Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

h34
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Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-05-27, 16:18

Genitive case (G) (suffix -лöн/-lön)

As the nominative case can be used to indicate possession, the genitive isn't always required (as in the examples above).

Generally the genitive is used as in Finnish: {noun + genitive suffix} + {noun + possessive suffix}:
вoклöн пиыс / voklön piys
- вoк / vok = brother (N)
- вoклöн / voklön = brother (G)
- пи / pi = son (N)
- пиыс / piys = son (N + possessive suffix)
= the son of the brother, the brother's son


... or {noun + genitive suffix} + noun without a suffix:
Сыктывкар - Коми Республикалöн юркар. / Syktyvkar - Komi Respublikalön jurkar.
- Коми / Komi = Komi (N)
- Республика / Respublika = Republic (N)
- Республикалöн / Respublikalön = Republic's (G)
- юр / jur = head (N)
- кар / kar = town, city (N)
- юркар / jurkar = capital city (N)
= Syktyvkar is the capital (city) of the Komi Republic.
Гараж(лöн) öдзöс восьса / Garaž(lön) ödzös vos'sa
- гараж / garaž = garage (N)
- гаражлöн / garažlön = of the garage, garage's (G)
- öдзöс / ödzös = door (N)
- восьса / vos'sa = open (adjective)
= The garage door is open.
= The door of the garage is open.
(In the second example, the use of the genitive is optional.)


Ablative case (ABL) (suffix -лысь/-lys')

Just like the genitive case, the ablative can be used to indicate ownership, especially in constructions where the thing possessed appears in the accusative case, e.g.:
кагалысь чача мырддьыны / kagalys' čača myrdd'yny
- кага / kaga = child (N)
- кагалысь / kagalys' = (of/from) (the) child (ABL)
- чача / čača = toy (accusative)
- мырддьыны / myrdd'yny = to take
= to take the child's toy away (to take the toy away from the child)


More generally, the ablative is opposed to the dative case and often combined with verbs such as 'to take' or 'to ask'.

(Trying to find more examples later)

Edit: fixing an error (picked an example sentence that was not in the ablative case …)
Last edited by h34 on 2020-05-28, 4:48, edited 1 time in total.

Linguaphile
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Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby Linguaphile » 2020-05-27, 16:20

Thank you for posting these, h34! It's good information.

h34
Posts: 1060
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-05-28, 23:04

At least this is a good incentive for me to work on my Russian (which is even more rusty than I thought it was). :)

Dative case (D) (suffix -лы/-ly)

Generally, the dative case is more or less 'opposed' to the ablative case:
керкалысь / kerkalys'
= from a/the house (ABL)
керкалы / kerkaly
= to a/the house (D)


The dative is also the case used for the indirect object:
вöвлы зöр сетны / vövly zör setny
- вöв / vöv = horse (N)
- вöвлы / vövly = horse (D)
- зöр / zör = oats (accusative case, unmarked, indefinite)
- сетны / setny = to give
= to give a/the horse oats


Accusative case (A) (suffix -öc/-ös or unmarked)

The accusative case is used to express the direct object:
мöс пачкыны / mös pačkyny
- мöс / mös = cow (A)*
- пачкыны / pačkyny = to slaughter
= to slaughter a cow
керка тшупны / kerka tšupny
- керка / kerka = house (A)*
- тшупны / tšupny = to pull down
= to pull down a house


* In these examples, the accusative is unmarked, thus identical with the nominative case. This form is generally used with indefinite objects ('a cow', 'a house'). For definite objects, the accusative suffix -öc/-ös is added:
Педöр пыр кöч кыйö. / Pedör pyr köč kyjö.
- Педöр / Pedör = Pedör < Fyodor, Fiodor < Theodore
- пыр / pyr = always, all the time, constantly
- кöч / köč = hare (A=N)(singular)
- кыйны / kyjny = to hunt
- кыйö / kyjö = hunts, is hunting
= Pedör is always hunting hares.
Сiйö со кöчöс лыйöма. / Sijö so köčös lyjöma.
- сiйö / sijö = he, she, it
- со / so = look! (exclamation; Russian вот!, видишь!)
- кöч / köč = hare (indefinite A = N)
- кöчöс / köčös = the hare (definite A)
- лыйны / lyjny = to shoot
- лыйöма / lyjöma = (s)he (has evidently) shot (2nd preterite)
= Look, he's shot the hare.


The suffixed version of the accusative case can be used with indefinite objects as well in order to distinguish the accusative from the nominative case:
Шог шогöс корсьö. / Šog šogös kors'ö.
- шог / šog = sorrow, grief (N)
- шогöс / šogös = sorrow, grief (marked A)
- корсьны / kors'ny = to seek
- корсьö / kors'ö = seeks, is seeking
= Sorrow seeks sorrow.

h34
Posts: 1060
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Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-05-31, 10:38

INS / instrumental / -öн / -ön

(1) The instrumental case suffix is added to words representing an object that is being used to perform a function (a 'tool' in a broader sense; sometimes equipment facilitating an activity, such as gloves or clothes):
вердны зöрйöн
- вердны / verdny = to feed
- зöр / zör = oats (NOM)
- зöрй- / zörj- = oats (stem)
- зöрйöн / zörjön = oats (INS)
= to feed with oats
керавны черöн
- керавны / keravny = to cut
- чер / čer = axe (NOM)
- черöн / čerön = with an/the axe (INS)
= to cut with an axe
грöзитны чунъöн
- грöзитны / gröz'itny = to threaten
- чун / čun = finger (NOM)
- чунъöн / čunjön = with a/the finger (INS)
= to threaten with the fist (lit. with a finger)
гижны карандашöн
- гижны / gižny = to write
- карандаш / karandaš = pencil (NOM)
- карандашöн / karandašön = pencil (INS)
= to write with a pencil
вурны машинаöн
- вурны / vurny = to sew
- машина / mašina = machine (NOM)
- машинаöн / mašinaön = machine (INS)
= to sew with a machine
уджавны кепысьöн
- уджавны / udžavny = to work
- кепысь / kepys' = glove, (pair of) gloves (NOM)
- кепысьöн / kepys'ön = glove, (pair of) gloves (INS)
= to work with gloves
мунны пароходöн
- мунны / munny = to go, to travel
- пароход / parohod = steamboat, steamship, steamer (NOM)
- пароходöн / parohodön = steamboat, ... (INS)
= to travel by* steamer, steamboat, steamship


* The instrumental case can correspond to English 'by' in some other contexts as well (e. g. to express proximity to an object):
пукавны биöн
- пукавны / pukavny = to sit
- би / bi = fire (NOM)
- биöн / biön = fire (INS)
= to sit by the fire


(2) Another use of the instrumental case is to denote a time period during which an action is performed:
эштöдны кык лунöн
- эштöдны / eštödny = to finish, to complete
- кык / kyk = two
- лун / lun = day (NOM)
- лунöн / lunön = day (INS)(singular)
= to finish/complete within two days
стрöитны воöн
- стрöитны / ströitny = to build
- во / vo = year (NOM)
- воöн / voön = year (INS)
= to build within a year


COM / comitative / -кöд / -köd

(1) The comitative is used to describe a common activity:
сёрнитны мамкöд
- сёрнитны / s'ornitny = to talk
- мам / mam = mother (NOM)
- мамкöд / mamköd = mother (COM)
= to talk with mother


(2) It can also denote an encounter:
вочаасьны ошкöд
- вочаасьны / vočaas'ny = to meet, to run into
- ош / oš = bear (NOM)
- ошкöд / ošköd = bear (COM)
= to run into a bear


(3) The comitative can describe a combination of objects:
Чай оз позь видзны карасинкöд.
- чай / čaj = tea
- оз / oz = not (negating verb)
- позь / poz' = may
- видзны / vidzny = to store
- карасин / karas'in = kerosene (NOM)
- карасинкöд / karas'inköd = kerosene (COM)
= Tea may (/must) not be stored together with kerosene. (Lit.: [One] may not store tea together with kerosene.)


In a few cases the comitative can correspond to the use of 'against' in English, e.g. 'to fight against'.
вермасьны тырмытöмторкöд
- вермасьны / vermas'ny = to fight
- тырмытöмтор / tyrmytömtor = problem (NOM)
- тырмытöмторкöд / tyrmytömtorköd = problem (COM)
= to fight against a problem


ABE /abessive / -тöг / -tög

The abessive case is used to describe something/someone absent:
пукавны битöг
- пукавны / pukavny = to sit
- би / bi = fire (NOM)
- битöг / bitög = fire (ABE)
= to sit without fire
лыддьысьны öчкитöг
- лыддьысьны / lydd'ys'ny = to read
- öчки / öčki = glasses (NOM)
- öчкитöг / öčkitög = glasses (ABE)
= to read without glasses
сёйны совтöг
- сёйны / s'ojny = to eat
- сол- / sol- = salt (stem)
- сов / sov = salt (NOM)
- совтöг / sovtög = salt (ABE)
= to eat without salt
кольны няньтöг
- кольны / kol'ny = to stay
- нянь / n'an' = bread (NOM)
- няньтöг / n'an'tög = bread (ABE)
= to stay without bread
овны бать-мамтöг
- овны / ovny = to live
- бать-мам / bat'-mam = parents (lit. dad-mum)(NOM)
- бать-мамтöг / bat'-mamtög = parents (ABE)
= to live without parents


^

h34
Posts: 1060
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-07-01, 12:03

ILL / illative / -ö / -ö
INE / inessive / -ын / -yn
ELA / elative / -ысь / -ys'

Words in the illative case answer the question кытшö? / kytšö? = (towards) where?, where (to)?, whither?
Зонка пырö школаö.
- зонка / zonka = boy
- пырö / pyrö = goes, is going
- школа / škola = school (NOM)
- школаö / školaö = school (ILL)
= The boy is going to school.


The inessive case answers the question кöнi? / könï? = where?
Зонка велöдчö школаын.
- зонка / zonka = boy
- велöдчö / velödčö = studies, learns, is studying, is learning
- школа / škola = school (NOM)
- школаын / školayn = school (INE)
= The boy is studying at school.


The elative case answers the question кытысь? / kytys'? = from where? where from?
Зонка петö школаысь.
- зонка / zonka = boy
- петö / petö = comes, is coming
- школа / škola = school (NOM)
- школаысь / školays' = school (ELA)
= The boy is coming from school.


Some details:

ILL / illative / -ö / -ö

(1) Words in the illative case can describe an object towards which or into which someone/something is moving:
Ми мунам талун театрö.
- ми / mi = we
- мунам / munam = (we) go, (we) are going
- лун / lun = day
- талун / talun = today
- театр / teatr = theatre
- театрö / teatrö = theatre (ILL)
= We're going to the theatre today.

Асывъяснас челядь мунöны челядь садъясö, школаясö.
- aсыв / asyv = morning
- aсывъяс / asyv"jas = mornings
- aсывъяснас / asyv"jasnas = in the morning(s)
- челядь / čeljad' = children
- мунöны / munöny = (they) go, (they) are going
- челядь сад / čeljad' sad = kindergarten (NOM sg)
- челядь садъяс / čeljad' sadjas = kindergartens (NOM pl)
- челядь садъясö / čeljad' sadjasö = kindergartens (ILL pl)
- школа / škola = school (NOM sg)
- школаяс / školajas = schools (NOM pl)
- школаясö / školajasö = schools (ILL pl)
= In the morning, the children go to kindergarten or to school

Таво миян челядь мунöны медводдза классö.
- во / vo = year
- таво / tavo = this year
- миян / mijan = my
- челядь / čeljad' = children
- мунöны / munöny = (they) go, they are going
- медводдза / medvoddza = first
- класс / klass = class, grade (at school) (NOM)
- классö / klassö = class, grade (at school) (ILL)
= This year my children go to first class/grade (/start school)

Ми мунам талун театрö.
- ми / mi = we
- мунам / munam = (we) go
- талун / talun = today
- театр / teatr = theatre (NOM)
- театрö / teatrö = theatre (ILL)
= We are going to the theatre today.


(2) Words in the illative case can describe the time of an action:
Быд асылö найö котралöны час джын паркын.
- быд / byd = every
- асыв / asyv = morning (NOM)
- асыл- / asyl- = morning (stem)
- асылö / asylö = morning (ILL)
- найö / najö = they
- котралöны / kotralöny = (they) run
- парк / park = park (NOM)
- паркын / parkyn = park (INE)
= Every morning they run in the park. (Lit.: "Into every morning ...")

Аскиа лунö лоö шоныд да кос поводдя.
- аски / aski = tomorrow
- аскиа / askia = tomorrow's
- лун / lun = day (NOM)
- лунö / lunö = day (ILL)
- лоö / loö = it will be, it is going to be
- шоныд / šonyd = warm
- да / da = and
- кос / kos = dry
- поводдя / povoddja = weather
= Tomorrow the weather is going to be warm and dry. (Lit. "Into tomorrow's day will be warm and dry weather."

Воысь-воö Сыктывкар лоö мичаджык.
- во / vo = year (NOM)
- воысь / voys' = year (ELA)
- воö / voö = year (INE)
- лоö / loö = is becoming
- мича / miča = beautiful
- мичаджык / mičadžyk = more beautiful
= Year by year, Syktyvkar is becoming more beautiful. (Lit.: "Out of year into year ...")


(3) Words in the illative case can describe a profession someone is preparing for:
Митрей ёртöй велöдчö инженерö Выльгортын, видз-му овмöс техникумын.
- Митрей / Mitrej = Mitrej (male given name)
- ёрт / ёrt = friend
- ёртöй / ёrtöj = friend + possessive suffix 3 sg
- велöдчö / velödčö = is studying
- инженер / inžener = engineer (NOM)
- инженерö / inženerö = engineer (ILL)
= Mitrej's friend is studying to become an engineer. (Lit.: "Mitrej his friend is studying into engineer.")


INE / inessive / -ын / -yn

(1) Words in the inessive case describe where something is (situated) or where something is taking place:
Ми олам Коми муын.
- ми / mi = we
- олам / olam = (we) live
- Коми му / Komi mu = Komi land (NOM)
- Коми муын / Komi muyn = Komi land (INE)
= We live in Komi land.

Ошъяс, кöчьяс, ручьяс олöны вöрын.
- ош / oš = bear (NOM sg)
- ошъяс / oš"jas = bears (NOM pl)
- кöч / köč = hare (NOM sg)
- кучьяс / köč'jas = hares (NOM pl)
- руч / ruč = fox (NOM sg)
- ручъяс / ruč"jas = foxes (NOM pl)
- олöны / olöny = (they) live
- вöр / vör = forest (NOM)
- вöрын / vöryn = forest (INE)
= Bears, hares, and foxes live in the forest.


(2) Words in the inessive case can denote the time period during which something is going on:
Арын лэбачъяс лэбзьöны Коми муысь лунвылö.
- ар / ar = autumn (NOM)
- арын / aryn = autumn (INE)
- лэбач / lėbač = bird (NOM sg)
- лэбачъяс / lėbač"jas = birds (NOM pl)
- лэбзьöны / lėbz'öny = (they) fly
- Коми му / Komi mu = Komi land (NOM)
- Коми муысь / Komi muys' = Komi land (ELA)
- лун / lun = sun
- лунвыл / lunvyl = (the) south (lit. "sun area")(NOM)
- лунвылö / lunvylö = (the) south (ILL)
=In autumn, the birds fly from Komi land towards the south.

Тулысын найö воöны гортö бöр.
- тулыс / tulys = spring (NOM)
- тулысын / tulysyn = spring (INE)
- найö / najö = they
- воöны / voöny = (they) return
- горт / gort = home (NOM)
- гортö / gortö = home (ILL)
- бöр / bör = (postposition, approx. "after", "past")
- гортö бöр / gortö bör = (back) home
= In spring, they return home.

Воын немыд, лунын югыд.
- во / vo = night (NOM)
- воын / voyn = night (INE)
- немыд / nemyd = dark
- лун / lun = day (NOM)
- лунын / luyn = day (INE)
- югыд / jugyd = light, bright
= The night is dark, the day is bright. (Lit.: "In the night dark, in the day bright.")

Сизим часын заводитчö "Öшкамöшка" телеуджтас.
- сизим / sizim = seven
- час / čas = hour (NOM)
- часын / časyn = hour (INE)
- заводитчö / zavoditčö = begins
- öшкамöшка / öškamöška = rainbow
- телеуджтас / teleudžtas = TV program
= At seven o'clock, the "Öshkamöshka" program begins on TV.


(3) Words in the inessive case can also describe someone's profession:
Лидя нылöй Визинын велöдысьын уджалö.
- Лидя / Lidja = Lydia (given name)(NOM)
- ныл / nyl = daughter (NOM)
- нылöй / nylöj = (his/her) daughter (NOM + possessive suffix)
- Визин / Vizin = Vizin, name of a town (NOM)
- Визинын / Vizinyn = in Vizin (INE)
- велöдысь / velödys' = teacher (NOM)
- велöдысьын / velödys'yn = teacher (INE)
- уджалö / udžalö = works, is working
= Lydia's daughter works as a teacher in Vizin. (Lit.: "Lydia her daughter in Vizin in teacher works.")

Митрей ёртöй уна во нин трактористын уджалö.
- Митрей / Mitrej = Mitrej (given name)(NOM)
- ёрт / ёrt = friend (NOM)
- ёртöй / ёrtöj = (his/her) friend (NOM + possessive suffix)
- уна / una = many
- во / vo = year
- нин / nin = already
- тракторист / traktorist = tractor operator (NOM)
- трактористын / traktoristyn = tractor operator (INE)
- уджалö / udžalö = works, is working
= Mitrej's friend has been working as a tractor operator for many years. (Lit.: "Mitrej his friend many year already in tractorist works.")


ELA / elative / -ысь / -ys'

(1) Nouns in the elative case can describe something or someone moving out of of something:
Ручпиян петiсны вöрысь.
- руч / ruč = fox (NOM sg)
- ручпи / ručpi = fox cub, lit. "fox son" (NOM sg)
- ручпиян / ručpijan = fox cubs (NOM pl)
- петiсны / petïsny = (they) came out
- вöр / vör = forest (NOM)
- вöрысь / vörys' = forest (ELA)
= The fox cubs came out of the forest.


(2) A noun in the elative case can describe what something is made of:
Нянь пöжалöны пызьысь.
- нянь / njan' = bread (NOM)
- нянь / njan' = bread (ACC indefinite)
- пöжалöны / pöžalöny = (they) bake
- пызь / pyz' = flour (NOM)
- пызьысь / pyz'ys' = flour (ELA)
= Bread is baked out of flour. (Lit.: "Bread [they] bake out of flour.")

Шыд пуöны яйысь, картупельысь, шыдöсысь, капустаысь.
- шыд / šyd = shchi (cabbage soup)(NOM / ACC indefinite)
- пуöны / puöny = (they) cook
- яй / jaj = meat (NOM)
- яйысь / jajys' = meat (ELA)
- картупель / kartupel' = potato(es) (NOM)
- картупельысь / kartupel'ys' = potato(es) (ELA)
- шыдöс / šydös = grain(NOM)
- шыдöсысь / šydösys' = grain (ELA)
- капуста / kapusta = cabbage (NOM)
- капустаысь / kapustays' = cabbage (ELA)
= Shchi (cabbage soup) is made of meat, potatoes, grain and cabbage. (Lit.: "Shchi [they] make out of meat, potato, grain, cabbage."

Пызанъяс вöчöны пуысь.
- пызан / pyzan = table (NOM sg / ACC sg indefinite)
- пызанъяс / pyzan"jas = tables (NOM pl / ACC pl indefinite)
- вöчöны / vöčöny = (they) make
- пу / pu = wood (NOM)
- пуысь / puys' = wood (NOM)
= Tables are made of wood. (Lit. "Tables (they) make out of wood.")

Миян керка бетонысь, а орчча керка изйысь.
- миян / mijan = my
- керка / kerka = house
- бетон / beton = concrete (NOM)
- бетонысь / betonys' = concrete (ELA)
- а / a = and, but, whereas, while
- орчча / orčča = neighbour(ing) (adjective)
- из / iz = stone (NOM)
- изй- / izj- = stone (stem)
- изйысь / izjys' = stone (ELA)
= My house is made of concrete, while the neighbouring house is made of stone. (Lit.: "My house out of concrete, but neighbouring house out of stone.")


^


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