Mari

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Mari

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-06-03, 20:28

h34 wrote:[
:hmm: Isn't that Meadow Mari though? The differences are hardly noticeable but Hill Mari has some additional letters like -ӹ- and -ä-, and some consonants have been preserved (e.g. -к- in коклы vs. Meadow Mari коло).

Oh wow, absolutely, it is Meadow Mari. And when I saw your post I was about to argue with you about it: "no, I got it from an Estonian site and I'm positive it called it niidumari there, so...." Except that niidu means.... meadow. :doh: I really have no idea what I was thinking by calling it Hill Mari. :noclue:
It is the same for the color words. I've fixed those posts so that they say "Meadow Mari". Thanks for catching that. :doh: :doh:

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-06-03, 20:38

Linguaphile wrote: I've fixed those posts so that they say "Meadow Mari".

Thanks! :)

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-06-19, 16:10

Parts of the body

(mhr) Meadow Mari:
ваче / vače = shoulder
вуй / vuj = head
йол / jol = leg, foot
йолгопа / jolgopa = sole
кид / kid = hand, arm
копа / kopa = hand, palm; sole
кынервуй / kynervuj = elbow
оҥ / ong = chest
парня / parnja = finger
пулвуй / pulvuj = knee
шӱй / šüj = neck

(mrj) Hill Mari:
ваче / vače = shoulder
вуй / vuj = head
кид / kid = hand, arm
копа / kopa = hand, palm; sole
кӹнервуй / kynervuj = elbow
онг / ong = chest
парня / parnja = finger
пулвуй / pulvuj = knee
шӱ / šü = neck
ял / jal = leg, foot
яллапа / jallapa = sole

Parts of the face

(mhr)
йылме / jylme = tongue
нер / ner = nose
оҥылаш / ongylaš = chin
пӱй / püj = tooth
пылыш / pylyš = ear
саҥга / sangga = forehead
тӱрвö / türvö = lip(s)
умша / umša = mouth
ӱп / üp = hair
шинча / šinča = eye
шинчавун / šinčavun = eyebrow

(mrj)
йӹлмӹ / jylmy = tongue
нер / ner = nose
онгылаш / ongylaš = chin
пӱ / pü = tooth
пӹлӹш / pylyš = ear
ышма / yšma = mouth
ӱп / üp = hair
сӹнзä / synzä = eye

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-07-07, 11:05

Family

(mhr) Meadow Mari:

Grandparents' generation:
- коча / koča = grandfather
- кова / kova = grandmother

Parents' generation:
- ача / ača = father
- ава / ava = mother
-- кугыза / kugyza = mother's or father's elder brother
-- кока / koka = mother's or father's elder sister
-- иза / iza* = father's younger brother
-- чӱчӱ / čüčü = mother's younger brother
-- ака / aka* = mother's or father's younger sister

Speaker's generation:
- марий / marij = husband
- вате / vate = wife
- иза / iza* = elder brother
-- еҥгa / engga = elder brother's wife
- ака / aka* = elder sister
-- курска / kurska = elder sister's husband
- шольо / šol'o = younger brother
-- шешке / šeške = younger brother's wife
- шӱжар / šüžar = younger sister
-- веҥге / vengge = younger sister's husband

Children's generation:
- эрге / èrge = son
- ӱдыр / üdyr = daughter

Grandchildren's generation:
- уныка / unyka = grandchild

----
* иза and ака have several meanings

:arrow: Kinship terms in other Uralic languages

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Mari

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-07-15, 15:23

Yet another Mari resource (this one is a Finnish-based course):
Mari Kielioppi

Also, samples of the text Олмапу: Marin kielen oppikirja suomalaisille as well as the audio materials for it are available here.

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-07-20, 21:14

Conjugation of the verb 'to be'

(mrj) Hill Mari: ылаш

s1 мӹнь ылам = I am
s2 тӹнь ылат = you are
s3 тӹдӹ ылеш = (s)he is
p1 мä ылына = we are
p2 тä ылыда = you are
p3 нӹнӹ ылыт = they are

s1 мӹнь ыльым = I was
s2 тӹнь ыльыц = you were
s3 тӹдӹ ыльы = (s)he was
p1 мä ылна = we were
p2 тä ылда = you were
p3 нӹнӹ ылевӹ = they were

s1 мӹнь ам ыл = I am not
s2 тӹнь ат ыл = you are not
s3 тӹдӹ агыл = (s)he is not
p1 мä ана ыл = we are not
p2 тä ада ыл = you are not
p3 нӹнӹ агылеп = they are not

(mhr) Meadow Mari: улаш / ula·š

s1 мый улам / mә·j ula·m = I am
s2 тый улат / tә·j ula·t = you are
s3 тудо улеш / tu·do ule·š = (s)he is
p1 ме улына / me· ulәna· = we are
p2 те улыда / te· ulәda· = you are
p3 нуно улыт / nu·no u·lәt = they are

s1 мый ыльым / mә·j ә·l'әm = I was
s2 тый ыльыч / tә·j ә·l'әč = you were
s3 тудо ыле / tu·do ә·le = (s)he was
p1 ме ыльна / me· әl'na· = we were
p2 те ыльда / te· әl'da· = you were
p3 нуно ыльыч / nu·no ә·l'әč = they were

s1 мый омыл / mә·j o·mәl = I am not
s2 тый отыл / tә·j o·tәl = you are not
s3 тудо огыл / tu·do o·gәl = (s)he is not
p1 ме о(гы)нал / me· o(gә)na·l = we are not
p2 те о(гы)дал / te· o(gә)da·l = you are not
p3 нуно огытыл / nu·no o·gәtәl = they are not

:arrow: for comparisons
Last edited by h34 on 2018-08-09, 21:51, edited 2 times in total.

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-08-09, 21:26

Vegetation

(mhr) Meadow Mari:

кушкыш / ku·škәš
= vegetation, flora
кушкыл / ku·škәl
= vegetation, flora, plants, plant
кожла / kožla·
= forest
чодыра / čodәra·
= forest
име / i·me
= needle
иман чодыра / ima·n čodәra·
= coniferous forest
лышташ / lәšta·š
= leaf
лышташан чодыра / lәštaša·n čodәra·
= deciduous forest
пу / pu·
= tree
куэ / kuė·
= birch
пӱнчö / pü·nčö
= pine
нулго / nu·lgo
= fir
кож / ko·ž
= spruce
тумо / tu·mo
= oak
уа / ua·
= willow
шопке / šopke·
= aspen
чие / čie·
= cherry tree (et kirsipuu, ru вишня, prunus cerasus)
ломбо / lo·mbo
= bird cherry (et harilik toomingas, ru черёмуха, prunus padus)
пызле / pә·zle
= rowan
ваштар / vašta·r
= maple
нöлпö / nö·lpö
= alder
олмапу / olmapu·
= apple tree
лышташкож / lәštaško·ž
= larch
вондо / vo·ndo
= shrub, bush
емыж / e·mәž
= berry
пöчыж / pö·čәž
= lingonberry, cowberry (et pohl, palukas, ru брусника, vaccinium vitis-idaea)
кугывöчыж, турнявöчыж / kugyvö·čәž, turnjavö·čәž (-vö·čәž < pö·čәž)
= cranberry (et jõhvikas, ru клюква, oxycoccus)
чурвöчыж / čurvö·čәž
= cloudberry (et rabamurakas, ru морошка, rubus chamaemorus)
мöр / mö·r
= strawberry
шудо / šu·do
= grass
пеледыш / pele·dәš
= flower
вож / vo·ž
= root
парча / parča·
= twig
укш / u·kš
= branch
укш-парча / ukš-parča·
= twig, branch
пӱгыльмö / pü·gәl'mö
= cone
кож пӱгыльмö / kož pü·gәl'mö
= spruce cone
пӱнчö пӱгыльмö / pünčö pü·gәl'mö
= fir cone
пӱкш / pü·kš
= nut
поҥо / po·ngo
= mushroom
моко, регенче / mo·ko, rege·nče
= moss

The middle dot · following a vowel is meant to indicate that the vowel is stressed (and sometimes slightly lengthened).


:arrow: for comparisons

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-08-26, 19:57

Bodies of water, shore, island

(mhr) Meadow Mari

вӱд / vüd
= water
шинчалдыме вӱд / šinčaldәme vüd
= fresh water ('salt-free water')
теҥыз вӱд / teŋәz vüd
= sea water
памаш / pamaš
= spring, well
изэҥер / izėŋer
= brook, creek ('little river')
эҥер / ėŋer
= river
эҥер корно / ėŋer korno
= river bed ('river path')
ер / er
= lake
пӱя / püja
= pond
вӱдвоч / vüdvoč
= waterfall
эҥер аҥ / ėŋer aŋ
= river mouth
вӱдтӱр / vüdtür
= shore, coast ('water edge')
вӱдлук / vüdluk
= bay ('water corner')
теҥыз / teŋәz
= sea
отро / otro
= island
кавадӱр / kavadür
= horizon ('sky edge')

:arrow: for comparisons

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-09-04, 20:44

Case declension of nouns

(mhr) Meadow Mari

Example: ер [jer] = lake

Singular

Nominative:
- ер [jer]
Genitive:
- ерын ['jerən]
Dative:
- ерлан [jer'lan]
Accusative:
- ерым ['jerəm]
Comitative:
- ерге [jer'ge]
Comparative (indicating likeness):
- ерла ['jerla]
Inessive:
- ерыште [ˈjerəʃte]
Illative:
- ерыш [ˈjerəʃ]
- ерышке [ˈjerəʃke]
Lative:
- ереш [je'reʃ]

Plural:

Nominative:
- ер-влак ['jervlak]
Genitive:
- ер-влакын ['jervlakən]
Dative:
- ер-влаклан [jervlak'lan]
Accusative:
- ер-влакым ['jervlakəm]
Comitative:
- ер-влакге [jervlak'ge]
Comparative:
- ер-влакла ['jervlakla]
Inessive:
- ер-влакыште ['jervlakəʃte]
Illative:
- ер-влакыш ['jervlakəʃ]
- ер-влакышке ['jervlakəʃke]
Lative:
- ер-влакеш [jervla'keʃ]

Insertion of -ы- after consonant.
Case endings: inessive and illative final -e alternating with -o/-ö after rounded stem vowel.
-влак (unstressed) is a plural marker, not used after quantifiers and often dropped if plurality can be gathered from the context.

:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-09-05, 12:14

(mrj) Hill Mari

Example: йäр = lake

Singular:

Nominative:
- йäр
Genitive:
- йäрӹн
Dative:
- йäрлäн
Accusative:
- йäрӹм
Comitative:
- йäрге
Comparative (indicating likeness):
- йäрлä
Inessive:
- йäрӹштӹ
Illative:
- йäрӹш
- йäрӹшкӹ
Lative:
- йäреш
Caritative:
- йäрде

Plural:

Nominative:
- йäрвлä
Genitive:
- йäрвлäн
Dative:
- йäрвлäлäн
Accusative:
- йäрвлäм
Comitative:
- йäрвлäге
Comparative:
- йäрвлäлä
Inessive:
- йäрвлäштӹ
Illative:
- йäрвлäшкӹ
Lative:
- йäрвлäэш
Caritative:
- йäрвлäде

After consonants, insertion of -ы-/-ӹ-, depending on vowel harmony.
Case endings: -a- alternating with -ä- and -ы- alternating with -ӹ-, depending on vowel harmony.
-вла/-влä (depending on vowel harmony) is a plural marker, not used after quantifiers but generally used otherwise.

:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2018-11-28, 22:52

Weather terms

(mhr) Meadow Mari:

игече / igeče
= weather
игече нерген увер / igeče nergen uver
= weather report
мотор игече / motor igeče
= nice weather
сай игече / saj igeče
= nice weather
рашке игече / raške igeče
= bad weather
уда игече / uda igeče
= bad weather
ояр игече / ojar igeče
= clear weather

кече / keče
= sun
кечан / kečan
= sunny
кече юлгыкта / keče julgõkta
= the sun is shining

пыл / põl
= cloud
вужгата пыл / vužgata põl
= fleecy cloud (cirrus)
йӱр пыл
= rain cloud (nimbus)
шем пыл / šem põl
= dark (black) cloud
пылаҥше / põlangše
= cloudy
кукшо / kukšo
= dry

мардеж / mardež
= wind
мардежан / mardežan
= windy
изи мардеж / izi mardež
= breeze, light wind, gentle wind
лай мардеж / laj mardež
= breeze, light wind, gentle wind
куштылго мардеж / kuštõlgo mardež
= breeze, light wind, gentle wind
шуран мардеж / šuran mardež
= strong wind
озыркан / ozõrkan
= storm
кугу мардежан / kugu mardežan
= stormy

кӱдырчö / küdõrčö
= thunder
волгенче / volgenče
= lightning

тӱтыра / tütõra
= fog
тӱтыран / tütõran
= foggy
пеҥгыде тӱтыра / penggõde tütõra
= dense fog
нугыдо тӱтыра / nugõdo tütõra
= dense fog

южвӱд / južvüd
= precipitation
= lit. "air water", "atmosphere water"

йӱр / jür
= rain
йӱр пырче / jür põrče
= raindrop
йӱран / jüran
= rainy
йӱр йӱреш / jür jüreš
= it's raining
озыркан йӱр / ozõrkan jür
= downpour

лум / lum
= snow
луман / luman
= snowy
лум лумеш / lum lumeš
= it's snowing
аляка / aljaka
= sleet
лум йöршан йӱр / lum jöršan jür
= sleet
шолем / šolem
= hail
шолеман йӱр / šoleman jür
= hail (with rain)
ий / ij
= ice

покшым / pokšõm
= frost
йӱштö / jüštö
= cold
леве / leve
= warm
лывырге / lõvõrge
= warm
шокшо / šokšo
= hot
ночко / nočko
= humid

:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-01-05, 10:40

Time-related expressions

(mhr)

жап / žap
= time
жап гыч жапышке / žap gõč žapõške
= from time to time
жап шумеш(ке) / žap šumeš(ke)
= for a time
жапым эртараш / žapõm ertaraš
= to spend time
жапын шуйнымыжо / žapõn šujnõmõžo
= duration, length of time
самырык жап / samõrõk žap
= (time/period of) youth
кызытсе жап / kõzõtse žap
= modern times, the present day and age
= present tense (ling.)
толмо жап / tolmo žap
= arrival time
кеҥеш жап / kengeš žap
= summer time
паша жап / paša žap
= working time, working hours
яра жап / jara žap
= free time, spare time
Жапем уке. / Žapem uke.
= I don't have time.
= lit. "my-time is-not"

у саман / u saman
= modern times, modern age
= lit. "new time" (саман < Turkic)
саман весемеш / saman vesemeš
= times are changing
= lit. "time changes"
совет саман / sovet saman
= Soviet period

Эше однак. / Eše odnak.
= It's still early.
Уже вараш. / Uže varaš.
= It's already late.
кызыт / kõzõt
= now, at this time
казыр / kazõr
= right away
иктутыш / iktutõš
= always, constantly, all the time
тегыз / tegõz
= often
кашын / kašõn
= sometimes
тапырын / tapõrõn
= rarely
нигунам / nigunam
= never (< ни+кунам, as in Russian ни+когда)

эр / er
= morning
эр эрдене / er erdene
= (early) in the morning
эр ӱжара / er üžara
= sunrise, dawn
Поро эр! / Poro er!
= Good morning!

кече / keče
= day
= sun
кечывал / kečõval
= midday
= daytime, daylight
= south
= lit. "sun area" (кече > кечы- + вал)
кечывал деч ончыч / kečõval deč ončõč
= in the morning, before noon
кечывал кече / kečõval keče
= midday sun
кечывал кочкыш / kečõval kočkõš
= lunch
= lit.: "midday meal"
тура кечывал / tura kečõval
= midday, exactly noon
= lit.: "steep sun area"
кечывал деч вара / kečõval deč vara
= in the afternoon

кас / kas
= evening
= in the evening
Поро кас! / Poro kas!
= Good evening!
кас кече / kas keče
= evening sun
кас ӱжара / kas üžara
= sunset

йӱд / jüd
= night
= at night
йӱд кава / jüd kava
= night sky

(Carrying on later)

:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-01-19, 14:27

Conjugation of the verbs илаш/ӹлӓш "to live" and толаш "to come"

Meadow Mari

илаш ilaš
= to live, 2nd conjugation
толаш tolaš
= to come, 1st conjugation

Indicative Present, affirmative:
s1 илем ilem
s2 илет ilet
s3 ила ila
p1 илена ilena
p2 иледа ileda
p3 илат ilat
s1 толам tolam
s2 толат tolat
s3 толеш toleš
p1 толына tolõna
p2 толыда tolõda
p3 толыт tolõt


Indicative Present, negative:
s1 ом иле om ile
s2 от иле ot ile
s3 ок/огеш иле ok/ogeš ile
p1 она/огына иле ona/ogõna ile
p2 ода/огыда иле oda/ogõda ile
p3 огыт иле ogõt ile
s1 ом тол om tol
s2 от тол ot tol
s3 ок/огеш тол ok/ogeš tol
p1 она/огына тол ona/ogõna tol
p2 ода/огыда тол oda/ogõda tol
p3 огыт тол ogõt tol


Simple Past 1, affirmative:
s1 илышым ilõšõm
s2 илышыч ilõšõč
s3 илыш ilõš
p1 илышна ilõšna
p2 илышда ilõšda
p3 илышт ilõšt
s1 тольым tol'õm
s2 тольыч tol'õč
s3 тольо tol'o
p1 толна tolna
p2 толда tolda
p3 тольыч tol'õč


Simple Past 1, negative:
s1 шым иле šõm ile
s2 шыч иле šõč ile
s3 ыш иле õš ile
p1 ышна иле õšna ile
p2 ышда иле õšda ile
p3 ышт иле õšt ile
s1 шым тол šõm tol
s2 шыч тол šõč tol
s3 ыш тол õš tol
p1 ышна тол õšna tol
p2 ышда тол õšda tol
p3 ышт тол õšt tol


Simple Past 2, affirmative:
s1 иленам ilenam
s2 иленат ilenat
s3 илен ilen
p1 иленна ilenna
p2 иленда ilenda
p3 иленыт ilenõt
s1 толынам tolõnam
s2 толынат tolõnat
s3 толын tolõn
p1 толынна tolõnna
p2 толында tolõnda
p3 толыныт tolõnõt


Simple Past 2, negative:
s1 илен омыл ilen omõl
s2 илен отыл ilen otõl
s3 илен огыл ilen ogõl
p1 илен о(гы)нал ilen o(gõ)nal
p2 илен о(гы)дал ilen o(gõ)dal
p3 илен огытыл ilen ogõtõl
s1 толын омыл tolõn omõl
s2 толын отыл tolõn otõl
s3 толын огыл tolõn ogõl
p1 толын о(гы)нал tolõn o(gõ)nal
p2 толын о(гы)дал tolõn o(gõ)dal
p3 толын огытыл tolõn ogõtõl


Imperative, affirmative:
s2 иле ile
s3 илыже ilõže
p2 илыза ilõza
p3 илышт ilõšt
s2 тол tol
s3 толжо tolžo
p2 толза tolza
p3 толышт tolõšt

Imperative, negative:
s2 ит иле it ile
p2 ида иле ida ile
s2 ит тол it tol
p2 ида тол ida tol

Hill Mari Meadow Mari

ӹлӓш илаш
= to live, 2nd conjugation
толаш толаш
= to come, 1st conjugation

Indicative Present, affirmative:
s1 ӹлем илем
s2 ӹлет илет
s3 ӹлӓ ила
p1 ӹленӓ илена
p2 ӹледӓ иледа
p3 ӹлӓт илат
s1 толам толам
s2 толат толат
s3 толеш толеш
p1 толына толына
p2 толыда толыда
p3 толыд толыт

Indicative Present, negative:
s1 ам ӹлӹ ом иле
s2 ат ӹлӹ от иле
s3 ак ӹлӹ ок/огеш иле
p1 ана ӹлӹ она/огына иле
p2 ада ӹлӹ ода/огыда иле
p3 ак ӹлеп огыт иле
s1 ам тол ом тол
s2 ат тол от тол
s3 ак тол ок/огеш тол
p1 ана тол она/огына тол
p2 ада тол ода/огыда тол
p3 ак толеп огыт тол

Simple Past 1, affirmative:
s1 ӹлӹшӹм илышым
s2 ӹлӹшӹц илышыч
s3 ӹлӹш илыш
p1 ӹлӹшнӓ илышна
p2 ӹлӹшдӓ илышда
p3 ӹлевӹ илышт
s1 тольым тольым
s2 тольыц тольыч
s3 тольы тольо
p1 толна толна
p2 толда толда
p3 толевы тольыч

Simple Past 1, negative:
s1 шӹм ӹлӹ шым иле
s2 шӹц ӹлӹ шыч иле
s3 ӹш ӹлӹ ыш иле
p1 шӹнӓ ӹлӹ ышна иле
p2 шӹдӓ ӹлӹ ышда иле
p3 ӹш ӹлеп ышт иле
s1 шӹм тол шым тол
s2 шӹц тол шыч тол
s3 ӹш тол ыш тол
p1 шӹнӓ тол ышна тол
p2 шӹдӓ тол ышда тол
p3 ӹш толеп ышт тол õšt tol

Simple Past 2, affirmative:
s1 ӹленӓм иленам
s2 ӹленӓт иленат
s3 ӹлен илен
p1 ӹленнӓ иленна
p2 ӹлендӓ иленда
p3 ӹленӹт иленыт
s1 толынам толынам
s2 толынат толынат
s3 толын толын
p1 толынна толынна
p2 толында толында
p3 толыныт толыныт

Simple Past 2, negative *:
s1 ӹлӹделам илен омыл
s2 ӹлӹделат илен отыл
s3 ӹлӹде илен огыл
p1 ӹлӹделна илен о(гы)нал
p2 ӹлӹделда илен о(гы)дал
p3 ӹлӹделыт илен огытыл
s1 толделам толын омыл
s2 толделат толын отыл
s3 толдел толын огыл
p1 толделна толын о(гы)нал
p2 толделда толын о(гы)дал
p3 толделыт толын огытыл

* Formation:

stem
+ negative gerund suffix -де
+ personal suffixes

The reason why the personal suffixes don't make use of front vowels is that they are derived from the verb -ылаш. Although the back vowel -ы- has disappeared, it still influences the pronunciation (and spelling) of the following vowel.


:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-03-05, 22:03

Some conversational phrases

Meadow Mari

Салам! / Привет! Salam! Privet!
= Hi! Hello! (Tatar/Russian loans)
Поро эр! Poro er!
= Good morning!
- поро poro
= good
- эр er
= morning
Поро кече! Poro keče!
= Good morning~day~afternoon!
- кече keče
= day
Поро кас! Poro kas!
= Good evening!
- кас kas
= evening
Поро йӱд! Poro jüd!
= Good night!
- йӱд jüd
= night

Кузе илет? Kuze ilet?
= How are you? (singular/informal)
- кузе kuze
= how
- илет ilet
= you (sg) live / are living
Кузе иледа? Kuze ileda?
= How are you? (plural/formal)
- иледа ileda
= you (pl) live / are living
Илем эркын-эркын. Ilem erkõn-erkõn.
= Fine.
- илем ilem
= I live / am living
- эркын-эркын erkõn-erkõn
= slowly, (quietly, as usual, without problems, OK)
Чеверын! Čeverõn!
= Goodbye.
- чевер čever
= beautiful

Кызытеш! Kõzõteš!
= See you soon.
- кызыт! kõzõt
= now, right now, for the time being

Тау! / Кугу тау! Tau! Kugu tau!
= Thank you! / Thank you very much!
Пеш тауштем! Peš tauštem!
= Thank you very much!
- пеш peš
= very, greatly, to a great extent
- тауштем tauštem < tauštaš
= I thank < to thank
Нимолан таушташ! Nimolan tauštaš!
= You're welcome! (replying to "thank you")
- нимолан nimolan
= for no reason
- таушташ tauštaš
= to thank
Нимолан! Nimolan!
= You're welcome! No problem! (more colloquial)

Могай акше? Mogaj akše?
= How much does it cost?
- могай mogaj
= what (sort of, kind of)
- ак ak
= price
- акше akše
= its price

Кушто улеш ... Kušto uleš ...
= Where is ...?
- кушто kušto
= where (inessive)
- улеш uleš < ulaš
= is < to be
туалет tualet
= toilet
магазин, кевыт magazin / kevõt
= store, shop
автобус остановко avtobus ostanovko
= bus stop (Russian loan, adapted to Mari grammar and vowel harmony: -a > -o)

Тый марла кутырет? Tõj marla kutõret?
= Do you speak Mari?
- тый ... кутырет tõj ... kutõret
= you (sg) speak ...
= do you (sg) speak ...
Те марла кутыреда? Te marla kutõreda?
= Do you speak Mari?
- те ... кутыреда te ... kutõreda
= you (pl) speak ...
= do you (pl) speak ...
марла / марий йылме marla / marij jõlme
= Mari / the Mari language
рушла / руш йылме rušla / ruš jõlme
= Russian / the Russian language
эстонла / эстон йылме estonla / eston jõlme
= Estonian / the Estonian language
финнла / финн йылме finnla / finn jõlme
= Finnish / the Finnish language
татарла татар йылме tatarla / tatar jõlme
= суасла / суас йылме suasla / suas jõlme
= Tatar / the Tatar language
чувашла чуваш йылме čuvašla / čuvaš jõlme
= Chuvash / the Chuvash language
англичанла / англичан йылме angličanla / angličan jõlme
= English / the English language
французла / француз йылме francuzla / francuz jõlme
= French / the French language
немычла / немыч йылме nemõčla / nemõč jõlme
= German / the German language

Мый умылем. Mõj umõlem.
= I understand.
Мый ом умыло. Mõj om umõlo.
= I don't understand.

Тый кушеч улат? Tõj kušeč ulat?
= Where are you (sg) from?
- кушеч kušeč
= where from
- улат ulat
= you are (sg)
Тый кушеч улыда? Tõj kušeč ulõda?
= Where are you (pl) from?
- улыда ulõda
= you are (pl)
Мый Йошкар-Ола гыч улам. Mõj Joškar-Ola gõč ulam.
= I am from Joškar-Ola.
- мый mõj
= I
- Йошкар-Ола Joškar-Ola
= (Capital of Mari El Republic)
- гыч gõč
= from
- улам ulam
= I am
Мыйын лӱмем ... Mõjõn lümem ...
= My name is...
- мыйын mõjõn
= my
- лӱмем < лӱм lümem < lüm
= my name < name

Мöҥö каем. Möngö kajem.
= I'm going home.

Мый ом пале. / Ом пале. Mõj om pale. / Om pale.
= I don't know.
ом om
= I don't
пале < палаш pale < palaš
= know < to know

:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-09-13, 19:29

(mrj) Vowel harmony in Hill Mari:

Front vowelsBack vowelsNeutral
ä ӱ ö ӹа у о ые и

Unlike Meadow Mari, vowel harmony rules generally affect the vowel in the next syllable, regardless of whether a syllable is stressed or unstressed.

Syllable 1Syllable 2
Front vowelFront vowel or neutral vowel
Back vowelBack vowel or neutral vowel
Neutral vowelNeutral vowel or front vowel

(Edit: I made a mistake here, now it should be alright)

Examples:
мӹшкӹр = stomach
мӹшкӹрӹштӹ = in the stomach
фото = photo
фотошты = in the photo
хала = city
халашты = in the city

Exceptions: Some suffixes are not affected by vowel harmony, so their vowel doesn't change. Examples: the plural marker -влä, the derivational suffix -лык, and the emphatic suffix -ок.


(mhr) Vowel harmony in Meadow Mari:

Rounded front vowelsRounded back vowelsUnrounded vowels
ö ӱо уа е и ы э

Vowel harmony in Meadow Mari generally depends on the quality of the stressed stem vowel (unstressed stem vowels don't have an effect on vowel harmony). Stress usually falls on the last syllable of the stem, but there are two main exceptions:
(1) word-final -е, -о, and -ö are unstressed
(2) -ы- is unstressed unless it is not preceded by another syllable

Stressed stem vowelSuffix vowel
Front, roundedö
Back, roundedo
Unroundede


Examples:
мӱшкыр = stomach
мӱшкырыштö = in the stomach
фото = photo
фотошто = in the photo
ола = city
олаште = in the city

bolded = stressed vowel
underlined = vowel affected by harmony rules


:arrow: for comparison

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-09-19, 21:27

Animals, birds

(mhr) Meadow Mari:

animal = янлык / janlõk
ant = кутко /kutko
bear = маска / maska
bee = мӱкш / mükš
beetle = копшаҥе / kopšange
bird = кайык / kajõk
butterfly (1) = лыве / lõve
butterfly (2) = лепене / lepene
cat = пырыс / põrõs
chicken = чыве / čõve
cow = ушкал / uškal
crane = турня / turn'a
cuckoo = куку / kuku
deer = пӱчö / püčö
dog = пий / pij
duck = лудо / ludo
eagle (1) = арыслан(гайык) / arõslan(gajõk)
eagle (2) = карагуш / karaguš
eagle (3) = орлан / orlan
eagle (4) = ошлагайык / ošlagajõk
elk, moose = шордо / šordo
fish = кол / kol
fly = карме / karme
fox = рывыж / rõvõž
frog = ужава / užava
goat = каза / kaza
goose = комбо / kombo
grasshopper = шудышырчык / šudõšõrčõk
hawk = вараш / varaš
hedgehog = шоҥшо / šongšo
horse = имне / imne
jackal = тулвире / tulvire
kitten = пырысиге / põrõsige
ladybug = максымтара, трай / maksõmtara, traj
(details, comparisons)
lamb = пача / pača
lark = турий / turij
moose, elk = шордо / šordo
mosquito = шыҥга / šõngga
mouse = коля / kolja
owl = тумна / tumna
pig = сöсна / sösna
pigeon = кöгöрчен / kögörčen
sheep = шорык / šorõk
snake = кишке / kiške
songbird = мургайык / murgajõk
sparrow = пöрткайык / pörtkajõk
spider = эҥыремыш / engõremõš
squirrel = ур / ur
starling = шырчык / šõrčõk
swallow = вараксим / varaksim
wolf = пире / pire
worm = шукш / šukš

Edit: Added 'squirrel', 'ladybug' and a link to Linguaphile's post on the Cognates and semantic shifts thread.

:arrow: for comparison
Last edited by h34 on 2019-09-28, 19:03, edited 3 times in total.

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Mari

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-09-20, 0:36

h34 wrote:Animals, birds

(mhr) Meadow Mari:

:arrow: for comparison


I'd like to add one:

squirrel = ур / ur

because it's an interesting one for comparisons (I believe it is very close to either ur or orav throughout most branches of Uralic). The Estonian Etymological Dictionary claims that in Mari ур also means "money" or "kopeck" (and that the cognates in Saami, Erzya and Komi also mean both "squirrel" and "money" or "kopeck," supposedly because squirrel pelts were used as a method of payment), but according to the Estonian-Mari dictionary the Mari word meaning "kopeck" is ыр, not ур. :hmm:

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-09-20, 16:15

Linguaphile wrote:The Estonian Etymological Dictionary claims that in Mari ур also means "money" or "kopeck" (and that the cognates in Saami, Erzya and Komi also mean both "squirrel" and "money" or "kopeck," supposedly because squirrel pelts were used as a method of payment), but according to the Estonian-Mari dictionary the Mari word meaning "kopeck" is ыр, not ур. :hmm:

Thanks, that's interesting! I looked up 'ур' and 'ыр' in the Marlamuter dictionary as well to see if there are other varieties (sometimes -у- in eastern dialects corresponds to -ы- in dialects spoken in the west) but the dictionary entry just confirms what you wrote; 'ур' is translated as 'белка/squirrel', and 'ыр' as 'копейка/kopeck' in Hill Mari and Meadow Mari.

But in Erzya (1) and Komi-Zyrian (2), (3) , 'ур' seems to have both meanings: 'squirrel' and 'kopeck'.

h34
Posts: 963
Joined: 2014-12-16, 20:15
Gender: male

Re: Mari

Postby h34 » 2019-10-19, 19:56

Animals and birds in Hill Mari

(Comparison with other Volga-Finnic languages)

mdf = Moksha
myv = Erzya
mrj = Hill Mari *
mhr = Meadow Mari

* Source: http://dict.fu-lab.ru/index.php/index/30.xhtml

mdf ракша rakša
myv ракша rakša
mrj вольык vol'õk
mhr янлык janlõk
= animal


mdf панжам panžam
myv коткудав kotkudav
mrj кыткы kõtkõ
mhr кутко kutko
= ant

mdf офта ofta
myv овто ovto
mrj мöскä möskä
mhr маска maska
= bear

mdf меш, кенди meš, kend'i
myv мекш mekš
mrj мӱкш mükš
mhr мӱкш mükš
= bee

mdf унжа unža
myv унжа unža
mrj капшангы kapšangõ
mhr капшаҥе kapšange
= beetle

mdf нармонь narmon'
myv нармунь narmun'
mrj кек kek
mhr кайык kajõk
= bird

mdf :?:
myv мода мекш moda mekš
mrj пыйылмы põjõlmõ
mhr ошымшӱлыш ošõmšülõš
= bumblebee

mdf мелав(ня) melav(n'a)
myv нимиляв n'imil'av
mrj лӹпӹ lypy
mhr лыве, лепене lõve, lepene
= butterfly

mdf ката kata
myv псака, катка psaka, katka
mrj коти koti
mhr пырыс põrõs
= cat

mdf сараз saraz
myv сараз saraz
mrj цӹвӹ cyvy
mhr чыве čõve
= chicken

mdf тракс, скал traks, skal
myv скал skal
mrj ышкал õškal
mhr ушкал uškal
= cow

mdf карга karga
myv карго kargo
mrj тыртня tõrtn'a
mhr турня turn'a
= crane

mdf варси vars'i
myv варака, варсей varaka, vars'ej
mrj лудыгарак ludõgarak
mhr олагорак olagorak
= crow

mdf куку kuku
myv куко kuko
mrj куку kuku
mhr куку kuku
= cuckoo

mdf сярда s'arda
myv сярдо s'ardo
mrj пучы pučõ
mhr пӱчö püčö
= deer

mdf киска kiska
myv киска, пине kiska, pin'e
mrj пи pi
mhr пий pij
= dog

mdf яксярга jaks'arga
myv яксярго jaks'argo
mrj лыды lõdõ
mhr лудо ludo
= duck

mdf куцькан kuc'kan
myv куцькан kuc'kan
mrj кучкыж kučkõž
mhr ошлагайык ošlagajõk
= eagle

mdf сярда s'arda
myv сярдо s'ardo
mrj шарды šardõ
mhr шордо šordo
= elk, moose

mdf кал kal
myv кал kal
mrj кол kol
mhr кол kol
= fish

mdf кару karu
myv карво karvo
mrj арашӹнгä ara šyngä
mhr карме karme
= fly

mdf келазь kelaz'
myv ривезь rivez'
mrj ӹрвӹж yrvyž
mhr рывыж rõvõž
= fox

mdf ватракш vatrakš
myv ватракш vatrakš
mrj жава žava
mhr ужава užava
= frog

mdf сява, каза s'ava, kaza
myv сея s'eja
mrj кесӹ kesy
mhr каза kaza
= goat

mdf маци mac'i
myv гала, мацей gala, mac'ej
mrj комбы kombõ
mhr комбо kombo
= goose

mdf циледи c'il'ed'i
myv (пакся)цирькунь, таста cir'kun', tasta
mrj цӹрцӹк cyrcyk
mhr шудычырчык šudõčõrčõk
= grasshopper

mdf нумол numol
myv нумоло numolo
mrj морен moren
mhr мераҥ merang
= hare

mdf карьхциган, кавал kar'hc'igan, kaval
myv карциган, кавал karc'igan, kaval
mrj вäрäш väräš
mhr вараш varaš
= hawk

mdf сеель s'ejel'
myv сеель s'ejel'
mrj шӱлӹ šüly
mhr шоҥшо šongšo
= hedgehog

mdf алаша, лишме alaša, lišme
myv алаша, лишме alaša, lišme
mrj имни imni
mhr имне imne
= horse

mdf паксякирхкс, соканармонь paks'akirhks, sokanarmon'
myv норовжорч, соканармунь norovžorč, sokanarmun'
mrj тьыри t'õri
mhr турий turij
= lark

mdf леф lef
myv лев lev
mrj лев lev
mhr лев, арыслан lev, arõslan
= lion

mrj шäкшäльӹ šäkšäl'y
mhr шыҥшале šõngšale
= lizard

mdf сязьган s'az'gan
myv сезьган s'ez'gan
mrj шагыртем šagõrtem
mhr шогертен šogerten
= magpie

mrj лый lõj
mhr луй luj
= marten

mdf сяське s'as'ke
myv сеське s'es'ke
mrj кужынер kužõner
mhr шыҥа šõnga
= mosquito

mdf шеер šejer
myv чеерь čejer'
mrj каля kal'a
mhr коля kol'a
= mouse

mdf корож korož
myv покш, корш pokš, korš
mrj тымана tõmana
mhr тумна tumna
= owl

mdf тува tuva
myv туво tuvo
mrj сасна sasna
mhr сöсна sösna
= pig

mdf гуляна gul'ana
myv гулькине gul'kin'e
mrj кäдӹ kädy
mhr кöгöрчен kögörčen
= pigeon, dove

mdf кранч kranč
myv кренч krenč
mrj курныж kurnõž
mhr курныж kurnõž
= raven

mdf атякш at'akš
myv атякш at'akš
mrj äптäн äptän
mhr агытан agõtan
= rooster

mdf транзи tranz'i
myv транзей, калонь, салы tranz'ej, kalon', saly
mrj колшӹре kolšyre
mhr колшыре kolšõre
= seagull

mdf уча uča
myv реве reve
mrj шарык šarõk
mhr шорык šorõk
= sheep

mdf куй kuj
myv гуй guj
mrj кӹшкӹ kyšky
mhr кишке kiške
= snake

mdf курьхкс kur'hks
myv озязь oz'az'
mrj орави oravi
mhr пöрткайык pörtkajõk
= sparrow

mdf котфон кодай, унжа, инжа kotfon kodaj, unža, inža
myv шанжав šanžav
mrj äнгӹремшӹ ängyremšy
mhr эҥыремыш engõremõš
= spider

mdf ур ur
myv ур ur
mrj ур ur
mhr ур ur
= squirrel

mdf пъсьмар pәs'mar
myv письмар pis'mar
mrj шӹнгӹртӹш šyngyrtyš
mhr шырчык šõrčõk
= starling

mdf пъзьгата, кърьхтякс pәzgata, kәr'ht'aks
myv пизьгата, цянав piz'gata, c'anav
mrj цӹгäк cygäk
mhr вараксим varaksim
= swallow

mdf локсти lokst'i
myv локсей luks'ej
mrj йӱксӹ jüksy
mhr йӱксö jüksö
= swan

mdf кенди kend'i
myv укска ukska
mrj потемшӹ potemšy
mhr почемыш počemõš
= wasp

mdf върьгаз vәr'gaz
myv верьгиз ver'giz
mrj пирӹ piry
mhr пире pire
= wolf

mrj шиштӹ šišty
mhr шиште šiste
= woodpecker

mdf сукс suks
myv сукс suks
mrj шукш šukš
mhr шукш šukš
= worm

:arrow: for comparison

Linguaphile
Posts: 2394
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Mari

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-10-19, 23:17

h34 wrote:Animals and birds in Hill Mari

(Comparison with other Volga-Finnic languages)

mdf = Moksha
myv = Erzya
mrj = Hill Mari *
mhr = Meadow Mari

Cool list, thanks!

I can add one word:
h34 wrote:mrj шäкшäльӹ šäkšäl'y
mhr шыҥшале šõngšale
= lizard

myv = метьказ met'kaz = lizard

source: http://www.eki.ee/dict/ersa/index.cgi?Q=sisalik&F=A&C06=et


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