Komi-Zyrian

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-04-22, 23:36

(kv-kpv) Even though there is a thread about the Permic languages already, there might be a point in having threads devoted to the individual languages Komi-Zyrian, Komi-Permyak and Udmurt as well.

Some resources:
Dictionary Komi-Zyrian > Russian
Dictionary Russian > Komi-Zyrian
Grammar (ru)
Basic vocabulary, phrases (en)
Dictionary Komi_Zyrian <> Russian *
* with audio, declension and conjugation tables

Some videos about basic vocabulary:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nItUPQxxs9s

I'm trying to summarize a bit of what I found here.

As I'm at least 99.9 percent sure that I'll make some mistakes, any corrections and additions welcome!

Writing system and phonology are explained in this Wikipedia article.

Consonant alternations

There is no consonant gradation but in word-final position and before other consonants, some stem-final consonant clusters are simplified and some other consonants change. An example for the latter is the alternation of -л- and / -l- and -v:

вöл- / völ- ('horse', stem)
-> вöв / vöv ('horse', nominative singular)
-> вöвъяс / vöv"jas ('horses', nom. plural)
-> вöлöн / völön ('[with/by/on...] a horse', instrumental)

кыл- / kyl- ('language', stem)
-> кыв / kyv (nominative singular)
...

(The л-в / l-v alternation doesn't affect all dialects but it seems to be the norm in both written standard varieties of Komi, i.e. Komi-Zyrian and Komi-Permyak.)

Nouns

Plural

Plural suffix: -яс / -jas

Preceding consonants are not palatalized ('softened'). As this contradicts the general pattern of palatalization, a 'hard sign' (ъ / ") is added, as in the example mentioned above:

вöв / vöv (horse)
вöвъяс / vöv"jas (horses)

Most nouns can be used in the plural. Some exceptions and peculiarities:

► Show Spoiler


Possessive suffixes

Possessive suffixes indicate possession and (in some cases) definiteness:

(s= singular, p = plural, 1 = 1st person, 2 = 2nd person, 3 = 3rd person)

s1 вöлöй / völöj = my horse
s2 вöлыд / völyd = your (sg) horse
s3 вöлыс / völys = his / her / the horse
p1 вöвным / vovnym = our horse
p2 вöвныд / vövnyd = your (pl) horse
p3 вöвныс / vövnys = their horse

Cases

NOM / nominative / именительный
(no suffix)
s1 -öй / -öj
s2 -ыд / -yd
s3 -ыс / -ys
p1 -ным / -nym
p2 -ныд / -nyd
p3 -ныc / -nys
► Show Spoiler

GEN / genitive / родительный
- лöн / -lön
s1 - öйлöн / -öjlön
s2 - ыдлöн / -ydlön
s3 - ыслöн / -yslön
p1 - нымлöн / -nymlön
p2 - ныдлöн / -nydlön
p3 - ныслöн / -nyslön
► Show Spoiler

ABL / ablative / притяжательный
- лысь / -lys'
s1 -öйлысь / -öjlys'
s2 -ыдлысь / -ydlys'
s3 -ыслысь / -yslys'
p1 -нымлысь / -nymlys'
p2 -ныдлысь / -nydlys'
p3 -ныcлысь / -nyslys'
► Show Spoiler

DAT / dative / дательный
- лы / -ly
s1 -öйлы / -öjly
s2 -ыдлы / -ydly
s3 -ыслы / -ysly
p1 -нымлы / -nymly
p2 -ныдлы / -nydly
p3 -ныcлы / -nysly
► Show Spoiler

ACC / accusative / винительный
--, -öс / --, -ös
s1 -öс / -ös
s2 -тö / -tö
s3 -сö / -sö
p1 -нымöс / -nymös
p2 -нытö / -nytö
p3 -нысö / -nysö
► Show Spoiler

INS / instrumental / творительный
-öн / -ön
s1 -нам / -nam
s2 -над / -nad
s3 -нас / -nas
p1 -наным / -nanym
p2 -наныд / -nanyd
p3 -наныс / -nanys
► Show Spoiler

COM / comitative / соединительный
-кöд / -köd
s1 -öйкöд / -öjköd
s2 -ыдкöд / -ydköd
s3 -ыскöд / -ysköd
p1 -нымкöд / -nymköd
p2 -ныдкöд / -nydköd
p3 -ныcкöд / -nysköd
► Show Spoiler

ABE / abessive / лишительный
- тöг / -tög
s1 -öйтöг / -öjtög
s2 -тöгыд / -tögyd
s3 -тöгыс / -tögys
p1 -тöгным / -tögnym
p2 -тöгныд / -tögnyd
p3 -тöгныc / -tögnys
► Show Spoiler

CAU / causative / достигательный
-ла / -la
s1 -öйла / -öjla
s2 -ыдла / -ydla
s3 -ысла / -ysla
p1 -нымла / -nymla
p2 -ныдла / -nydla
p3 -ныcла / -nysla
► Show Spoiler

INE / inessive / местный
-ын / -yn
s1 -ам / -am
s2 -ад / -ad
s3 -ас / -as
p1 -аным / -anym
p2 -аныд / -anyd
p3 -аныс / -anys
► Show Spoiler

ELA / elative / исходный
-ысь /-ys'
s1 -сьым / -s'ym
s2 -сьыд / -s'yd
s3 -сьыс / -s'ys
p1 -сьыным / -s'ynym
p2 -сьыныд / -s'ynyd
p3 -сьыныс / -s'ynys
► Show Spoiler

ILL / illative / вступительный
-ö / -ö
s1 -ам / -am
s2 -ад / -ad
s3 -ас / -as
p1 -аным / -anym
p2 -аныд / -anyd
p3 -аныс / -anys
► Show Spoiler

APP / approximative / приблизительный
-лань / -lan'
s1 -öйлань, -ланьым / -öjlan', -lan'ym
s2 -ланьыд / -lan'yd
s3 -ланьыс / -lan'ys
p1 -нымлань, -ланьным / -nymlan', -lan'nym
p2 -ныдлань, -ланьныд / -nydlan', -lan'nyd
p3 -ныслань, -ланьныс / -nyslan', -lan'nys
► Show Spoiler

EGR / egressive / отдалительный
-сянь / -sjan'
s1 -öйсянь, -сяньым / -öjsjan', -sjan'ym
s2 -сяньыд / -sjan'yd
s3 -сяньыс / -sjan'ys
p1 -сяньным / -sjan'nym
p2 -сяньныд / -sjan'nyd
p3 -сяньнысь / -sjan'nys'
► Show Spoiler

PRO / prolative (transitive) / переходный
-öд, -тi / -öd, -tì
s1 -öдым, -тiым / -ödym, tìym
s2 -öдыд, -тiыд / -ödyd, tìyd
s3 -öдыс, -тiыс / -ödys, tìys
p1 -öдным, -тiным / -ödnym, -tìym
p2 -öдныд, -тiныд / -ödnyd, -tìnyd
p3 -öдныс, -тiныс / -ödnys, -tìnys
► Show Spoiler

TER / terminative / предельный
-öдз / -ödz
s1 -öдзым / -ödzym
s2 -öдзыд /-ödzyd
s3 -öдзыс / -ödzys
p1 -öдзным / -ödznym
p2 -öдзныд / -ödznyd
p3 -öдзныс / -ödznys
► Show Spoiler



For comparisons with other Uralic languages:
:arrow:Links to threads by language
:arrow:Links to threads / posts by topic
Last edited by h34 on 2018-07-22, 19:28, edited 8 times in total.

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-04-24, 21:49

Some common nouns

(-в -л-) = в / v alternates with л / l

a / a
► Show Spoiler

б / b
► Show Spoiler

в / v
► Show Spoiler

г / g
► Show Spoiler

д / d
► Show Spoiler

дж / dž
► Show Spoiler

дз / dz
► Show Spoiler

е / e
► Show Spoiler

ё / ё
► Show Spoiler

ж / ž
► Show Spoiler

з / z
► Show Spoiler

и / i
► Show Spoiler

й / j
► Show Spoiler

к / k
► Show Spoiler

л / l
► Show Spoiler

м / m
► Show Spoiler

н / n
► Show Spoiler

о / o
► Show Spoiler

ö / ö

п / p
► Show Spoiler

р / r
► Show Spoiler

с / s
► Show Spoiler

т / t
► Show Spoiler

тш / tš
► Show Spoiler

у / u
► Show Spoiler

ф, х, ц

ч / č
► Show Spoiler

ш / š
► Show Spoiler

щ / šč

ы / y
► Show Spoiler

э / è
► Show Spoiler

ю / ju
► Show Spoiler

я / ja
► Show Spoiler

Sources: 1 2 3

For comparisons with other Uralic languages:
:arrow:Links to threads by language
:arrow:Links to threads / posts by topic
Last edited by h34 on 2018-06-19, 11:25, edited 14 times in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 1495
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-04-24, 22:58

Nice thread and great info, h34! Thanks!

I started looking through your vocab in search of close cognates with the Finnic languages I'm more familiar with, and found these:

вир / vir = blood: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Veps/Ludic veri (meaning "blood")
вый / vyj = butter: Estonian/Votic/Ingrian või, Veps/Finnish/Ludic voi (meaning "butter")
ав / av = mind, spirit (авй- / avj-): Estonian/Votic aju, Finnish aivo, Veps/Ingrian aivod (meaning "mind," "brain" but not "spirit")
во / vo = year: Veps voź, Ingrian/Estonian voos, Votic voosi, Finnish vuosi, Ludic vuož (in Estonian voos does not normally mean "year" except in an agricultural sense such as an annual crop, etc. (= aastane viljasaak, vilja-aasta). In the other languages the word listed means "year" in the more standard sense of a 365-day period or calendar year.)

:D

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-04-25, 21:33

Linguaphile wrote: I started looking through your vocab in search of close cognates with the Finnic languages I'm more familiar with, and found these:

вир / vir = blood: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Veps/Ludic veri (meaning "blood")
вый / vyj = butter: Estonian/Votic/Ingrian või, Veps/Finnish/Ludic voi (meaning "butter")
ав / av = mind, spirit (авй- / avj-): Estonian/Votic aju, Finnish aivo, Veps/Ingrian aivod (meaning "mind," "brain" but not "spirit")
во / vo = year: Veps voź, Ingrian/Estonian voos, Votic voosi, Finnish vuosi, Ludic vuož (in Estonian voos does not normally mean "year" except in an agricultural sense such as an annual crop, etc. (= aastane viljasaak, vilja-aasta). In the other languages the word listed means "year" in the more standard sense of a 365-day period or calendar year.)

:D

Thanks a lot! :)

Linguaphile
Posts: 1495
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-06, 16:55

Here are some more (this is fun! :D ):

ай / aj = father: Estonian äi (meaning "father-in-law"), Finnish äijä (meaning "old man"), Ingrian äijä (meaning "grandfather")

коз / koz = spruce, fir: Veps kuź, Ludian kuuž, Võro kuuś, Finnish/Votic/Ingrian kuusi, Estonian kuusk, Livonian kūzõz (meaning "spruce, fir")

вем / vem = brain: Estonian/Livonian/Võro vaim (meaning "spirit"), Saami váibmu (meaning "heart")

вын / vyn = power, strength: Estonian/Võro võim, Votic võima, Ludic voim, Finnish/Ingrian voima, (meaning "power, strength")

йи / ji = ice: Livonian jei, Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian jää, Veps , Võro ijä (meaning "ice")

ки / ki = hand: Estonian/Finnish/Ingrian/Võro käsi, Veps käzi, Ludic käži, Livonian ke’ž, Votic tšäsi (meaning "hand")

кутш / kutš = eagle: Estonian kotkas, Finnish kotka, Votic kotko, Ludic kotke, Võro kodas (meaning "eagle")

лы / ly = bone: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Ludic/Livonian/Võro luu, Veps lu (meaning "bone")

лым / lym = snow: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Ludic/Võro lumi, Livonian lu’m (meaning "snow")

му / mu = land, country, region; dry land; earth, soil; field, arable land: Ludic mua, Estonian/Finnish/Ingrian/Võro maa, Veps maa, Livonian (meaning "land, country, region, earth, soil")

ним / nim = name: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Võro nimi, Veps/Ludic ńimi, Livonian ni’m (meaning "name")

олöм / olöm = life: Finnish/Votic/Veps/Võro elo, Estonian elu, Livonian je’l (meaning "life")

порсь / pors' = pig: Võro põrss, Finnish/Ingrian porsas, Veps porzaz, Estonian põrsas, Votic põrzas, Livonian pūoraz (meaning "piglet, young pig")

пу / pu = tree; wood, timber, lumber: Veps pu, Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Ludic/Livonian/Võro puu (meaning "tree, wood")

син / sin = eye(s): Estonian/Võro silm, Veps siľm, Finnish/Votic/Ingrian silmä, Livonian sīlma, Ludic šilm (meaning "eye")

той / toj = louse: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Võro täi, Veps ťäi, Ludic ťiäi, Livonian tej (meaning "louse")

тöв / töv = winter; wind (-в -л-): Estonian talv, Finnish/Votic/Ingrian talvi, Veps/Ludic taľv, Võro tal, Livonian tōla(meaning "winter")

тöдöм / tödöm = knowledge: Estonian teada, Finnish tietää, Ingrian tiitää, Ludic ťiettä, Votic täätää, Võro teedäq, Veps ťeta, Livonian tīedõ (meaning "to know")

туй / tuj = way, road, path: Estonian/Votic/Ingrian tee, Finnish tie, Ludic ťie, Veps ťe, Võro tii (meaning "way, road, path")

ун / un = sleep: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Veps/Võro uni, Ludic uńi, Livonian u’ņ (meaning "sleep")

ур / ur = squirrel: Estonian/Veps orav, Finnish orava, Votic õrava, Võro orrav, Ingrian orraava, Livonian vȯrābõz (meaning "squirrel")

шыр / šyr = mouse: Estonian hiir, Ludic/Võro hiiŕ, Veps hiŕ, Finnish/Ingrian hiiri, Votic iiri, Livonian īr (meaning "mouse")

эскöм / èsköm = faith, trust, hope: Estonian/Livonian usk, Finnish/Votic/Veps/Võro usko (meaning "faith, belief")

There's also this pair:
ва / va = water: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Võro vesi, Veps vezi, Livonian ve’ž , Ludian veži (meaning "water")
ма / ma = honey: Estonian/Finnish/Votic/Ingrian/Võro mesi, Veps meźi, Livonian me’ž , Ludian meži (meaning "honey")
Both are thought to be Indo-European loans, but very old ones. It's interesting to see the parallels in the sound changes.

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-05-11, 6:08

Thank you for these comparisons!

Adjectives

- Declension

Adjectives in attributive position do not decline for case and (generally) not for number either, e.g.:

гöрд чышъян
görd čyš"jan
red scarf
= red scarf

гöрд чышъянöн
görd čyš"janön
red scarf-INSTRUMENTAL
= with a red scarf

Adjectives in predicative position do not decline for case either but they do decline for number. Plurality is marked with the suffix -öсь / -ös':

тöвся лун дженьыд
tövsja lun džen'yd
wintery day short
= (a/the) winter day is short

тöвся лунъяс дженьыдöсь
tövsja lun"jas džen'ydös'
wintery day-PLURAL short-PLURAL
= (the) winter days are short

- Comparison

The comparative is formed by adding the suffix -джык / -džyk:

кузь / kuz'
= long
кузьджык / kuz'džyk
= longer
вöсни / vösni
= thin
вöсниджык / vösnidžyk
= thinner
ён / ёn
= strong, powerful
ёнджык / ёndžyk
= stronger, more powerful

The superlative is formed with the prefix мед- / med- or the particle медса / medsa:

бур / bur
= good
медбур, медса бур / medbur, medsa bur
= best
мича / miča
= beautiful
медмича, медса мича / medmiča, medsa miča
= most beautiful

- Some common adjectives

а / a
► Show Spoiler

б / b
► Show Spoiler

в / v
► Show Spoiler

г / g
► Show Spoiler

д / d
► Show Spoiler

e / e
► Show Spoiler

ё / ё
► Show Spoiler

ж / ž
► Show Spoiler

з / z
► Show Spoiler

и / i
► Show Spoiler

й / j
► Show Spoiler

к / k
► Show Spoiler

л / l
► Show Spoiler

м / m
► Show Spoiler

н / n
► Show Spoiler

о / o
► Show Spoiler

ö / ö
► Show Spoiler

п / p
► Show Spoiler

p / r
► Show Spoiler

c / s
► Show Spoiler

т / t
► Show Spoiler

у / u
► Show Spoiler

ф / f
► Show Spoiler

х / h
► Show Spoiler

ц / c
► Show Spoiler

ч / č
► Show Spoiler

ш / š
► Show Spoiler

щ / šč
► Show Spoiler

ы / y
► Show Spoiler

э / è
► Show Spoiler

ю / ju
► Show Spoiler

я / ja
► Show Spoiler


Sources: 1 2 3 4

For comparisons with other Uralic languages:
:arrow:Links to threads by language
:arrow:Links to threads / posts by topic
Last edited by h34 on 2018-07-21, 10:59, edited 11 times in total.

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-05-26, 6:21

Numerals

- Cardinal numbers // ordinal numbers

1 öти, öтик / öti, ötik // медводдза / medvoddza
2 кык / kyk // мöд / möd
3 куим / kuim // коймöд / kojmöd

From 4 onwards, the ordinal numbers are formed regularly (cardinal number + -öд / -öd)

4 нёль / nёl'
5 вит / vit
6 квайт / kvajt
7 сизим / sizim
8 кöкъямыс / kök"jamys
9 öкмыс / ökmys

10 дас / das
20 кызь / kyz'
30 комын / komyn
40 нелямын / neljamyn
50 ветымын / vetymyn
60 квайтымын / kvajtymyn
70 сизимдас / sizimdas
80 кöкъямысдас / kök"jamysdas
90 öкмысдас / ökmysdas

100 сё / sё
200 кыксё / kyk
300 куимсё / kuim
400 нёльсё / nёl'
...

1000 сюрс / sjurs

11 дас öти / das öti
12 дас кык / das kyk
13 дас куим / das kuim
...

21 кызь öти / kyz' öti
22 кызь кык / kyz' kyk
23 кызь куим / kyz' kuim
...

:arrow: Numerals in other Uralic languages
Last edited by h34 on 2018-07-21, 10:57, edited 2 times in total.

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-06-24, 15:53

Pronouns

- Personal pronouns

NOM / nominative / именительный
s1 ме / me
s2 тэ / te
s3 сiйö / sijö
p1 ми /mi
p2 тi / ti
p3 найö / najö

Declension:
► Show Spoiler

:arrow: Personal pronouns in other Uralic languages



- Emphasized pronouns

These pronouns can sometimes be translated as 'I […] myself', 'you […] yourself' etc or Russian 'я сам', 'ты сам', …

NOM / nominative / именительный
s1 ачым / ačym
s2 ачыд / ačyd
s3 ачыс / ačys
p1 асьным / as'nym
p2 асьныд / as'nyd
p3 асьныс / as'nys

Example: Сiйö ачыс тöдö / Sijö ačys tödö = (S)he knows (it) himself (/herself).

Declension:
► Show Spoiler



- Interrogative pronouns

код, кодi / kod, kodi = who?
мый / myj = what?
кутшöм / kutšöm = what kind of?
мыйсяма / myjsjama = what (kind of)?
кымын / kymyn = how much, how many?
кымынöд / kymynöd = which?


- Negative pronouns

некод / nekod = nobody
нинöм / ninöm = nothing


- Indefinite pronouns


- Possessive pronouns


- Demonstrative pronouns

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-07-21, 10:40

Verbs

- Conjugation of the verb 'to be'

вöвны / vövny = to be

(Stem-final -в / -v alternating with -л- / -l-)

s1 ме эм / me èm = I am*
s2 тэ эм / tè èm = you are*
s3 сiйö эм / sìjö èm = he, she, it is*
p1 ми эмöсь / mi èmös' = we are*
p2 тi эмöсь / tì èmös' = you are*
p3 найö эмöсь / najö èmös' = they are*

s1 ме абу / me abu = I am not
s2 тэ абу / tè abu = you are not
s3 сiйö абу / sìjö abu = he, she, it is not
p1 ми абуöсь / mi abuös' = we are not
p2 тi абуöсь / tì abuös' = you are not
p3 найö абуöсь / najö abuös' = they are not

s1 ме волi / me volì = I was
s2 тэ вöлiн / tè völìn = you were
s3 сiйö вöлi / sìjö völì = he, she, it was
p1 ми вöлiм / mi völìm = we were
p2 тi вöлiнныд / tì völìnnyd = you were
p3 найö вöлiны / najö völìny = they were

* In the present tense, the copula is usually omitted but can be used for emphasis, e.g.:

Кодi танi эм?
Kodì tanì èm?
= Who is here?

Сiйö талун эм?
Sìjö talun èm?
= Is (s)he here today?

:arrow: for comparisons

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-07-22, 18:59

- Conjugation

-- Infinitive suffix

Always -ны / -ny.

мун- / mun- = go (stem)
мун-ны / mun-ny = to go (infinitive)


After some consonants, -ы- / -y- is inserted.

вунд- / vund- = cut (stem)
вунд-ы-ны / vund-y-ny = to cut (inf.)


The infinitive minus the suffix is the stem for all other verb forms.

мун-ны / mun-ny = to go (inf.)
сiйö мун-ö / sìjö mun-ö = (s)he goes


As usual, -л- / -l- changes to -в- / -v whenever it is not followed by a vowel.

ол- / ol- = live (stem)
ов-ны / ov-ny = to live (inf.)
ол-ан / ol-an = you live


The inserted -ы- / -y- after consonants is deleted before other suffixes but preserved in the 2nd person singular imperative.

пуксь- / puks'- = sit down (stem)
пуксь-ы-ны / puks'-y-ny = to sit down (inf.)
пуксь-ы / puks'-y = sit down! (s2 imp.)


-- Present tense suffixes

s1 -а / -a
s2 -ан / -an
s3 -ö / -ö
p1 -ам / -am
p2 -анныд / -annyd
p3 -öны / -öny

-- Future tense suffixes

s1 = present tense
s2 = present tense
s3 -ас / -as
p1 = present tense
p2 = present tense
p3 -асны / -asny

-- 1st past tense suffixes

s1 -и, -i / -i , -ì
s2 -ин, -iн / -in / -ìn
s3 -ис, -iс / -is, -ìs
p1 -им, -iм / -im, -ìm
p2 -инныд, -iнныд / -innyd, -ìnnyd
p3 -исны, -iсны / -isny, -ìsny

-- 2nd past tense suffixes

s1 (-öма /-öma)
s2 -öмыд /-ömyd
s3 -öма /-öma
p1 (-öма /-öma)
p2 -öмныд /-ömnyd
p3 -öмаöсь /-ömaös'

The 2nd past tense is used to describe a situation in the past which the speaker didn't witness or observe personally. It is rarely used in the 1st person.

-- Present tense, negated

s1 ог / og + stem
s2 он / on + stem
s3 оз / oz + stem
p1 огö / ogö + stem + -öй / -öj
p2 онö / onö + stem + -öй / -öj
p3 оз / oz + stem + -ны / -ny

-- 1st past tense, negated

s1 эг / èg + stem
s2 эн / èn + stem
s3 эз / èz + stem
p1 эгö / ègö + stem + -öй / -öj
p2 энö / ènö + stem + -öй / -öj
p3 эз / èz + stem + -ны / -ny

-- Imperative

s2 infinitive minus -ны / -ny
p2 -öй / -öj

- Some common verbs

аддзыны / addzyny = see
артавны / artavny = consider, calculate
аттьöавны / att'öavny = thank

беддявны / beddjavny = beat
бергавны / bergavny = return, turn round
биавны, биасьны / biavny, bias'ny = light (a fire), switch on (a light)
босьтны / bos'tny = take
бöрйысьны / börjys'ny = choose
быдмыны / bydmyny = grow (intransitive)
быдтыны / bydtyny = grow (transitive)
бырны / byrny = finish (intransitive), come to an end

вайны / vajny = bring (perfective)
вартчыны / vartčyny = swim
ваявны / vajavny = bring (imperfective)

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-08-07, 15:09

Parts of the body

юр / jur = head
юрси / jursi = hair
кымöс плеш / kymös pleš = forehead
пель пöв / pel' pöv = ear
син пöв / sin pöv = eye
синкым / sinkym = eyebrow
синлыс / sinlys = eyelashes
бан бок / ban bok = cheek
бандзиб / bandzib = cheekbone
тшöка / tšöka = chin
вом дор / vom dor = lip
пинь / pin' = tooth
чужöм / čužöm = face
вом / vom = mouth
ныр / nyr = nose
сьылi / s'ylì = neck
голя / golja = throat
морöс / morös = breast, chest
пельпом / pel'pom = shoulder
сой / soj = arm
ки / ki = hand
кимыш, килутш / kimyš, kilutš = palm
гырддза / gyrddza = elbow
чунь / čun' = finger
пев / pev = thumb
водз чунь / vodz čun' = index finger
шöр чунь / šör čun' = middle finger
нимтöм чунь / nimtöm čun' = ring finger
чаль чунь / čal' čun' = pinky, little finger
гыж / gyž = nail
кок / kok = leg
кок пыдöс / kok pydös = foot
пидзöс / pidzös = knee
коклябöр / kokljabör = heel
кок пöк / kok pök = calf
кок чунь / kok čun' = toe
гырк / gyrk = guts
сöн / sön = vein
сьöлöм / s'ölöm = heart
ты / ty = lungs
лоп / lop = spleen
мус / mus = liver
сюв / sjuv = intestine
рушку (гырк) / rušku (gyrk) = stomach
кынöм рушку / kynöm rušku = belly, abdomen
сöп / söp = gallbladder
вöрк / vörk = kidneys
сюрса / sjursa = spine, backbone
вир / vir = blood
кучик / kučik = skin
мыш / myš = back
ордлы / ordly = rib

:arrow: for comparisons

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-08-11, 22:59

Vegetation

быдмöг(ъяс) / bydmög("jas) = vegetation
тундра / tundra = tundra
тайга, парма / tajga, parma = taiga
вöр / vör = forest
лыска вöр / lyska vör = coniferous forest
коръя вöр / kor"ja vör = deciduous forest
пу / pu = tree
лыска пу / lyska pu = coniferous tree
коръя пу / kor"ja pu = deciduous tree
кыдз / kydz = birch
пожöм / požöm = pine
коз / koz = fir, spruce
тупу / tupu = oak
бадь / vad' = willow
пипу / pipu = aspen
пелысь / pelys' = mountain ash, rowan
клён / klёn (= ru) = maple
льöм / l'öm = bird cherry (prunus padus)
ловпу / lovpu = alder
яблöг (пу) / jablög (pu) = apple tree
ниа / nia = larch
сус / sus = cedar
черешня / čerešnja (= ru) = cherry tree
куст / kust = shrub, bush
тусь / tus' = berry
пув / puv = lingonberry, cowberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea)
турипув / turipuv = cranberry (oxycoccus)
понпир, пончöд / ponpir, pončöd = crowberry
сэтöр / sėtör = currant
турун / turun = grass
дзоридз / dzoridz = flower
вуж / vuž = root
вож, ув / vož, uv = branch
чаль / čal' = twig
кор / kor = leaf
коль / kol' = cone
тшак / tšak = mushroom

:arrow: for comparisons

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-08-26, 9:16

Bodies of water

öшмöс / öšmös = spring, well
шор / šor = stream
ю / ju = river
ю ворга / ju vorga = river bed
юдор / judor = river bank
ты / ty = lake
ю-ты / ju-ty = pond, reservoir ('river-lake')
бузган / buzgan = waterfall
ю вам / ju vam = river mouth
вадор / vador = shore, coast ('water bank')
куръя / kur"ja = bay, gulf
саридз / saridz = sea
гы / gy = wave
дi / dì = island
енэжтаc / enėžtas = horizon

:arrow: for comparisons

h34
Posts: 736
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Komi-Zyrian

Postby h34 » 2018-09-02, 9:40

Examples of case declension of nouns

вöр / vör = forest

Singular | Plural

Nominative:
- вöр / vör | вöръяс / vör"jas
Genitive:
- вöрлöн / vörlön | вöръяслöн / vör"jaslön
Ablative:
- вöрлысь / vörlys' | вöръяслысь / vör"jaslys'
Dative:
- вöрлы / vörly | вöръяслы / vör"jasly
Accusative:
- вöр / vör | вöръяс / vör"jas
- вöрöс / vörös | вöръясöс / vör"jasös
Instrumentalis:
- вöрöн / vörön | вöръясöн / vör"jasön
Comitative:
- вöркöд / vörköd | вöръяскöд / vör"jasköd
Abessive:
- вöртöг / vörtög | вöръястöг / vör"jastög
Causative:
- вöрла / vörla | вöръясла / vör"jasla
Inessive:
- вöрын / vöryn | вöръясын / vör"jasyn
Elative:
- вöрысь / vörys' | вöръясысь / vör"jasys'
Illative:
- вöрö / vörö | вöръясö / vör"jasö
Approximative:
- вöрлань / vörlan' | вöръяслань / vör"jaslan'
Egressive:
- вöрсянь / vörsjan' | вöръясcянь / vör"jassjan'
Prolative:
- вöрöд / vöröd | вöръясöд / vör"jasöd
- вöртi / vörtì | вöръястi / vör"jastì
Terminative:
- вöрöдз / vörödz | вöръясöдз / vör"jasödz

:arrow: for comparison


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