p: -nsA (-AAn)

A = a/ä (vowel harmony)
Some rambling about the usage of possessive suffixes in Southern Ostrobothnian:
► Show Spoiler


Reflexive pronouns
The reflexive pronouns is itte, 'self'
Declination
► Show Spoiler

Reciprocal pronouns
Reciprocal nouns are formed by adding the case and the possessive suffix to the singular (toise-) or plural (toisi-) stem of toinen, 'another'.
► Show Spoiler

Interrogative pronouns
kuka = who? (humans)
Declination:
► Show Spoiler

mikä = what? (sg, animals & inanimate)
► Show Spoiler

mikkä = what? (pl, animals & inanimate)
(the plural declinations look the same as singular ones)

Indefinite pronouns
joku, jokin - someone, something (sg)
Declination:
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kumpi / kumpaanen / kumpiko / kumpaanenko = which?
Declination:
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joka / jokahinen / jokaanen (every)
Declination:
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kaikki (every)
Declination:
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jompikumpi (either or)
Declination:
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kukin (each)
Declination:
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mikin (which)
Declination:
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eräs, muuan (one, certain)
Declination:
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molemmat / kummakkin / kumpaanenkin
(both)
Declination:
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moni (many)
Declination
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muu (other)
Declination:
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muutama (some)
Declination:
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toinen (another)
Declination:
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sama / samaanen (same)
Declination:
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ainua / ainut (the only one)
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usia (many)
Declination:
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harva (few)
Declination:
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Some of the pronouns here have two forms: with one i or with two i's. For example, you can say either "monis" or "moniis". I believe the second i in words like moniisis a plural marker. I suppose the development has been mones (sg) + i (plural marker) = *moneis > moniis > monis.
Last edited by Naava on 2018-07-23, 16:40, edited 1 time in total.

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Naava
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Country: FI Finland (Suomi)

Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Naava » 2018-07-22, 14:28

Conjugation of the verb 'to be' in Southern Ostrobothnian

s1 minoon / moon = I am
s2 sinoot / soot = you are
s3 son / soon = he, she, it is
p1 moomma (mollahan *) = we are
p2 tootta = you are
p3 non / noon = they are

s1 minen oo = I am not
s2 sinet oo = you are not
s3 sei oo ** = he, she, it is not
p1 memmä oo (mei olla *) = we are not
p2 tettä oo = you are not
p3 nei oo ** = they are not

s1 minolin / molin = I was
s2 sinolit / solit = you were
s3 soli = he, she, it was
p1 molimma (moltihin *) = we were
p2 tolitta = you were
p3 noli = they were

* 'we' + verb in passive is originally a feature from Savonian dialects that has spread to spoken Finnish (and possibly to many dialects) [source]
** these are pronounced [seijoo] and [neijoo] or even [seij:oo] and [neij:oo].

Linguaphile
Posts: 1648
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Numbers in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-22, 18:22

Naava wrote:Hey there look I did a thing! :) This is what happens when I have stuff to do and I start to procrastinate... But it was kinda fun and it made me think about things that I usually don't pay any attention to, like does this word even have abessive case?? I'll probably come back if and when I find mistakes or other forms than what I've listed here.

Wow! :D Thanks for posting all of this!

Linguaphile
Posts: 1648
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Basic words and grammar in Estonian, Finnish, Hungaria

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-22, 20:53

Family words in Estonian:

ema = emme = mother (emme used by young children)
isa = issi = father (issi used by young children)
tütar = daughter
poeg = son
vend = brother
õde = sõsar = sister (sõsar used mainly in the south)
vanaema = grandmother
vanaisa = grandfather
lapselaps = grandchild
tütretütar = granddaughter (daughter's daughter)
pojatütar = granddaughter (son's daughter)
tütrepoeg = grandson (daughter's son)
pojapoeg = grandson (son's son)
tädi = aunt (mother's sister, but also used as a general word for any aunt)
sõtse = aunt (father's sister, less often used; now often replaced by tädi)
onu = uncle (mother's brother, but also used as a general word for any uncle)
lell = uncle (father's brother, less often used; now often replaced by lell)
nõbu = cousin
vennatütar = niece (brother's daughter)
õetütar = niece (sister's daughter)
vennapoeg = nephew (brother's son)
õepoeg = nephew (sister's son)
abikaasa = spouse, husband, wife
abimees = husband
naine = wife, woman
äi = father-in-law
ämm = mother-in-law
minia = daughter=in-law
väimees = son-in-law
õemees = brother-in-law (sister's husband)
küdi = brother-in-law (husband's brother), less often used
nääl = brother-in-law (wife's brother), less often used
vennanaine = sister-in-law (brother's wife)
käli = sister-in-law (wife's sister), less often used
nadu = sister-in-law (husband's sister), less often used


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