Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

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Massimiliano B
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Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-03, 15:05

Palindrian language (Palinnilap in Palindrian) - (sketch, to be reviewed)

This is a palindrome conlang, in which every word is a palindrome.

Word order: SOV / SVOVS

It has circumfix instead of prepositions o postpositions, and particles before verbs indicating time and mood.

Letters are pronounced like in Estonian, while y is /j/, w is /w/, š is /ʃ/, and č is /tʃ/.

Adjectives come after the noun they refer to (one exception are demonstratives)

Personal pronouns (subject, object, and indirect object) - they can be omitted if it is clear from the context which is the person we are talking about or which is the subject:
asa = I
öbbö = you (singular)
kuk = he / she
pallap = we
ükü = you (plural)
yoppoy = they

akika = to eat
üdaadü = meat

Asa üdaadü akika = I eat meat

t - t = in
ikki = home
piip = to be

Asa tikkit piip = I in-house-in am
Öbbö tikkit üdaadü akika = you in-home-in meat eat

Magogam = capital of the country of Šitiš, on the planet Čič, where Palindrians live.

apopa = drink
lükkül = glass
döyöd = water

Asa lükkül döyöd apopa = I glass water drink.

okatako = to sleep
atta = when
talat = now
ümmü = no
bab = where
suus = why
bib = because
čaač = good
ölülö = bread
šaaš = to want

Asa ölülö akika šaaš = I bread eat want.
Suus okatako šaaš? = Why sleep [you] want?

inooni = to go
goyog = sea
wapaw = to know
üllöllü = city
s-s = to (motion to place)

Asa okatako = I sleep
Asa okatako inooni = I sleep go (= I go to sleep)
Bab öbbö inooni? = Where you go?
Asa sgoyogs inooni = I to-sea-to go
Atta inooni? =When (you) go?
Talat inooni šaaš = (I) now go want.
Asa süllöllüs inooni = I to-city-to go

tukkut = to work
učaaču = restaurant

Öbbö bab tukkut? = You where do you work?
Asa tučaačut tukkut = I in-restaurant-in work

nan =here
ökö = there
dupopud = certainly
appa = yes
apa = yesterday

Yoppoy ökö dupopud tukkut = They there certainly work

[One of] The longest word[s] is:
Öttaluparumurapulattö = indescribable

ukawaku = hello
šooš = how
oppappo = to feel
kadak = well
Ukawaku, šooš öbbö oppappo? = hello, how you feel?
Asa kadak oppappo == I well feel

wanaw = mountain
čuč = not
aa-aa = with
y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective
kuuk = friend

Öbbö swanaws inooni? = You to-mountain-to go? (Do you go to the mountain?)
Ümmü, čuč swanaws inooni. Asa sgoyogs inooni, yasay aakuukaa = No, not to-mountain-to go. I to-sea-to go, my with-friend-with (No, I don't go to the mountain, I go to the sea with my friend).

ippi = pleasure / to like
offo = this/a
foof = that/a

Asa ölülö ippi = I bread like
Asa offo ölülö čuč ippi = I this bread not like

pinnip = man
ukku = woman
sawiwas = beautiful/a
Foof, wanaw sawiwas piip = That, beautiful mountain is (=that is a beautiful mountain)

löpüpöl = to come
iti = also, too
sitötis = tired

Suus čuč löpüpöl iti öbbö? = Why not you come too?
Asa čuč löpüpöl bib sitötis piip = I not come because tired am
Ükü aapallapaa čuč löpüpöl? = You with-us-with not come?

šapaš = today
opollopo = tomorrow
konnok = day
yaay = good
Šapaš kokkok sawiwas piip = Today day good is.
Opollopo nan čuč oppappo šaaš = Tomorrow here I don't want to stay.
Konnok yaay! = Good day!


gollog = never

pattunuttap = evidently

Asa gollog üdaadü akika = I never meat eat

paluffulap = in spite of
öllö = perhaps

talülat = name
nünnün = how
Yöbböy talülat nünnün piip? = Your name how is?
Yasay talülat Ollallo piip = My name Ollallo is.

möllöm = to live
ulu = and, how about
Öbbö bab möllöm? = You where do you live?
Asa tMagogamt möllöm. Ulu öbbö? = I a-Magogam I live. How about you?
Iti asa = Also I.

öllillö = to work
foninof = to think
miččim = to speak
Asa palinnilap miččim = I palindrian speak.

amaülüama = belief
ammumma = to believe
Asa čuč ammumma öbbö offo foninof= I do not believe you this think.

mugum = city
bölökölöb = state/nation

Yoppoy offo tmugumt möllöm = They this in-city-in inhabit
Iti pallap! = so do we!

billib? = how much?


One of the longest words in palindrian:
čipöllökakkaköllöpič = walking slowly staggering
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2022-09-17, 14:22, edited 13 times in total.

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Linguaphile » 2022-08-03, 17:55

Massimiliano B wrote:This is a palindrome conlang, in which every word is a palindrome.

It has circumfix instead of prepositions o postpositions

Interesting concept and fun to read your post!

Massimiliano B wrote:yoppoy = they

Massimiliano B wrote:y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective

yyoppoyy /j:op:oj:/ = their?


Massimiliano B wrote:tukkut = to work

&
Massimiliano B wrote:ukku = woman
Massimiliano B wrote:t - t = in
tukkut = "to work" & "in woman"
:hmm:
Not that you shouldn't have homonyms, of course, but you're definitely going to end up with more like that.

Massimiliano B wrote:The longest word is:
Öttaluparumurapulattö = indescribable

Do individual parts of that word have meaning, like a (word-central :silly: ) part that means "describe" and a circumfix that makes it negative or makes it an adjective?

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-03, 18:19

Linguaphile wrote:
Massimiliano B wrote:This is a palindrome conlang, in which every word is a palindrome.

It has circumfix instead of prepositions o postpositions

Interesting concept and fun to read your post!

Massimiliano B wrote:yoppoy = they

Massimiliano B wrote:y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective

yyoppoyy /j:op:oj:/ = their?


Massimiliano B wrote:tukkut = to work

&
Massimiliano B wrote:ukku = woman
Massimiliano B wrote:t - t = in
tukkut = "to work" & "in woman"
:hmm:
Not that you shouldn't have homonyms, of course, but you're definitely going to end up with more like that.

Massimiliano B wrote:The longest word is:
Öttaluparumurapulattö = indescribable

Do individual parts of that word have meaning, like a (word-central :silly: ) part that means "describe" and a circumfix that makes it negative or makes it an adjective?


I was aware of the problem with yoppoy, but I hadn't realized that tukkut has two different meanings. But I could say that you would distinguish the two meanings by the context.
About yoppoy, my idea is that we could say yiyoppoyiy, with an epenthetic-circumpositioned -i-.

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Linguaphile » 2022-08-03, 18:57

Massimiliano B wrote:
Massimiliano B wrote:yoppoy = they

Massimiliano B wrote:y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective

yyoppoyy /j:op:oj:/ = their?
...
I was aware of the problem with yoppoy, but I hadn't realized that tukkut has two different meanings. But I could say that you would distinguish the two meanings by the context.
About yoppoy, my idea is that we could say yiyoppoyiy, with an epenthetic-circumpositioned -i-.

Well, you really could just leave it as yyoppoyy, too. For example Estonian does have jj in some illative forms (majja = into the house, ojja = into the creek). I do have to say that /j:op:oj:/ sounds like it should be some sort of onomatopoeia for expressing surprise or jumping/falling movements, though (and mentally for some reason I'm imagining the /p:/ as an Estonian-style overlong consonant instead of long: :silly: "They were just walking along the pier and then suddenly - yyopppoyy! /j:op::oj:/- they fell into the water!")

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-03, 20:31

Linguaphile wrote:
Massimiliano B wrote:The longest word is:
Öttaluparumurapulattö = indescribable

Do individual parts of that word have meaning, like a (word-central :silly: ) part that means "describe" and a circumfix that makes it negative or makes it an adjective?


One concept that I would like to develop for this conlang is the use of lexical circumfixes (like the lexical suffixes of Salishan languages), that is a circumfix with a lexical content. For instance, from apopa (to drink) I could derive the lexical circumfix ap/pa, and say that a sentence like "I drink water" could be this one: Asa apdöyödpa (I drink-water-drink).

So, in order to answer to your question, I would say that the central part of öttaluparumurapulattö, which is -rumur-, has to convey the core meaning of the adjective "indescribable", which is "describe", and that öttalupa/apulattö (or ötta/lupa-apul/atto) are lexical circumfixes conveying certain semantic content. I would say that ötta-attö means in-, and that lupa-apul corresponds to -ble. So the world literally means in-ble-describe-ble-in.

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Linguaphile » 2022-08-03, 22:25

Massimiliano B wrote:So, in order to answer to your question, I would say that the central part of öttaluparumurapulattö, which is -rumur-, has to convey the core meaning of the adjective "indescribable", which is "describe", and that öttalupa/apulattö (or ötta/lupa-apul/atto) are lexical circumfixes conveying certain semantic content. I would say that ötta-attö means in-, and that lupa-apul corresponds to -ble. So the world literally means in-ble-describe-ble-in.

Cool, I hadn't thought about the thing with verb, like apdöyödpa from apopa (cool!), but the parts of 'indescribable' are exactly what I'd imagined when I saw your earlier explanation. I like it!

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-03, 23:47

Linguaphile wrote:
Massimiliano B wrote:
Massimiliano B wrote:yoppoy = they

Massimiliano B wrote:y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective

yyoppoyy /j:op:oj:/ = their?
...
I was aware of the problem with yoppoy, but I hadn't realized that tukkut has two different meanings. But I could say that you would distinguish the two meanings by the context.
About yoppoy, my idea is that we could say yiyoppoyiy, with an epenthetic-circumpositioned -i-.

Well, you really could just leave it as yyoppoyy, too. For example Estonian does have jj in some illative forms (majja = into the house, ojja = into the creek). I do have to say that /j:op:oj:/ sounds like it should be some sort of onomatopoeia for expressing surprise or jumping/falling movements, though (and mentally for some reason I'm imagining the /p:/ as an Estonian-style overlong consonant instead of long: :silly: "They were just walking along the pier and then suddenly - yyopppoyy! /j:op::oj:/- they fell into the water!")


Is Estonian majja pronounced /maj:a/? I could do the same with Palindrian.

About the onomatopoeia implied by yoppoy, I have to say that for this conlang I tried to invent words thay have clumsy and funny sounds (at least for me and for an Italian speaker), which can be interpreted as onomatopoeia.

Double consonants are very long in this conlang, like the ones in Estonian!

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Linguaphile » 2022-08-04, 0:36

Massimiliano B wrote:Is Estonian majja pronounced /maj:a/? I could do the same with Palindrian.

Actually /maija/

Massimiliano B wrote:About the onomatopoeia implied by yoppoy, I have to say that for this conlang I tried to invent words thay have clumsy and funny sounds (at least for me and for an Italian speaker), which can be interpreted as onomatopoeia.

Double consonants are very long in this conlang, like the ones in Estonian!

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-04, 10:43

Every verb and noun have a correspondent circumfix. Example:
akika = to eat; circumfix: ak-ka.
ölülö = bread; circumfix: öl-lö.
Verbal circumfixes are more used than noun circumfixes: it is more common to see a noun surrounded by a verbal circumfix than to see a verb surrounded by a noun circumfix.
If I want to say "I eat bread" I can say both "Asa akölülöka (I eat-bread-eat)" or "Asa ölakikalö" (I bread-eat-bread). But I can also say "Asa ölülö akika" (I bread eat), with the complete words. Since this conlang is pro-drop, I can also say akölülöka, ölakikalö, or ölülö akika, if it is clear from the context who is the subject. For instance, if someone asks me: "Öbbö pollop akika?" (You what eat (now)? = "What are you eating?") (pollop = what), I can answer: "Ölülö akika", or just only "Akika". I cannot use the forms with lexical circumfixes here, because they convey the sense of repeted or habitual action.
Example:
"Öbbö ullu konnok ufu akpollopka?" "You every day past eat-what-eat?" (What did you eat every day?") (ullu: every; ufu: past tense marker); answer: "Ufu akölülöka", or "Ufu ölakikalö".
But:
"Öbbö limmil pollop ufu akika?" (You yesterday what past eat?), I will answer "Ölülö ufu akika" (bread past eat) (I ate bread)

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-05, 13:25

Numbers (to be reviewed)

ollo = zero
ollo ini bub = 0.5 [also f-f or fi-if = 0.5 (from fuf = 1)]; ini = point.
fuf / fu-uf = one
mattam / mat-tam = two
ommo / om-mo= three
goog / go-og = four
bub /bu-ub = five
ata / at-ta = six
spiips /spi-ips= seven
lappal / lap-pal = eight
smams / sma-ams = nine
pop / po-op = ten
fupopuf = eleven [from fu-uf (= 1) + pop (=10)]
matpoptam = 12 (2+10)
ompopmo = 13 (3+10)
gopopog = 14 (4+10)
bupopub = 15 (5+10)
atpopta = 16 (6+10)
spipopips = 17 (7+10)
lappoppal = 18 (8+10)
smapopams = 19 (9+10)
poppop = 20 (10+10)
fupoppopuf = 21 (1+20)
matpoppoptam = 22 (2+20)
ompoppopmo = 23 (3+20)
gopoppopgo = 24 (4+20)
Etc..
poommoop = 30 [the circumfix po-op comes from pop (=10), so poommoop means 10×3]
fupoommoopuf = 31 (1+30)
matpoommooptam = 32 (2+30)
pogoogop = 40 (10×4)
ompogoogopmo = 43 (3+40)
pobubop = 50 (10×5)
gopobubopog = 54 (4+50)
poataop = 60 (10×6)
pospiipsop = 70 (10×7)
polappalop = 80 (10×8)
posmamsop = 90 (10×9)
popopop = 100 (10×10)
lul = 1000
polulop = 10000 (10×1000)
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2022-09-04, 23:32, edited 5 times in total.

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Re: Palinnilap language (a palindrome conlang)

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-05, 15:55

Since in this conlang every word has a correspondent circumfix, this is true also for pronouns. So, I can say both asa (I) and as-sa.

If I want to say "I drink water" I can say asapdöyödpasa (I-drink-water-drink-I), but only if I am talking about an usual or a repeated action. The sentence thus means "I usually drink water" or "I drink water repeatedly".

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-07, 21:07

I will give a list of the words I have created so far and their correspondent palindrome circumfixes:

aa-aa = with
akika, ak-ka = to eat
amaülüama, amaü-üama = belief
ammumma, ammu-umma = to believe
apa, ap-pa = yesterday
apopa, apo-opa= drink
appa = yes
asa, as-sa = I
atta, at-ta= when
bab, ba-ab = where
bib, bi-ib = because
billib, bil-lib = how much?
bölökölöb, böl-löb = state/nation
čaač, ča-ač = good
čipöllökakkaköllöpič = walking slowly staggering
Čič, Či-ič = name of the planet where Palindrian is spoken.
čuč, ču-uč = not
döyöd, dö-öd= water
dupopud, dup-pud = certainly
foninof, fon-nof = to think
gollog, gol-log = never
goyog, go-og = sea
güg, gü-üg = that/a
ikki, ik-ki = home
inooni, ino-oni = to go
ippi, ip-pi = pleasure / to like
iti, it-ti = also
kadak, kad-dak = well
kak, ka-ak= future tense marker
ko-ok = of
konnok, kon-nok = day
kuk, ku-uk= he / she
kuuk, kuu-uuk = friend
laal = usually
lapal, la-al = before
löpüpöl, löp-pöl = to come
lükkül, lük-kül = glass
Magogam, Mag-gam = capital of the country of Šitiš.
man-nam = between
miččim, mič-čim = to speak
mom, mo-om = to have to
möllöm, möl-löm = to live
mugum, mu-um = city
nan, na-an = here
Noon, No-on = male personal name
nünnün, nün-nün = how
offo, of-fo = this/a
okatako, oka-ako = to sleep
Ollallo, Oll-llo = male personal name
ömamö, öma-amö = to remain
opollopo, opo-opo = tomorrow
oppappo, op-po = to feel
ot-to = it turns a personal pronoun into a direct object
öalaö, öal-laö = suono
öbbö, öb-bö = you (singular)
ökö, ök-kö = there
öllillö, ölli-illö = to work
öllö, öl-lö= perhaps
ölülö, ölu-ulö = bread
Öttaluparumurapulattö = indescribable
öttö, öt-tö = step
pallap, pal-lap = we
paluffulap, palu-ulap = in spite of
pattunuttap, pat-tap = evidently
piip, pi-ip= to be
pinnip, pin-nip = man
pollop, pol-lop = what
pu-up = from
s-s = to (motion to place)
sawiwas, saw-was = beautiful/a
sitötis, sit-tis = tired
suus, su-us = why
šaaš, šaa-aaš = to want
šapaš, ša-aš = today
Šitiš, Šit-tiš = a name of a country on the planet Čič.
šooš, šo-oš = how
stats, sta-ats = hand
t - t = in, at
talat, ta-at = now
talülat, tal-lat = name
tukkut, tuk-kut = to work
učaaču, uča-aču = restaurant
ufu, uf-fu = past tense marker
ukawaku, uka-aku= hello
ukku, uk-ku = woman
üllallü, üll-llü = studiare
ullu, ul-lu = every
ulu, ul-lu = and, how about
Uttu, Ut-tu = female personal name
üdaadü, üd-dü = meat
ükü, ük-kü = you (plural)
ümmü = no
üllöllü, ül-lü = city
wanaw wan-naw = mountain
wapaw, wa-aw = to know
y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective.
yaay, ya-ay = good
yoppoy, yop-poy = they


Any new cirxumfix which will be identical to one of the listed above, will be replaced by a totally different circumfix with no resemblance to the corresponding word.
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2022-09-05, 22:42, edited 15 times in total.

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-12, 14:45

Some sentences:

(Word order: SOV)
Öbbö sbaabs inooni? = Where are you going? (You to-where-to go?)
Asa sikkis inooni = I am going home. (I to-home-to go)

But you can also omit the subject:
Sbaabs inooni?
Sikkis inooni / Sikkis.

(Word order: S-V-O-V-S)
Öbinosbaabsonibö? = Where do you go (usually)? (Öb-ino-s-baab-s-oni-bö= you-go-to-where-to-go-you)
Asinosikkisonisa = I go home (usually - for instance, after work) (As-ino-s-ikki-s-oni-sa= I-go-to-home-to-go-I)

Omitting the subjects:
Inosbaabsoni?
Inosikkisoni / Sikkis

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-12, 23:28

Ot-to transforms a personal pronoun into a direct object:

otasato = me
otöbböto = you (object)
otkukto = him, her
otpallapto = us
otüküto = you all (obj.)
otyoppoyto = them

Asa otöbböto ippi = I like you (I you-obj. like)

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-13, 11:12

Palindrian alphabet and pronunciation:

a - [a]
b - [b]
č - [tʃ]
d - [d]
f - [f]
g - [g]
i - [i]
k - [k]
l - [l]
m - [m]
n - [n]
o - [o̞] (mid back rounded vowel)
ö - [ø̞] (mid front rounded vowel)
r - [ɾ] (voiced alveolar tap)
s - [s]
š [ʃ]
t - [t]
u - [ʊ] (near-close near-back rounded vowel)
ü - [ʏ] (near-close front rounded vowel)
w - [w]
y - [j]

Double consonants are geminate (bb [b:]), and double vowels are long vowels (aa [a:]).

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Ahendu » 2022-08-16, 18:51

I found it amazing! :D
Talvez, pela circunstancial razão de ser humano, eu goste de palavras.

"A ausência destes sons que dão teu nome me faz tão solitário nesta terra..." - Pseudo-Eça de Queiroz

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Massimiliano B
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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-17, 0:29

Ahendu wrote:I found it amazing! :D

And I find it amazing that you find it amazing! :)

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-17, 22:41

The syntetic sentence (SVOVS) can appear also in an analytical form (SOV), but an adverb has to be present in it, in order to convey the idea of usual or repeated action.

So I can say both "Öbinosbaabsonibö?" = Where do you go (usually - for instance, after work)? (Öb-ino-s-baab-s-oni-bö= you-go-to-where-to-go-you) - "Asinosikkisonisa" = I go home (usually) (As-ino-s-ikki-s-oni-sa= I-go-to-home-to-go-I)

or
Öbbö laal sbaabs inooni? = Where do you go usually? (for instance, after work) (You usually to-where-to go?) (laal = usually)
Asa laal sikkis inooni.= I usually go home (I usually to-home-to go)

Omitting the subjects:
Laal sbaabs inooni?
Laal sikkis inooni / Sikkis

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Massimiliano B
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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-25, 10:17

Vocabulary (updated version)
Antonymes are opposite palindromes: yes = appa, no = paap.

aayaa, aay-yaa = bad
adada, ada-ada = to break
akika, aki-ika = to eat
akka, ak-ka = past tense marker
akuwuka = bye
amaülüama, amaü-üama = belief
ammumma, ammu-umma = to believe
apa, ap-pa = yesterday
apopa, apo-opa= drink
appa = yes
asa, as-sa = I
atta, at-ta= when
ay-ya = with
bab, ba-ab = where
bib, bi-ib = because
billib, bil-lib = how much?
bollob, bol-lob = to be born
bölökölöb, böl-löb = state/nation
čaač, ča-ač = tall
čiffič = all
čimmič, čim-mič = to be quiet
čipöllökakkaköllöpič = walking slowly staggering
Čič, Či-ič = name of the planet where Palindrian is spoken.
čuč, ču-uč = not
dakad, dak-kad = badly
döyöd, dö-öd= water
dupopud, dup-pud = certainly
fiččif = nothing
finnif, fin-nif = big
foninof, fon-nof = to think
foof, fo-of = that
gollog, gol-log = never
gottog, go-og = to cost
goyog, goy-yog = sea
guffug = who
if-fi = for
ikki, ik-ki = home
inooni, ino-oni = to go
ipi, i-i = pleasure / to like
ippi, ip-pi = not to be
iti, it-ti = also
kadak, ka-ak = well
kaak, ka-ak= future tense marker
kiik, ki-ik = foreign country
ko-ok = of
konnok, kon-nok = day
kuk, ku-uk= he / she
kuluk, kul-luk = friend
kuttuk, kut-tuk = to laze around
lanal, lan-nal = planet
lapal, la-al = before
lobbol, lob-bol = to die
loggol = always
löpüpöl, löp-pöl = to write
lukkul, luk-kul = enemy
luul = none
lükkül, lük-kül = glass
Magogam, Mag-gam = capital of the country of Šitiš.
man-nam = between
miččim, mič-čim = to speak
mim, mi-im = to do
möllöm, möl-löm = to live
mu-um = under
mugum, mug-gum = city
nan, na-an = here
naran, nar-ran = much
nibbin, nib-bin = to see
niffin, nif-fin = small
nokkon, nok-kon = night
Noon, No-on = male personal name
noyon, noy-yon = capital city
nuttapattun, nutta-attun = improbably
nünnün, nün-nün = how
offo, of-fo = this/a
okatako, oka-ako = to sleep
Ollallo, Oll-llo = male personal name
oniino, oni-ino = to come
onno, on-no = little
opollopo, opo-opo = tomorrow
oppappo, op-po = to feel
ot-to = it turns a personal pronoun into a direct object
öbbö, öb-bö = you (singular)
ökö, ök-kö = there
öllillö, ölli-illö = to laze around
öllö, öl-lö= perhaps
ölülö, ölu-ulö = bread
Öttaluparumurapulattö = indescribable
paap = no
palap, pa-ap = after
pallap, pal-lap = we
paluffulap, palu-ulap = in spite of
pattunuttap, pat-tap = evidently
pawap , paw-wap = to ignore
piip, pi-ip= to be
pip, p-p = to dislike
pinnip, pin-nip = man
pollop, pol-lop = what
poop, po-op = there is, there are
pü-üp = from
pudodup = doubtfully
s-s= to (motion to place)
sauluas = book
sawiwas, saw-was = beautiful/a
sitötis, sit-tis = tired
snons = great
sökös, sök-kös = to buy
suus, su-us = why
šaaš, šaa-aaš = to want
šapaš, ša-aš = today
Šitiš, Šit-tiš = a name of a country on the planet Čič.
šooš, šo-oš = how
t - t = in, at
talat, ta-at = now
talülat, tal-lat = name
tammat, tam-mat = country
tiit = neither
tisösit = lively
tukkut, tuk-kut = to work
učaaču, uča-aču = restaurant
ukawaku, uka-aku= hello
ukku, uk-ku = woman
ullu, ul-lu = every
ulu, ul-lu = and, how about
um-mu = on, above
unaanu, una-anu = to sell
Uttu, Ut-tu = female personal name
üamalamaü , üama-amaü = disbelief
üdaadü, üd-dü = meat
ükü, ük-kü = you (plural)
üllöllü, ül-lü = village
wallaw, wal-law = to stay
wanaw wan-naw = mountain
wapaw, wa-aw = to know
wasisaw, was-saw = ugly
y-y = it turns a personal pronoun into a personal possessive pronoun or adjective.
ya-ay = without
yaay, yaa-aay = good
yoppoy, yop-poy = they
yöddöy, yöd-döy = dryness
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2022-09-10, 12:43, edited 23 times in total.

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Re: Palindrian language (Palinnilap) - a palindrome conlang

Postby Massimiliano B » 2022-08-28, 13:14

Plural of nouns:
Nouns are not used in the plural, but usually retain the singular form even when the sense is plural. If the plural is to be specified, the noun's circumfix is added to the noun itself:
Pinnip = man
Pinpinnipnip = men (pin-pinnip-nip)
Ukku = woman
Ukukkuku = women (uk-ukku-ku)
Lanal = planet
Lanlanalnal = planets (lan-lannal-nal)

The same goes for verbs: they too can have the plural, if the subject is plural - but their use is not mandatory:

Wallaw = (I / you / he-she) stay
Walwallawlaw = (we / you all / they) stay

Within the same sentence it is sufficient that only the noun or only the verb is in the plural form (but no plural is needed if the context makes it clear the sense of the sentence). If I want to say that "(some) men stay in the house," I do not have to say, "Pinpinnipnip tikkit walwallalaw," but just put either the plural subject: "Pinpinnipnip tikkit wallaw," or the verb: "Pinnip tikkit walwallawlaw". But even the sentence: "Pinnip tikkit wallaw" may have the same plural meaning, as I said, if the context makes it clear that the subject is plural.


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