Votic / Votian

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-12, 1:23

Translating sentences from Vaďďa lukõmikko-päivezikko to Estonian and English (continued).

(vot) Miä paan tširja lavvõ päälle.
(et) Ma panen kirja laua peale.
(en) I put the letter on the table.

(vot) Tširjõ on lavvõ pääll.
(et) Kirja on laua peal.
(en) The letter is on the table.

(vot) Siä võtad tširja lavvõ päälte.
(et) Sa võtad kirja laua pealt.
(en) You take the letter off the table.

(vot) Katti meeb lavvõ nallõ.
(et) Kass läheb laua alla.
(en) The cat goes under the table.

(vot) Katti on lavvõ nall.
(et) Kass on laua all.
(en) The cat is under the table.

(vot) Katti toob lavvõ naltõ.
(et) Kass tuleb laua alt.
(en) The cat comes out from under the table.

(vot) Too kotto!
(et) Tule kodu!
(en) Come home!

(vot) Too praaznikõllõ!
(et) Tule pidupäevale!
(en) Come to the celebration!

(vot) Mee akkunõllõ!
(et) Mine välja!
(en) Go outside!

(vot) Mitä teed akkunõll?
(et) Mida teed väljas?
(en) What are you doing outside?

(vot) Too akkunõltõ koo süäme!
(et) Tule väljastpoolt majja sisse!
(en) Come into the house from outside!

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-12, 23:13

from Vaďďa tšeeli izeõpõttaja
Votic followed by English translation (Estonian translation in parenthesis)

(vot) Esimein õppikappalõ. Arjotuz.
(en) Lesson 1. Exercise.
(et) (Esimene õppetükk. Harjutus.)

(vot) Lukõga sõnad!
(en) Read the words!
(et) (Lugege sõnad!)

aapa aspen (haab)
avata to open (avada)
bruuda pond (tiik) [from Russian пруд]
frovva miss (proua)
juvva to drink (juua)
koto home (kodu)
maa land (maa)
murtua to break (murduda)
urpa catkin (urb)
ammaz tooth (hammas)
baabukaz raspberry (vaarikas)
doro acorn (tõru)
gaada snake (madu) [from Russian гад]
katto roof (katus)
kuz? where? (kus?)
maamuna potato (kartul)
orko valley (org)
varvaz toe (varvas)

(vot) Tõin õppikappalõ. Arjotuz.
(en) Lesson 2. Exercise.
(et) (Teine õppetükk. Harjutus.)

aili Baltic herring (räim)
eb õõ is not (ei ole)
elo life (elu)
enneglee day before yesterday (üleeile)
haamolain devil (kurat, vanapagan)
ilozuz beauty (ilu)
irmuta to be afraid (karta)
kahnugoitta, kahmata to freeze (kahutada)
kahõd two (kahed)
lõpõtta to finish (lõpetada)
pankõ (paŋkõ) bucket (pang, ämber)
rõnka (rõŋka) ring (rõngas)

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-13, 13:26

Vowel harmony in Votic:

Front vowelsBack vowelsNeutral
ä e ö üa õ o ui


Examples:
  • tšüsümüᴢ = question (all vowels are the back vowel ü; compare the Estonian cognate küsimus, which does not have vowel harmony)
  • tütär = daughter (presence of ü in the first syllable requires ä rather than a in the second; compare standard Estonian tütar, which does not have vowel harmony)
  • jähee = into the ice (the presence of the front vowel ä in the word jää requires the suffix to be -hee)
  • sohõõ = into the swamp (the presence of the back vowel o in the word soo requires the suffix to be -hõõ)
In compound words, each component of the compound has its own internal vowel harmony which is not affected by the other components, and suffixes take the vowel harmony of the final component:
  • kõlmaspäiv = Wednesday (kõlmas has back vowels, päiv has front vowels)
  • tšüntömaa = plowed field (tšüntö has front vowels, maa has back vowels)
  • kalatšüllää = in the fishing village (kala has back vowels, tšülä has front vowels, suffix takes the front-vowel ending)

Image

:arrow: for comparison
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2019-09-14, 18:48, edited 2 times in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-14, 1:32

(vot) Kõlmõz õppikappalõ. Arjotuz.
(en) Lesson 3. Exercise.
(et) (Kolmas õppetükk. Harjutus.)

audžid (autšid) pike (haug)
lühüd short (lühike)
mettsä forest (mets)
müvvä to sell (müüa)
pittšä long (pikk)
pää head (pea)
süvvä to eat (süüa)
staruha old woman (vanaeit) [from Russian старуха]
širisä to chirp (siristama)
tüttö girl (tüdruk)
tšävvä to go (käia, minna)
tšülä village (küla)
ženiha bridegroom (peigmees) [from Russian жених]
üü night (öö)

(vot) Nelläz õppikappalõ. Arjotuz.
(en) Lesson 4. Exercise.
(et) (Neljas õppetükk. Harjutus.)

fśoravnoo still, however, anyway (siiski, ikkagi, ükskõik) [from Russian всё равно]
okťaabri October (oktoober) [from Russian октябрь]
guľu pigeon, dove (tuvi) [from Russian голубь]
ŕumka wine glass (viinaklaas) [from Russian рюмка]
haŕokka ferret (tuhkur) [from Russian хорёк]
sättiütä to get oneself ready, prepare (ennast korda seada, sättida, valmistuda)
hoť at least; even though (vähemalt, kuigi) [from Russian хотя]
süämmez inside (sees) [inessive case of ‘süä’ “heart”; lit. “in the heart of”)
iľľaa late (hilja)
vaďďa Votic (vadja)
kahśtšümmentä twenty (kakskümmend)
äďďä father-in-law (äi)
ńako (näko) face (nägu)
õźźa equisetum, horsetail plant (osi)

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-14, 12:43

from Vaďďa tšeeli izeõpõttaja

(vot) Viďďez õppikappalõ
(en) Lesson 5
(et) (Viies õppetükk)

Genitive case is used:
  • for ownership: izä koto father’s house (isa kodu)
  • for abstract possession (written as a single word): izämaa fatherland (isamaa)
  • for the singular object of a completed action in past or future tense: miä tein koo I built a house (ma ehitasin maja)
Partitive case is used:
  • for part of a whole: pala leipää a piece of bread (pala leiba)
  • partitive singular with numerals: viiz inemissä fve people (viis inimest)
  • with the negative forms of verbs: eb õõ leipää there isn’t any bread (ei ole leiba)
  • partitive plural with the words paľľo (“many”) and vähää (“few”): paľľo inemiziit many people (palju inimest)
  • for the object of an incomplete action: tämä teeb kotoa he is building a house (ta ehitab maja)
  • with comparative adjectives: vanapi velleä older brother (vanem vend)
  • with the verbs tšüsüä (“ask”), tahtua (“want”), and suvata (“love”): tšüsü vettä he asked for water (küsis vett)
  • in certain phrases: Lezzell õli itšävä meessä the widow longed for her husband (lesk igatses oma mehe järele)

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-15, 15:49

from Vaďďa tšeeli izeõpõttaja

(vot) Kuuvõz õppikappalõ
(en) Lesson 6
(et) Kuues õppetükk

(vot) Tämä poika
(en) His/her son
(et) Tema poeg

(vot) Tejje poika
(en) Your son
(et) Teie poeg

(vot) Minu lauta
(en) My table
(et) Minu laud

(vot) Näjje lauta
(en) Their table
(et) Nende laud

(vot) Tšenen õma on kase lauta?
(en) Whose table is this?
(et) Kelle oma on see laud?

(vot) Kase on minun õma.
(en) It is mine.
(et) See on minu oma.

(vot) Kase on sinun õma.
(en) It is yours.
(et) See on sinu oma.

(vot) Kase on tämä õma.
(en) It is his/hers.
(et) See on tema oma.

(vot) Kase on mejje õma.
(en) It is ours.
(et) See on meie oma.

(vot) Kase on tejje õma.
(en) It is yours.
(et) See on teie oma.

(vot) Kase on näjje õma.
(en) It is theirs.
(et) See on nende oma.



(vot) Seittsemez õppikappalõ
(en) Lesson 7
(et) (Seitsmes õppetükk)

I taivutuz first declension
Monosyllabic words with a long vowel or diphthong.

Endings:
  • Nominative singular: long vowel or diphthong
  • Genitive singular: same as nominative
  • Partitive singular: genitive + -t
  • Illative singular: genitive + -hee, -hõõ, or -haa (vowel harmony if -hee/-hõõ)
  • Inessive singular: genitive + -z
  • Elative singular: genitive + -ss
  • Nominative plural: genitive + -d
  • Genitive plural: shortened genitive (first vowel only) -ďďe
  • Partitive plural: shortened genitive + -it
  • Illative plural: shortened genitive + -ise or -isõ (vowel harmony)
  • Inessive plural: shortened genitive + -iz
  • Elative plural: shortened genitive + -iss

Example (English translations are approximate, since most cases can be used in multiple ways)
The part in parenthesis after the English translation is the Estonian translation, not Votic.
    jää (nominative singular) the ice (jää)
    jää (genitive singular) of the ice (jää)
    jäät (partitive singular) some of the ice (jääd)
    jähee (illative singular) into the ice (jäässe)
    jääz (inessive singular) in the ice (jääs)
    jääss (elative singular) from the ice (jääst)
    jääd (nominative plural) the ices (jääd)
    jääďďe (genitive plural) of the ices (jääde)
    jäit (partitive plural) some ices (jääsid)
    jäise (illative plural) into the ices (jäädesse)
    jäiz (inessive plural) in the ices (jäädes)
    jäiss (elative plural) from the ices (jäädest)

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-16, 13:38

(vot) Seittsemez õppikappalõ. Arjotuz.
(en) Lesson 7. Exercise.
(et) (Seitsmes õppetükk. Harjutus.)

I taivutuz first declension
Monosyllabic words with a long vowel or diphthong.
More examples, from Exercise 7

Votic English (Estonian)

soo (nominative singular) the swamp (soo)
soo (genitive singular) of the swamp (soo)
soot (partitive singular) some of the swamp (sood)
sohõõ (illative singular) into the swamp (sohu; soosse)
sooz (inessive singular) in the swamp (soos)
sooss (elative singular) from the swamp (soost)
sood (nominative plural) the swamps (sood)
sooďďe (genitive plural) of the swamps (soode)
soit (partitive plural) some swamps (soid, soosid)
soisõ (illative plural) into the swamps (soisse, soodesse)
soiz (inessive plural) in the swamps (sois, soodes)
soiss (elative plural) from the swamps (soist, soodest)

kuu (nominative singular) the moon (kuu)
kuu (genitive singular) of the moon (kuu)
kuut (partitive singular) some of the moon (kuud)
kuhõõ (illative singular) into the moon (kuusse)
kuuz (inessive singular) in the moon (kuus)
kuuss (elative singular) from the moon (kuust)
kuud (nominative plural) the moons (kuud)
kuuďďe (genitive plural) of the moons (kuude)
kuit (partitive plural) some of the moons (kuid, kuusid)
kuisõ (illative plural) into the moons (kuisse, kuudesse)
kuis (inessive plural) in the moons (kuis, kuudes)
kuiss (elative plural) from the moons (kuist, kuudest)

luu (nominative singular) the bone (luu)
luu (genitive singular) of the bone (luu)
luut (partitive singular) some of the bone (luud)
luhõõ (illative singular) into the bone (luusse)
luuz (inessive singular) in the bone (luus)
luuss (elative singular) from the bone (luust)
luud (nominative plural) the bones (luud)
luuďďe (genitive plural) of the bones (luude)
luit (partitive plural) some of the bones (luid, luusid)
luisõ (illative plural) into the bones (luisse, luudesse)
luiz (inessive plural) in the bones (luis, luudes)
luiss (elative plural) from the bones (luist, luudest)

tee (nominative singular) the road (tee)
tee (genitive singular) of the road (tee)
teet (partitive singular) some of the road (teed)
tehee (illative singular) into the road (teesse)
teez (inessive singular) in the road (tees)
teess (elative singular) from the road (teest)
teed (nominative plural) the roads (teed)
teďďe (genitive plural) of the roads (teede)
teit (partitive plural) some of the roads (teid, teesid)
teise (illative plural) into the roads (teisse, tedesse)
teiz (inessive plural) in the roads (teis, teedes)
teiss (elative plural) from the roads (teist, teedest)

täi (nominative singular) the louse (täi)
täi (genitive singular) of the louse (täi)
täit (partitive singular) some of the louse (täid)
täihee (illative singular) into the louse (täisse)
täiz (inessive singular) in the louse (täis)
täiss (elative singular) from the louse (täist)
täid (nominative plural) the lice (täid)
täiďďe (genitive plural) of the lice (täide)
täit (partitive plural) some of the lice (täisid)
täise (illative plural) into the lice (täidesse)
täiz (inessive plural) in the lice (täides)
täiss (elative plural) from the lice (täidest)

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-17, 12:54

More examples, from lesson 7 exercises:


maa (nominative singular) the land (maa)
maa (genitive singular) of the land (maa)
maat (partitive singular) some of the land (maad)
mahaa (illative singular) into the land (maasse)
maaz (inessive singular) in the land (maas)
maass (elative singular) from the land (maast)
maad (nominative plural) the lands (maad)
maďďe (genitive plural) of the lands (maade)
mait (partitive plural) some of the lands (maid, maasid)
maisõ (illative plural) into the lands (maisse, maadesse)
maiz (inessive plural) in the lands (mais, maades)
maiss (elative plural) from the lands (maist, maadest)

tüü (nominative singular) the work (töö)
tüü (genitive singular) of the work (töö)
tüüt (partitive singular) some of the work (tööd)
tühee (illative singular) into the work (töösse)
tüüz (inessive singular) in the work (töös)
tüüss (elative singular) from the work (tööst)
tüüd (nominative plural) the work (tööd)
tüďďe (genitive plural) of the work (tööde)
tüit (partitive plural) some of the work (töid, töösid)
tüise (illative plural) into the work (töisse, töödesse)
tüiz (inessive plural) in the work (töis, töödes)
tüiss (elative plural) from the work (töist, töödest)

puu (nominative singular) the tree (puu)
puu (genitive singular) of the tree (puu)
puut (partitive singular) some of the tree (puud)
puhõõ (illative singular) into the tree (puusse)
puuz (inessive singular) in the tree (puus)
puuss (elative singular) from the tree (puust)
puud (nominative plural) the trees (puud)
puďďe (genitive plural) of the trees (puude)
puit (partitive plural) some of the trees (puid, puusid)
puisse (illative plural) into the trees (puisse, puudesse)
puiz (inessive plural) in the trees (puis, puudes)
puiss (elative plural) from the trees (puist, puudest)

või (nominative singular) the butter (või)
või (genitive singular) of the butter (või)
võit (partitive singular) some of the butter (võid)
võihõõ (illative singular) into the butter (võisse)
võiz (inessive singular) in the butter (võis)
võiss (elative singular) from the butter (võist)
võid (nominative plural) the butter (võid)
võďďe (genitive plural) of the butter (võide)
võit (partitive plural) some of the butter (võisid)
võisse (illative plural) into the butter (võidesse)
võiz (inessive plural) in the butter (võides)
võiiss (elative plural) from the butter (võidest)

pää (nominative singular) the head (pea)
pää (genitive singular) of the head (pea)
päät (partitive singular) some of the head (pead)
pähee (illative singular) into the head (pähe, peasse)
pääz (inessive singular) in the head (peas)
pääss (elative singular) from the head (peast)
pääd (nominative plural) the heads (pead)
päďďe (genitive plural) of the heads (peade)
päit (partitive plural) some of the heads (päid)
päise (illative plural) into the heads (päisse, peadesse)
päiz (inessive plural) in the heads (päis, peadesse)
päiss (elative plural) from the heads (päist, peadest)

üü (nominative singular) the night (öö)
üü (genitive singular) of the night (öö)
üüt (partitive singular) some of the night (ööd)
ühee (illative singular) into the night (öhe, öösse)
üüz (inessive singular) in the night (öös)
üüss (elative singular) from the night (ööst)
üüd (nominative plural) the nights (ööd)
üďďe (genitive plural) of the nights (ööde)
üit (partitive plural) some of the nights (öid, öösid)
üise (illative plural) into the nights (öisse, öödesse)
üiz (inessive plural) in the nights (öis, öödes)
üiss (elative plural) from the nights (öist, öödest)
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2019-09-20, 2:23, edited 1 time in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2194
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-19, 12:36

from Vaďďa tšeeli izeõpõttaja

(vot) Kahõssamõz õppikappalõ
(en) Lesson 8
(et) Kaheksas õppetükk

The allative case is used:
  • to indicate motion to the surface of something: Nõisa katolõ! Climb onto the roof! (Roni katusele!)
  • to indicate a recipient or addressee (English: to him, to her; to X): Anna tälle! Give him! (Anna talle!)
  • in certain expressions: Anna millõ tšävvä! Let me go! (Las mul minna!); Mitä sillõ vajaa? What do you need? (Mida on sul vaja?); Tälle täütti tšümmen vootta She is ten years old. (Ta on kümme aastat vana.)
The allative case is formed:
  • by adding - or -le after a long vowel or an unstressed syllable, according to the rules of vowel harmony
  • by adding -llõ or -lle after a short vowel in a stressed syllable, according to the rules of vowel harmony.


The adessive case is used:
  • to indicate presence on the surface of something: issua katoll He/she sits on the roof (Istub katusel).
  • to identify ownership: Täll on lehmä He has a cow (Tal on lehm).
  • to indicate the time of day or the season: päiväll during the day (päeval); sütšüzell in the autumn (sügusel).
  • in certain expressions: mill piäb I should (mul peab).
When an adjective, pronoun, or numeral is included in a statement of time:
  • the word that follows will be in the partitive rather than adessive case: senell päivää on this day (sel päeväl).
The adessive case is formed:
  • by adding -l after a long vowel and diphthongs
  • by adding -ll after a short vowel

Linguaphile
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Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-19, 12:43

II taivutuz second declension
Words ending in -o; two-syllable words ending in -u, -ü, -õ, or -i.

Endings:
  • Nominative singular: strong grade ending in -o, -u, , , or -i.
  • Genitive singular: weak grade, otherwise the same as nominative
  • Partitive singular: nominative + -a
  • Illative singular: nominative + lengthened final vowel
  • Inessive singular: genitive + -z
  • Elative singular: genitive + -ss
  • Allative singular: genitive + -le or -
  • Adessive singular: genitive + -ll
  • Nominative plural: genitive + -d
  • Genitive plural: nominative + -je
  • Partitive plural: nominative + -it
  • Illative plural: nominative + -ise or -isõ (vowel harmony)
  • Inessive plural: nominative + + -iz
  • Elative plural: nominative + -iss
  • Allative plural: nominative + -ile or -ilõ
  • Adessive plural: nominative + -ll

Example (English translations are approximate, since most cases can be used in multiple ways)
The part in parenthesis after the English translation is the Estonian translation, not Votic.

    lintu (nominative singular) the bird (lind)
    linnu (genitive singular) of the bird (linnu)
    lintua (partitive singular) some of the bird (lindu)
    lintuu (illative singular) into the bird (lindu, linnusse)
    linnuz (inessive singular) in the bird (linnus)
    linnuss (elative singular) from the bird (linnust)
    linnulõ (allative singular) to the bird (linnule)
    linnull (adessive singular) at the bird (linnul)
    linnud (nominative plural) the birds (linnud)
    lintuje (genitive plural) of the birds (lindude)
    lintuit (partitive plural) some birds (linde, lindusid)
    lintuisõ (illative plural) into the birds (lindudesse)
    lintuiz (inessive plural) in the birds (lindudes)
    lintuiss (elative plural) from the birds (lindudest)
    lintuilõ (allative plural) to the birds (lindudele)
    lintuil (addessive plural) at the birds (lindudel)
Last edited by Linguaphile on 2019-09-20, 2:24, edited 1 time in total.

Linguaphile
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Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Votic / Votian

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-20, 0:25

Animals and birds in Votic:

looma = animal
siplikaz = ant
karu = bear
bobra = beaver
tšimo = bee
bukaška = beetle
lintu = bird
mutukaz = bug, tadpole,
lehtilintu, unilintu = butterfly
katti = cat
kana = chicken
lehmä = cow
varõᴢ = crow
tšako = cuckoo
oľeni = deer
koira = dog
sorsa = duck
kotko = eagle
irvi, põdra = elk, moose
kala = fish
tšärpäne = fly
paarmaz = horsefly
repo = fox
konna = frog
kittsi, voho = goat
sirkka, roholintu = grasshopper
anõ = goose
siili = hedgehog
opõnõ = horse
kattipoika, kissapoika = kitten
leppälintu, jumalalehmä = ladybug
kiuru = lark
leeva = lion
süsälikko = lizard
sääski = mosquito
iiri = mouse
üülakko, hüüpiäᴢ = owl
sika = pig
paltalintu, goluba = pigeon, dove
kroolikka = rabbit
kajaga = seagull
lammaz = sheep
mato, gaada = snake, worm
laululintu = songbird
värpo = sparrow
hämöläin = spider
õrava = squirrel
kultanokka = starling
kurtši = stork
pääsko = swallow
luikko = swan
höröläin = wasp
huntti = wolf

:arrow: for comparison


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