Well, I'll leave it for somebody else to confirm, for I am not much of a linguist myself, but I think the "ordinary" passive voice (I really don't know what else to call it, but I am sure there is a term for it) is used very rarely. I mean, sentences like "Táto budova bola postavená
/Toto mesto bolo založené
v roku..." (This building was built/This city was founded in...) do exist, but they sound a bit too formal to be used in everyday conversations. Nobody would say "Táto kniha bola napísaná (-týmto autorom-)" (This book was written by (-this author-)), we would go for "Túto knihu napísal (-tento autor-)" ((-This author-) wrote this book) instead.
There is, however, this other construction that is used quite often, which is probably what you were asking about. It sounds like passive (and maybe it really is, gramatically; I must admit I don't know) and is often translated as such into English, because it focuses on what
was done and does not mention who
did it. Examples I can think of right now include:
mi tu dobre"/"Je mi tu dobre" = "I feel good here", "I like it here"
to robí takto" = "It is often done this way"
mi taška", "Rozbilo sa
to", "Stratilo sa
to", ... = "My bag has been torn", "It got broken", "It got lost", ... (literally "It broke itself", "It lost itself"). I think this is the most usual way we use this kind of "indirect passive" (ehm, most likely I am really making a fool of myself now, somebody with more linguistic background please come up with the real term for this). My parents often mock us with "Spravilo sa
to samo, že?" ("It did it itself, right?" (?)) when we break something and say it isn't our fault
So the key word in these constructions is "sa
" - the same "sa
" we use with reflexive verbs, but here it usually means "it", or that we don't know/don't care who, does something.
In cases like "Čaká sa
na XY" ("We are/Everybody is waiting for XY"), "Musí sa
chodiť okolo" ("We have to/Everybody has to go around"), it even means everybody, all of us.
Other more or less common examples of these impersonal constructions:
mi" - ("I don't feel like it" (?))
mi to" - "It seems to me"
, že" - "It turned out that"
na to" - "We/Everybody has forgotten about it"
tam píše písomka" - "They are sitting a test there right now"
prvý výskyt slova v texte, a nahradí sa
týmto výrazom", "Pridá sa
mlieko a celé sa
to mieša niekoľko minúť" - when we describe a working process of some kind
Is it more clear now? Have I answered your question?