Nouns! And declenstions, of course. I can't go without genders (or noun classes), numbers, and cases. Numbers:
singular, dual, paucal, and plural. Needless to say, singular is for one entity, dual for two, paucal for entities between (inclusive) three and ten/eleven/twelve, and plural for anything above ten/eleven/twelve. Cases:
nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, stative prepositional, and active prepositional. The stative prepositional case is used with prepositions of place (eg. in, on, at) and the active prepositional case is used with prepositions of movement (eg. into, onto, towards). The majority of the prepositions can go with either or both prepositional cases, but there are some that can (also) go with genitive, dative, or accusative. Genders:
masculine, feminine, common, and neuter. The first two should be more or less self-explanatory, the common gender consists of animate entities where the sex is unimportant or can't be easily determined, the neuter gender is for inanimate entities. Of course, there are exceptions and words may not always belong to the most logical gender. An example would be the word for water, era
, which is common, even though logically it should be neuter. Declensions:
four declensions, presented below. Where there are two possibilities, the first always corresponds to the first ending in nominative singular, and the second possibility corresponds to the second ending in nom. sg. (Scroll to the bottom of the post to see additional notes regarding declensions if you don't want to go through the tables.)Masculine declension or the E/I-declension:
Feminine declension or the O/U-declension:
Common declension or the A/Y-declension:
Neuter declension or the N/S-declension:
- when the nouns in the masculine, feminine, or common (MFC) declensions end in -Vi or -Vu diphthongs, the non-vocallic part changes, -i
, and -u
; the suffixes stay the same; the -iV and -uV diphthongs are regular (eg. -ie belongs to the masculine declension).
- if the last single consonant before the monophthong in nom. sg. in the MFC declensions can be lengthened, then it is lengthened for all forms of the -i, -u, and -y paradigms where there is no difference between the two paradigms within the same declension (there are some exceptions where the lengthening doesn't occur); the consonants are: n, p, t, k
, and they change to nn, pp, tt, kk
- similarly to the above change, if the last consonant before the monophthong in nom. sg. in the MFC declensions is long (written as two consonants), then the long consonant is shortened; the consonants are: nn, pp, tt, kk,
, and they change to m, b, d, g,
- nouns ending in -s (neuter declension) change to -t in the stative prepositional case (the change is also shown in the paradigm above).
- nouns ending in a stressed word-final vowel belong to the neuter declension and if the suffix is the same as the stressed vowel, then the stem vowel is replaced by the suffix (which becomes stressed), if the vowel is different, then it is simply added to the (unaltered) stem.
Well, that's all regarding nouns, I think. I will probably make more detailed rules regarding what (types of) words belong to which gender, but the main stuff is here. Adjectives need some tweaking now, and verbs as well. I'll post one or the other as soon as I have things set. Haven't started working on my pronouns or numerals, yet, though.