Before we begin, just wanted to name a few changes I've made to Halvian since I last posted:
The secondary 3rd singular ending is no longer -d, /d/. In writing prose samples, final /d/ was all over the place. Too similar to English past tense and too harsh-sounding. Stops at the end of a word in Halvian are restricted to the ablative singular -d and a few short words like <ud>, <naid>, etc. Otherwise, final -d is uncommon. No other final stops occur in Halvian aside from the occasional irregular final -t in words like "lat", and smaller function words like "sot". No words in end in /b/, /p/, /k/, or /g/, that I can think of.
1. The new 3rd singular secondary ending is -th, /θ/. Love that /θ/. As one of my favorite sounds of all time, I don't mind it occurring even more in Halvian than it did before.
2. Nominative neuter ending is now -n, not -m. -m is restricted to verbs and to genitive plurals. I think I only introduced one or two neuter nouns so far, so this isn't really that important.Injunctive Mood
The injunctive mood is so-called because it is used in injunctions, i.e. negative commands, or prohibitions. For positive commands, the imperative mood is used instead. The injunctive mood has two other functions which will be discussed after the forms are introduced. 1. Injunctive Mood Form
The injunctive mood looks like an unaugmented imperfect most of the time. However, see No. 4 for an explanation of when it can be an unaugmented aorist.
So, for télmese
, to leave, we have:
Imperfect: atélmem, atélmes, atélmeth, atélmewe, atélmeton, atélmetān, atélmeme, atélmete, atélmen
The injunctive looks like these forms without the initial a-:
télmen2. Injunctive Mood as Injunctive
When used as a true injunctive, the injunctive forms are considered to be present tense by Halvian grammarians. In essence, however, the injunctive mood is tenseless.
The true injunctive forms only occur in the 2nd person.
They are coupled with the prohibitive particle dā
. Dā télmes
. "Do not leave, don't leave, you are not to leave".
Compare with the imperative form:
Télme. "Leave., Get out., Get lost."
(To say "télme" to someone is considered quite rude
)3. Injunctive Mood as Intentional
The other function of the injunctive mood is to show intention, typically translated with "shall" or "intend to". This form only occurs in the 1st person.Télmem gonō
. "I intend to leave soon." "I shall be leaving soon."
gonō - adv. "soon"
The future tense can also be used here. However, the injunctive expresses stronger intention than the future. The injunctive is also considered more formal.4. Injunctive in Sequences of Verbs
The third function of the injunctive forms is in long strings of past tense verbs (either imperfect or aorist). The first verb in such a string or sequence will be in the imperfect or aorist form, however the rest of the verbs will be injunctive, as either an unaugmented imperfect or aorist. Though they are in the injunctive form, they really carry no injunctive meaning.
Atóteth, zin agébrith, amnáttath, pes atólmeth.
"He came, he spoke to me, he became angry, then he left".
In the above sentence, all verb forms are aorist. However, in less formal writing, sometimes the injunctive aorist forms will be used in place of the true aorist in all the verbs of a string of verbs except for the first one. Thus the sentence can be (with the exact same meaning):
Atóteth, zi gébrith
, pes tólmeth
tótese - to come
gábrise - to speak
zi(n) - dat. of 1st person pronoun *zin is a special form used before vowels. It is optional.
menáttase - to become angry (ménos + -tt- inchoative infix).
pes - adv. "then, and then"
This use is mainly used to save time. It is simply the aorist forms without the a-. The same thing occurs in a string of imperfects, but with the imperfect injunctive forms. It is considered somewhat informal. It occurs rarely in writing, but often in speech.5. Injunctive as Gnomic
The final use of the injunctive is in a gnomic sense. Here the injunctive is again considered to be in the present tense. In English, we often express gnomic sentences by removing an article or demonstrative, such as "The birds are flying" vs. "Birds fly (in general)".
Halvian has no articles, but it can use the injunctive mood to express such "truisms".
Hōres dóndanti. "The birds are flying".
. "Birds fly (that's just what they do)".
hōr - bird
dóndase - to fly
So that covers the injunctive mood
Koko wrote:Do you have any interrogative mood? Or does Halvian mark questions with tone and/or particles?
Halvian usually marks questions (in the absence of question words) with particles. The question particles are ve
The question particles can either be fronted or encliticized on the first word of the sentence (which can be any word, but often the verb).
Is the girl in the house?Ve
duéna véquai lat?
or, more commonly
* duéna véquai?
*Note that "lat" gains back its missing -i when a word is encliticized on it.
The negative question marker ven
expects the answer "no". Ven
duéna véquai lat? or Látiven
The girl isn't in the house, is she?