Gonna take a little break from nouns to talk about verbs and personal endings. Personal Endings
There are many sets of personal endings in Halvian and they get confusing. There are separate active, middle, passive, and perfect personal endings (though many of them are similar). For now, I am going to talk about the active endings.
The active endings are based directly on PIE. Like PIE, there are primary and secondary endings. Primary endings are used in the present and future tenses of most moods, secondary endings are used everywhere else. The secondary endings, despite their name, are essentially the default.
There are separate endings for singular, dual, and plural with no syncretism.Primary Endings
The primary endings are based on PIE and Sanskrit. They contain an -i in the singular, which is a "here and now" particle.
The singular primary endings are:
1st person: -mi
2nd person: -si
3rd person: -ti
The primary endings in the present tense active:mélami
- I lovemélasi
- you lovemélati
- he/she/it loves
The dual primary endings are:
1st person: -ues
2nd person: -thos
3rd person: -tes
Unlike the singular, the dual forms do not show the -i particle. The -i particle was probably only originally in the singular, but it has spread to the third plural as you will see. mélaues
- we [both] lovemélathos
- you [both] lovemélates
- they [both] love
The plural primary endings are:
1st person: -mes
2nd person: -the
3rd person: -nti
I realize some information I gave above on léthai is wrong, and I will fix it. Even I get the endings confused sometimes.
Notice how the accent remains fixed throughout the whole present paradigm:mélames
- we lovemélathe
- you [all] lovemélanti
- they loveSecondary Endings
The secondary endings are used in the past tenses. They are the default endings and often lack an -s or -i where the primary endings have them. The primary endings are derived from the secondary endings.
The singular secondary endings:
1st person: -m
2nd person: -s
3rd person: -th
The -d ending is based on that of Oscan and archaic Latin. I prefer -d anyway because -t would be too similar to Classical Latin.
I will use the imperfect here. Note that the past tenses have a prefix, a-, the augment. Note also the accent shift:amélam
- I was loving, would loveamélas
- you were loving, would loveamélath
- he/she/it was loving, would love
The augment is usually not accented. However, if the root does not contain a vowel (such as in the zero grade), then the augment is accented by default.
The dual secondary endings:
1st person: -we
2nd person: -ton
3rd person: -tān
The imperfect active in the dual:amélawe
- we [both] were loving, would loveamélaton
- you [both] were loving, would loveamélatān
- they [both] were loving, would love
The plural secondary endings:
1st person: -me
2nd person: -te
3rd person: -namélame
- we were loving, would loveamélate
- you [all] were loving, would loveamélan
- they were loving, would love
Well, there you the primary and secondary active endings
Should help verbal forms make more sense in the future