Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

h34
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Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-05-27, 16:18

GEN / genitive / -лöн /-lön

As the nominative case can be used to indicate possession, the genitive isn't always required (as in the examples above).

Often the genitive is used as in Finnish: {noun + genitive suffix} + {noun + possessive suffix}:

вoклöн пиыс / voklön piys
- вoк-лöн / vok-lön = brother-GEN
- пи-ыс / pi-ys = son.NOM-POSS.3SG
= the son of the brother, the brother's son


... or {noun + genitive suffix} + noun without a suffix:

Сыктывкар - Коми Республикалöн юркар. / Syktyvkar - Komi Respublikalön jurkar.
- Коми / Komi = Komi.NOM
- Республика-лöн / Respublika-lön = Republic-GEN
- юр=кар / jur=kar = head/capital=city.NOM
= Syktyvkar is the capital (city) of the Komi Republic.

Гараж(лöн) öдзöс восьса / Garaž(lön) ödzös vos'sa
- гараж-лöн / garaž-lön = garage-GEN
- öдзöс / ödzös = door.NOM
- восьса / vos'sa = open (adjective)
= The garage door is open.
= The door of the garage is open.
(In the second example, the use of the genitive is optional.)


ABL / ablative / -лысь/ -lys'

Just like the genitive case, the ablative can be used to indicate ownership, especially in constructions where the thing possessed appears in the accusative case, e.g.:

кагалысь чача мырддьыны / kagalys' čača myrdd'yny
- кага-лысь / kaga-lys' = child-ABL
- чача / čača = toy.ACC
- мырддьы-ны / myrdd'y-ny = take-INF
= to take the child's toy away (to take the toy away from the child)


More generally, the ablative is opposed to the dative case and often combined with verbs such as 'to take' or 'to ask'.

(Trying to find more examples later)

Edit: fixing an error (picked an example sentence that was not in the ablative case …)
Last edited by h34 on 2020-09-27, 0:00, edited 2 times in total.

Linguaphile
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Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby Linguaphile » 2020-05-27, 16:20

Thank you for posting these, h34! It's good information.

h34
Posts: 1090
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-05-28, 23:04

At least this is a good incentive for me to work on my Russian (which is even more rusty than I thought it was). :)

DAT / dative / -лы / -ly

Generally, the dative case is more or less 'opposed' to the ablative case:

керкалысь / kerkalys'
= of/from a house (ABL)

керкалы / kerkaly
= to a/the house (DAT)


The dative is also the case used for the indirect object:

вöвлы зöр сетны / vövly zör setny
- вöв-лы / vöv-ly = horse-DAT
- зöр / zör = oats.ACC (unmarked ACC)
- сет-ны / set-ny = give-INF
= to give a/the horse oats


ACC / accusative / -öc / -ös or unmarked

The accusative case is used to express the direct object:

мöс пачкыны / mös pačkyny
- мöс / mös = cow.ACC*
- пачкы-ны / pačky-ny = slaughter-INF
= to slaughter a cow

керка тшупны / kerka tšupny
- керка / kerka = house.ACC *
- тшуп-ны / tšup-ny = pull down.INF
= to pull down a house


* In these examples, the accusative is unmarked, thus identical with the nominative case. This form is generally used with indefinite objects ('a cow', 'a house'). For definite objects, the accusative suffix -öc/-ös is added:

Педöр пыр кöч кыйö. / Pedör pyr köč kyjö.
- Педöр / Pedör = Pedör < Fyodor, Fiodor
- пыр / pyr = always, all the time, constantly
- кöч / köč = hare.ACC
- кый-ö / kyj-ö = hunt-3SG
= Pedör is always hunting hares.

Сiйö со кöчöс лыйöма. / Sijö so köčös lyjöma.
- сiйö / sijö = he, she, it
- со / so = look! (exclamation; Russian вот!, видишь!)
- кöч-öс / köč-ös = hare-ACC
- лый-ны / lyj-ny = shoot-INF
- лый-öма / lyj-öma = shoot.PRETERITE2.3SG
= Look, he's shot the hare.


The suffixed version of the accusative case can be used with indefinite objects as well in order to distinguish the accusative from the nominative case:

Шог шогöс корсьö. / Šog šogös kors'ö.
- шог / šog = sorrow/grief.NOM
- шог-öс / šog-ös = sorrow/grief-ACC
- корсь-ö / kors'-ö = seek-3SG
= Sorrow seeks sorrow.
Last edited by h34 on 2020-09-27, 0:15, edited 1 time in total.

h34
Posts: 1090
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Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-05-31, 10:38

INS / instrumental / -öн / -ön

(1) The instrumental case suffix is added to words representing an object that is being used to perform a function (a 'tool' in a broader sense; sometimes equipment facilitating an activity, such as gloves or clothes):

вердны зöрйöн
- верд-ны / verd-ny = feed-INF
- зöрй-öн / zörj-ön = oats-INS
= to feed with oats

керавны черöн
- керав-ны / kerav-ny = cut-INF
- чер-öн / čer-ön = axe-INS
= to cut with an axe

грöзитны чунъöн
- грöзит-ны / gröz'it-ny = threaten-INF
- чунъ-öн / čunj-ön = finger-INS
= to threaten with the fist (lit. with a finger)

гижны карандашöн
- гиж-ны / giž-ny = write-INF
- карандаш-öн / karandaš-ön = pencil-INS
= to write with a pencil

вурны машинаöн
- вур-ны / vur-ny = sew-INF
- машина-öн / mašina-ön = machine-INS
= to sew with a machine

уджавны кепысьöн
- уджав-ны / udžav-ny = work-INF
- кепысь-öн / kepys'-ön = glove-INS
= to work with gloves

мунны пароходöн
- мун-ны / mun-ny = go-INF
- пароход-öн / parohod-ön = steamboat-INS
= to travel by* steamer, steamboat, steamship


* The instrumental case can correspond to English 'by' in some other contexts as well (e. g. to express proximity to an object):

пукавны биöн
- пукав-ны / pukav-ny = sit-INF
- би-öн / bi-ön = fire-INS
= to sit by the fire


(2) Another use of the instrumental case is to denote a time period during which an action is performed:

эштöдны кык лунöн
- эштöд-ны / eštöd-ny = finish-INF
- кык / kyk = two
- лун-öн / lun-ön = day-INS
= to finish/complete within two days

стрöитны воöн
- стрöит-ны / ströit-ny = build-INF
- во-öн / vo-ön = year-INS
= to build within a year


COM / comitative / -кöд / -köd

(1) The comitative is used to describe a common activity:

сёрнитны мамкöд
- сёрнит-ны / s'ornit-ny = talk-INF
- мам-кöд / mam-köd = mother-COM
= to talk with mother


(2) It can also denote an encounter:

вочаасьны ошкöд
- вочаась-ны / vočaas'-ny = meet, to run into - INF
- ош-кöд / oš-köd = bear-COM
= to run into a bear


(3) The comitative can describe a combination of objects:

Чай оз позь видзны карасинкöд.
- чай / čaj = tea.NOM
- оз / oz = not.NEG.3SG
- позь / poz' = may (word stem)
- видз-ны / vidz-ny = store-INF
- карасин-кöд / karas'in-köd = kerosene-COM
= Tea may (/must) not be stored together with kerosene. (Lit.: [One] may not store tea together with kerosene.)


In a few cases the comitative can correspond to the use of 'against' in English, e.g. 'to fight against:

вермасьны тырмытöмторкöд
- вермась-ны / vermas'-ny = fight-INF
- тырмытöмтор-кöд / tyrmytömtor-köd = problem-COM
= to fight against a problem


ABE /abessive / -тöг / -tög

The abessive case is used to describe something/someone absent:

пукавны битöг
- пукав-ны / pukav-ny = sit-INF
- би-тöг / bi-tög = fire-ABE
= to sit without fire

лыддьысьны öчкитöг
- лыддьысь-ны / lydd'ys'-ny = read-INF
- öчки-тöг / öčki-tög = glasses-ABE
= to read without glasses

сёйны совтöг
- сёй-ны / s'oj-ny = eat-INF
- сол- / sol- = salt (stem)
- сов-тöг / sov-tög = salt-ABE
= to eat without salt

кольны няньтöг
- коль-ны / kol'-ny = stay-INF
- нянь-тöг / n'an'-tög = bread-ABE
= to stay without bread

овны бать-мамтöг
- ол- / ol- = live (stem)
- ов-ны / ov-ny = live-INF
- бать-мам-тöг / bat'-mam-tög = parents-ABE
= to live without parents


^
Last edited by h34 on 2020-09-27, 8:34, edited 2 times in total.

h34
Posts: 1090
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Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian (Коми кыв)

Postby h34 » 2020-07-01, 12:03

ILL / illative / -ö / -ö
INE / inessive / -ын / -yn
ELA / elative / -ысь / -ys'

Words in the illative case answer the question кытшö? / kytšö? = (towards) where?, where (to)?, whither?

Зонка пырö школаö.
- зонка / zonka = boy
- пыр-ö / pyr-ö = go-3SG
- школа-ö / škola-ö = school-ILL
= The boy is going to school.


The inessive case answers the question кöнi? / könï? = where?

Зонка велöдчö школаын.
- зонка / zonka = boy
- велöдч-ö / velödč-ö = study/learn-3SG
- школа-ын / škola-yn = school-INE
= The boy is studying at school.


The elative case answers the question кытысь? / kytys'? = from where? where from?

Зонка петö школаысь.
- зонка / zonka = boy
- пет-ö / pet-ö = come-3SG
- школа-ысь / škola-ys' = school-ELA
= The boy is coming from school.


More about the local cases:

ILL / illative / -ö / -ö

(1) Words in the illative case can describe an object towards which or into which someone/something is moving:

Ми мунам талун театрö.
- ми / mi = we
- мун-ам / mun-am = go-3PL
- та=лун / ta=lun = to=day
- театр-ö / teatr-ö = theatre-ILL
= We're going to the theatre today.


Асывъяснас челядь мунöны челядь садъясö, школаясö.
- aсывъ-яс-нас / asyv"-jas-nas = morning-PL-
- челядь / čeljad' = children
- мун-öны / mun-öny = go-3PL
- челядь садъ-яс-ö / čeljad' sad-jas-ö = kindergarten-PL-ILL
- школа-яс-ö / škola-jas-ö = school-PL-ILL
= In the morning, the children go to kindergarten or to school


Таво миян челядь мунöны медводдза классö.
- та=во / ta=vo = this=year
- миян / mijan = my
- челядь / čeljad' = children
- мун-öны / mun-öny = go-3PL
- медводдза / medvoddza = first
- класс-ö / klass-ö = class/grade-ILL
= This year my children go to first class/grade (/start school)


Ми мунам талун театрö.
- ми / mi = we
- мун-ам / mun-am = go-1PL
- та=лун / ta=lun = this=day
- театр-ö / teatr-ö = theatre-ILL
= We are going to the theatre today.


(2) Words in the illative case can describe the time of an action:

Быд асылö найö котралöны час джын паркын.
- быд / byd = every
- асыл-ö / asyl-ö = morning-ILL
- найö / najö = they
- котрал-öны / kotral-öny = run-3PL
- парк-ын / park-yn = park-INE
= Every morning they run in the park. (Lit.: "Into every morning ...")


Аскиа лунö лоö шоныд да кос поводдя.
- аски / aski = tomorrow
- аски-а / aski-a = "tomorrow-ish" (adjective)
- лун-ö / lun-ö = day-ILL
- ло-ö / lo-ö = be-3SG
- шоныд / šonyd = warm
- да / da = and
- кос / kos = dry
- поводдя / povoddja = weather
= Tomorrow the weather is going to be warm and dry. (Lit. "Into tomorrow's day will be warm and dry weather."


Воысь-воö Сыктывкар лоö мичаджык.
- во-ысь / vo-ys' = year-ELA
- во-ö / vo-ö = year-INE
- ло-ö / lo-ö = be-3SG
- мича-джык / miča-džyk = beautiful-COMP
= Year by year, Syktyvkar is becoming more beautiful. (Lit.: "Out of year into year ...")


(3) Words in the illative case can describe a profession someone is preparing for:

Митрей ёртöй велöдчö инженерö Выльгортын, видз-му овмöс техникумын.
- Митрей / Mitrej = Mitrej (male given name).NOM
- ёрт-öй / ёrt-öj = friend-POSS.3SG
- велöдч-ö / velödč-ö = study-3SG
- инженер-ö / inžener-ö = engineer-ILL
= Mitrej's friend is studying to become an engineer. (Lit.: "Mitrej his friend is studying into engineer.")


INE / inessive / -ын / -yn

(1) Words in the inessive case describe where something is (situated) or where something is taking place:

Ми олам Коми муын.
- ми / mi = we
- ол-ам / ol-am = live-3SG
- Коми му-ын / Komi mu-yn = Komi land-INE
= We live in Komi land.


Ошъяс, кöчьяс, ручьяс олöны вöрын.
- ошъ-яс / oš"-jas = bear.NOM-PL
- кöчь-яс / köč'-jas = hare.NOM-PL
- ручь-яс / ruč'-jas = fox.NOM-PL
- ол-öны / ol-öny = live-3PL
- вöр-ын / vör-yn = forest-INE
= Bears, hares, and foxes live in the forest.


(2) Words in the inessive case can denote the time period during which something is going on:

Арын лэбачъяс лэбзьöны Коми муысь лунвылö.
- ар-ын / ar-yn = autumn-INE
- лэбачъ-яс / lėbač"-jas = bird.NOM-PL
- лэбзь-öны / lėbz'-öny = fly-3PL
- Коми му-ысь / Komi mu-ys' = Komi land-ELA
- лун=выл-ö / lun=vyl-ö = sun=area-ILL
=In autumn, the birds fly from Komi land towards the south.


Тулысын найö воöны гортö бöр.
- тулыс-ын / tulys-yn = spring-INE
- найö / najö = they
- во-öны / vo-öny = return-3PL
- горт-ö / gort-ö = home-ILL
- бöр / bör = (postposition, approx. "after", "past")
- гортö бöр / gortö bör = (back) home
= In spring, they return home.


Воын немыд, лунын югыд.
- во-ын / vo-yn = night-INE
- немыд / nemyd = dark
- лун-ын / lu-yn = day-INE
- югыд / jugyd = light, bright
= The night is dark, the day is bright. (Lit.: "In the night dark, in the day bright.")


Сизим часын заводитчö "Öшкамöшка" телеуджтас.
- сизим / sizim = seven
- час-ын / čas-yn = hour-INE
- заводитч-ö / zavoditč-ö = begin-3SG
- öшкамöшка / öškamöška = rainbow
- телеуджтас / teleudžtas = TV program
= At seven o'clock, the "Öshkamöshka" program begins on TV.


(3) Words in the inessive case can also describe someone's profession:

Лидя нылöй Визинын велöдысьын уджалö.
- Лидя / Lidja = Lydia (given name)
- ныл-öй / nyl-öj = daughter-POSS.3SG
- Визин / Vizin = Vizin, name of a town
- Визин-ын / Vizin-yn = in Vizin-INE
- велöдысь-ын / velödys'-yn = teacher-INE
- уджал-ö / udžal-ö = work-3SG
= Lydia's daughter works as a teacher in Vizin. (Lit.: "Lydia her daughter in Vizin in teacher works.")


Митрей ёртöй уна во нин трактористын уджалö.
- Митрей / Mitrej = Mitrej (given name)
- ёрт-öй / ёrt-öj = friend.NOM-POSS.3SG
- уна / una = many
- во / vo = year.NOM
- нин / nin = already
- тракторист / traktorist = tractor operator (NOM)
- тракторист-ын / traktorist-yn = tractor operator-INE
- уджал-ö / udžal-ö = work-3SG
= Mitrej's friend has been working as a tractor operator for many years. (Lit.: "Mitrej his friend many year already in tractorist works.")


ELA / elative / -ысь / -ys'

(1) Nouns in the elative case can describe something or someone moving out of of something:

Ручпиян петiсны вöрысь.
- руч=пи-ян / ruč=pi-jan = fox cubs "fox=kid".NOM.PL
- петiсны / petïsny = (they) came out
- вöр-ысь / vör-ys' = forest-ELA
= The fox cubs came out of the forest.


(2) A noun in the elative case can describe what something is made of:

Нянь пöжалöны пызьысь.
- нянь / njan' = bread.ACC
- пöжал-öны / pöžal-öny = bake-3PL
- пызь-ысь / pyz'-ys' = flour-ELA
= Bread is baked out of flour. (Lit.: "Bread [they] bake out of flour.")


Шыд пуöны яйысь, картупельысь, шыдöсысь, капустаысь.
- шыд / šyd = shchi (cabbage soup).ACC
- пу-öны / pu-öny = cook-3PL
- яй-ысь / jaj-ys' = meat-ELA
- картупель-ысь / kartupel'-ys' = potato-ELA
- шыдöс-ысь / šydös-ys' = grain-ELA
- капуста-ысь / kapusta-ys' = cabbage-ELA
= Shchi (cabbage soup) is made of meat, potatoes, grain and cabbage. (Lit.: "Shchi [they] make out of meat, potato, grain, cabbage."


Пызанъяс вöчöны пуысь.
- пызанъ-яс / pyzan"-jas = table.ACC-PL
- вöч-öны / vöč-öny = make-3PL
- пу-ысь / pu-ys' = wood-ELA
= Tables are made of wood. (Lit. "Tables (they) make out of wood.")


Миян керка бетонысь, а орчча керка изйысь.
- миян / mijan = my
- керка / kerka = house.NOM
- бетон-ысь / beton-ys' = concrete-ELA
- а / a = and, but, whereas, while
- орчча / orčča = neighbour(ing) (adjective)
- изй- / izj- = stone (stem)
- изй-ысь / izj-ys' = stone-ELA
= My house is made of concrete, while the neighbouring house is made of stone. (Lit.: "My house out of concrete, but neighbouring house out of stone.")


CAUS / causative / -ла / -la

APP / approximative / -лань / -lan'

EGR / egressive / -сянь / -sjan'

PRO / prolative / -öд, тi / -öd, -ti

TER / terminative / -öдз / -ödz

^


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