Ubalimur language

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Massimiliano B
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Joined: 2009-03-31, 10:01
Real Name: Massimiliano Bavieri
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Location: Lucca
Country: IT Italy (Italia)

Ubalimur language

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-09-11, 23:54

Verbal desinences and cases, as well as possessive prefixes, respect consonantal harmomy i.e. they cannot contain bilabial+bilabial or dental+dental successions.
This harmony also involves the behavior of adjectives (as I will explain later).
Each verbal desinence and each case also have two forms - one beginning with a bilabial consonant, and the other beginning with a dental consonant - in order to prevent the formation, between the last consonant of the noun or verb and the first consonant of the desinence, of a succession of dental+dental or bilabial+bilabial when juxtaposing a desinences with the verb or noun. See verbs and nouns below.


Every word begins with a vowel.
The stress is on the last syllble.

Consonants
b /b/
k /k/
l /l/
m /m/
p /p/
r /r/
s /s/
t /t/
Final consonants: b, l, m, r, s, t

Vowels
a /a/
e /e/
i /i/
o /o/
u /u/
aa /a:/
ii /i:/
Final vowels: a, i, (o)

Order: SOV


Moras:
a
ab, ak (never final), al, am, ap (never final), ar, as, at (never final)
aum, aur, aut,
em (never final)
i,
ib (never final), im, is
ia, iais (never final, but exists as a single word), iau (never final, but exists as a single word) , iaub, iaur (never final, but exists as a single word),
iaut, iut
o (final only in ubo)
oub (never final, ), oam (final only in uboam)
ub, um, ur, us, ut.


Verb conjugation:
There are two conjugations, depending on the last consonant of the verb. If a verb ends in a bilabial consonant, the desinences habe a dental as first consonant. If a verb ends in a dental consonant, the desinence has a bilabial consonant as first consonant.

I group - endings: -ab, -am, -aum, -im, -ub, -um (bilabials)

PRESENT
alam-ut = I speak
alam-ur = you speak
alam-isam = he speaks
alam-ar = we speak
alam-asab = you speak
alam-atam = they speak


II group - endings: -al, -ar, -as, -aur, -aut, -is, -iaut, -iut, -ur, -us, -ut (dentals)

PRESENT
imut-ub = I think
imut-um = you think
imut-imas = he thinks
imut-ab = we think
imut-abas = you think
imut-amat = they think


I group

PAST
alam-aut = I have spoken
alam-aur = you have spoken
alam-isum = he has spoken
alam-arub = we have spoken
alam-asubal = you have spoken
alam-atum = they have spoken


II group

PAST
imut-aub = I have thought
imut-aum = you have thought
imut-imus = he has thought
imut-abur = we have thought
imut-abusam = you have thought
imut-amut = they have thought


I group:

FUTURE
alam-autub = I will speak
alam-aurum = you will speak
alam-usum = he will speak
alam-urubaut = we will speak
alam-usubaur = you will speak
alam-utumus = they will speak


II group

FUTURE
imut-aubut = I will think
imut-aumur = you will think
imut-umus = he will think
imut-uburaub = we will think
imut-ubusaum = you will think
imut-umutub = they will think

Some verbs that are "highly impure"- that is, that have all the syllables of the same series of dental or bilabial - mutate the last syllable by dissimilation: the dental -l, -r, -s mutates to -am, while the dental -t mutates to -ab, the bilabial -m mutates to -ur, the bilabial -b mutates to -ut. This rule apply only to verbs containing three or more consonants.

Ex.:
1a. utalarat (to walk) becomes utalarab and takes the personal desinence beginning with a dental consonant:

utalarab-ut = I walk
utalarab-ur = you walk
utalarab-isam = he walks
utalarab-ar = we walk
utalarab-asab = you all walk
utalarab-atam = they walk


1b. asar (to enter) is not "highly impure", since it has only two consonants, so it doesn't dissimilate:
asar-ub = I enter

2a. umapim (to write) is "highly impure", so it becomes umapur and take the personal desinences beginning with a bilabial consonant:
umapur-ub = I write

2b. imab (to think) is not "highly impure", since it has only two consonants, so it doesn't dissimilate:
imab-ut = I think

- Please note that for instance a verb like imaralut (to pass) is not "highly impure", since not all its consonants are of the same series (dentals or bilabials) so it doesn't dissimilate


Verb negation: -ak- between the root and the desinences - which are not affected by the presence of -ak-:
alamakut = I do not speak
imutakabusam = you all have not thought


Personal pronouns:
utub = I
imar = you
apal = he, she, it
utam = we
apur = you all
ibalam = they
They conjugate following the rules of the substantives (see below)

Possessives
is- / ib- = my
umal- /ulam- = your
as- / ap- = his
umut- / utum- = ours
apal- / alab- = yours
ibas- / isam- = theirs

urusam = brother
iburusam = my brother
ulamurusam = your brother
apurusam = your brother
utumurusam = our brother
alaburusam = your brother
isamurusam = their brother

atum = city
ibatum = my city
ulamatum = your city
apatum = your city
utumatum = our city
alabatum = your city
isamatum = their city


Determinative article:
ubur / urub = the
ubur + atum = the city
urub + urusam = the brother.
Indeterminative article:
isia = a / an
isia atum = a city


Substantives
There are 2 groups of substantives:
1. Substantives which end in bilabial (-b and -m): many names of people (e.g. urusam = brother) and abstract concepts: amim: beauty). Plural nominative: -ut

2. Substantives which end in dental (-l, -r, -s, -t): many names of inanimate or artificial objects (e.g. amutalur: stick) and of animals, plants, and weather phenomena (isutal: apple tree). Plural nominative: -am

Cases: they change depending on the group to which the noun belongs (according to the bilabial-dental rule)
The plural forms by adding the ending -ut to cases ending in bilabial, and the ending -am to cases ending in dental.


Conjugation of nouns of the first group (nouns in bilabial)

-isub = direct object (accusative); plur. -isubut
-al = -in, to (state in place); plur. -alam
-iaut = to, in, from (motion to place); plur. -iautam
-ais = from (motion from place); plur. -aisam
-ur = with (means or instrument); plur. -uram
-ia = with (company); plur. -iaut
-iut = of (possessor); plur. -iutam
-aur = on (place); plur. -auram
-usim = under; plur. -usimut
-atabur = without; plur. -ataburam
-arub = (equative); plur. -arubut
-asumur = for (benefactive); plur. -asumuram
-utub = against (malefactive); plur. -utubut
-atum = through (motion for place); plur. -atumut
-aram = (essive); plur. -aramut
-urumal = (partitive); plur. -urumalam

Ex.
asutam (sister): subject (nominative); plur. asutam-ut
asutam-isub; plur. asutam-isubut
asutam-al; plur. asutam-alam
asutam-iaut; plur. asutam-iautam
asutam-ais; plur. asutam-aisam
asutam-ur; plur. asutam-uram
asutam-ia; plur. asutam-iaut
asutam-iut; plur. asutam-iutam
asutam-aur; plur. asutam-auram
asutam-usim; plur. asutam-usimut
asutam-atabur; plur. asutam-ataburam
asutam-arub; plur. asutam-arubut
asutam-asumur; plur. asutam-asumuram
asutam-utub; plur. asutam-utubut
asutam-atum; plur. asutam-atumut
asutam-aram; plur. asutam-aramut
asutam-urumal; plur. asutam-urumalam


Conjugation of nouns of the second group (nouns in dental):
-ibis = direct object (accusative); plur. -ibisam
-am = -in, to (state in place); plur. -amut
-iaub = to, in, from (motion to place); plur. -iaubut
-aim = from (motion from place); plur. -aimut
-um = with (means or instrument); plur. -umut
-ia = with (company); plur. -iam
-iub = of (possessor); plur. -iubut
-aum = on (place); plur. -aumut
-umis = under; plur. -umisam
-abatum = without; plur. -abatumut
-apur = (equative); plur. apuram
-amusub = for (benefactive); plur. -amusubut
-ubut = against (malefactive); plur. -ubutam
-amut = through (motion through place); plur.-amutam
-amar = (essive); plur. -amaram
-umurab = (partitive); plur. -umurabut

Ex.:
amutapur-ibis; plur. amutapur-ibisam
amutapur-am; plur. amutapur-amut
amutapur-iaub
amutapur-aim
amutapur-um
amutapur-ia
amutapur-iub
amutapur-aum
amutapur-umis
amutapur-abatum
amutapur-apur
amutapur-amusub
amutapur-ubut
amutapur-amut
amutapur-amar (essive)
amutapur-umurab


If the noun is "highly impure" (when all its consonants are dentals or bilabials ) it mutates the last syllable by dissimilation: the dental -l, -r, -s mutates to -am, the dental -t mutates to -ab; the bilabial -m mutates to -ur, the bilabial -b mutates to -ut. This rule does not apply to the plural nominative case. This rule apply only to nouns containing three or more consonants.

Ex.:
ubapam (uncle) becomes ubapur and takes the cases in bilabial:
ubapam = subject
ubapur-ibis = object
ubapur-am
etc..
Plur. ubapamal (the stem doesn't dissimilate) - but
ubapur-ibisam (obj. plur.)


Personal pronouns follow the declination of the nouns:
utub = I
utubisub
utubal
utubiaut
utubais
utubur
utubia
utubiut
utubaur
utubusim
utubatabur
utubarub
utubasumur
utubutub
utubatum
utubaram
utuburumal

Adjectives
They precede nouns. They take cases if used as nouns.
If they belong to the group of pure adjectives (in other words, they respect consonantal harmony, or have at most a series of two dentals or bilabial in a row, but not starting from the last consonant) they do not undergo any change when preceding the noun to which they refer.
Ex.
isubal = fast
umabis = deep
These adjectives do not have 2 consonants - starting from the last one - in a row of the same series (dental+dental or bilabial+bilabial) so they are pure and never mutate:
Isubal alamur = fast animal
Isubal umuris = fast dog
Umabis arum = deep hole
Isubal umurisibis ulamatub = I see a fast dog (obj.) (ulamat = to see)

If an adjective belongs to the group of "impure" adjectives (which do not respect consonantal harmony in having, starting from the last syllable, at least 2 bilabials or two dentals one after the other) then it mutates the last consonant, to dissimilate it from the first consonant of the noun it refers to. The -l, -r, -s dentals mutate to -am, while the -t dental mutates to -ab. The bilabial -m mutates to -ur, the bilabial -b mutates to -ut.

Ex.

imural ("low" - impure, because, from the last syllable, there are the two dentals "r" and "l"), when followed by a word beginning with dental (e.g., alamus "mountain") becomes imuram:
imuram alamus: low mountain.
This happens to eliminate the succession of the three dentals -r, -l and -l: (imuRaL aLamus)

amulut ("high" - impure, because, beginning with the last syllable, there are the two dentals "l" and "t" in succession), if followed by word beginning with dental (e.g., alamus "mountain") becomes amulab:
amulab alamus = great mountain.
This happens to eliminate the succession of the thtee dentals -l, -t and -l (amuLuT aLamus).
However, if an impure adjective in dental is followed by a noun beginning with bilabial, it does not change:
amulut abar = great room

murubam ("new" - impure because starting from the last syllable there are the two bilabials-b and -m) if followed by a noun beginning with bilabial, it becomes murubur:
murubur amurat (new book)
atakapub ("old", impure, because of the succession p-b) becomes atakaput:
Atakaput amurat (old book)

However, if an impure adjective in bilabial consonant is followed by a noun beginning with a dental consonant, it does not change:
Murubam utarum = new house.


Example of the use of adjectives and noun declination:
In a great city = Isia umusut apuram. (isia = a/an)
Through a large city = Isia umusut apuramut.

[Utub (I)] umusut (big) apuram (city-in) atakalub (alive-I)



Adverbs end in -ut / -ub
utakam = fast
utakamut = in a fast way
isumar= slow
isumarub = slowly




Human declaration
Art. 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and must act toward one another in the spirit of brotherhood.

Utapam (utapur) = all
aluram = human
atiaalar-am = being-s
umural = to be born
alisut = free
umaliautub-i = equal-and
alamiaut = dignity
utakamalurus-i = right-and
ubal = they
umubasal = to possess
umuramaris = reason
asal-i = conscience-and
uia = and
isamalut = duty
alemam = to act
uram = way
amutalur = mutual
isurut = spirit
urusamut = brotherly

Utapam (all) aluram (human) atiaalar-am (being-pl) alisut-am (free-pl) umaliautub-ut-i (equal-pl-conj) alamiaut-amar (dignity-essive) utakamalurus-amar-am-i (right-essive-plur-conj) umural-amat (born-3.pers.plur.). Ubal (they) umuramaris-ibis (reason-acc.) asal-ibis-i (consciousness-acc.-conj) umubasal-amat (possess-IIIplur) uia (and) amutalur (mutual) uram-ur (manner-with) alemam (act) isamalut-abal (must-IIIplur) urusam-ut (brother-ly) isurut-um (spirit-with)
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2022-09-18, 10:32, edited 11 times in total.

User avatar
Massimiliano B
Posts: 1924
Joined: 2009-03-31, 10:01
Real Name: Massimiliano Bavieri
Gender: male
Location: Lucca
Country: IT Italy (Italia)

Re: Ubalimur language

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-09-17, 18:00

The past tense I indicated in the previous post is a recent past - it is used at most to talk about events that happened a week ago.
For events that happened before a week ago, past tense II (distant past) is used.

I group

PAST I (recent past)
alam-aut = I have spoken
alam-aur = you have spoken
alam-isum = he has spoken
alam-arub = we have spoken
alam-asubal = you have spoken
alam-atum = they have spoken

PAST II (distant past) (-ut / -um)
alam-aut-um = I spoke
alam-aur-um = you spoke
alam-isum-ut = he / she spoke
alam-arub-ut = we spoke
alam-asubal-um = you all spoke
alam-atum-ut = they spoke


II group

PAST I (recent past)
imut-aub = I have thought
imut-aum = you have thought
imut-imus = he has thought
imut-abur = we have thought
imut-abusam = you have thought
imut-amut = they have thought

PAST II (distant past) (-ut / -um)
imut-aub-ut = I thought
imut-aum-ut = you thought
imut-imus-um = he / she thought
imut-abur-um = we thought
imut-abusam-ut = you all thought
imut-amut-um = they thought


Past I and past II are used for events that have a relation to the moment of elocution. For example, if I say "last year I broke my leg" and I still have some pain in my leg due to this accident, I will use the past II.
If the past event no longer has any relation to the present, regardless of when it occurred, another type of past tense is used (past tense III). If I broke my leg two months ago and now I am fine, I use the past III, because that event has no relations with my present condition:

First group (theme in bilabial)

Past III (prefix ar- / am-, without suffixes -ut / -um)

am-alam-aut = I spoke
am-alam-aur = you spoke
am-alam-isum = he / she spoke
am-alam-arub = we spoke
am-alam-asubal = you all spoke
am-alam-atum = they spoke


Second group (theme in dental)

Past III (prefix ar- / am-, without suffixes -ut / -um)

ut-imut-aub = I thought
ut-imut-aum = you thought
ut-imut-imus = he / she thought
ut-imut-abur = we thought
ut-imut-abusam = you all thought
ut-imut-amut = they thought


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