UKRAINIAN COURSE

Moderator: TheStrayCat

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-08-15, 16:46

Yeah, sorry that's what I had forgotten- to put stresses. I'll definitely do it in the future. And sorry about the locative thing- it should be Accusative. I just forgot what it's called in English 8).
I'll post the next grammar reference later on- don't have time now.

User avatar
Cisza
Posts: 343
Joined: 2005-07-13, 10:00
Real Name: Valery Tikhonov
Gender: male
Location: Kraków
Country: PL Poland (Polska)

Postby Cisza » 2005-08-19, 12:19

gigant26 wrote: "ї" is a special letter in Ukrainian. It can only appear at the beginning of word or after apostrophe. It is pronounced "ji" as in "yield".


I insist on the fact that this letter can appear also after another vowel (її)
my first comment on this disappeared, but maybe I simply forgot to submit it :)
Różnica między wielbłądem i człowiekiem – wielbłąd może pracować przez tydzień nie pijąc; człowiek może przez tydzień pić nie pracując.

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-08-24, 18:38

Hello and sorry for being quiet for so long.
I'd like to get down to the words like my, your, his (funny how i've no idea what these are generally referred to in english :lol: ) Are they called Relative Pronouns?
Anyway:
мій/моя/моє, [mij]/[mojá]/[mojé]- my (masc/fem/neu)
твій/твоя/твоє, [tvij]/[tvojá]/[tvojé]- your
його, [johó]- his (no change in any gender)
її, [jijí]- her (likewise)
його, [johó]- its (likewise)
наш/наша/наше, [nash]/[násha]/[náshe]- our
ваш/ваша/ваше, [vash]/[vásha]/[váshe]- your (pl.)
їхній/їхня/їхнє, [jíkhnij]/[jíkhnia]/[jíkhnie].

All these are subject to 6-case declention (pronouns' declension is 6 cases as well as the one of adjectives, while the nouns' declention is 7 cases- Vocative is used).
I'll explain the actual declension later.

User avatar
dorenda
Posts: 2896
Joined: 2004-11-17, 23:02
Real Name: Dorenda
Gender: female
Country: PL Poland (Polska)
Contact:

Postby dorenda » 2005-08-26, 18:43

They are called posessive pronouns. :)

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-08-28, 19:54

Thank you for that and sorry for not posting anything.
Let's get down to Nouns.
Nouns in Ukrainian can have four genders.
Nouns are subject to seven cases of declention as I had said earlier. They are divided into 4 groups depending on the way their suffixes change in declention. Every group is then divided into three subgroups. I am not gonna explain all this since all this is very complicated. (I am not posting the transliteration anymore since it takes a lot of time- i'm sure all of you can read Ukrainian)
Genders:
Чоловічий- Masculine. Most masc. nouns finish in a consonant. For example- стіл- table, дім- house, чоловік- man, male.
Жіночий- Femenine. Most nouns finish in -a, -я. eg доля- fate , школа- school, дівчина- girl.
Середній- Neuter. Most nouns finish in -o, -я, -і, -е. (the last two endings are mostly found in loanwords from foreign languages.)eg село- village, відродження- revival.
Спільний- Common. The words that belong to this gender usually describe professions or occupations and are usually treated as masculine, unless there's an indication that they're femenine or neuter, for example a woman's name. eg сирота, професор, президент.
These can finish in consonants or vowels, as you see.
Some more nouns:
собака*- dog
країна- country
місто- city/town
річ- thing
справа- thing, affair, case
стежка- path
хвилювання- excitement
кохання- love.[/b]

*- an exception. Even though the noun ends in -a, it's masculine.
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
bodhisatva
Posts: 1012
Joined: 2005-03-04, 10:05
Gender: male
Location: SFBA
Country: US United States (United States)

Postby bodhisatva » 2005-08-29, 8:24

gigant26 wrote:мій/моя/моє, [mij]/[mojá]/[mojé]- my (masc/fem/neu)
твій/твоя/твоє, [tvij]/[tvojá]/[tvojé]- your
його, [johó]- his (no change in any gender)
її, [jijí]- her (likewise)
його, [johó]- its (likewise)
наш/наша/наше, [nash]/[násha]/[náshe]- our
ваш/ваша/ваше, [vash]/[vásha]/[váshe]- your (pl.)
їхній/їхня/їхнє, [jíkhnij]/[jíkhnia]/[jíkhnie].



What about свій/своя/своє?

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-08-29, 12:17

свій/своя/своє are reflexive possessive pronouns. They are used when you are referring to someone else or yourself.

Дякую що нагадав, bodhisatva. :wink:
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-08-31, 19:04

Making Plural of Masc. Nouns and Pos. Pronouns.
Pos. Pronouns
мої- my, plural (masc/fem/neu) No change in any gender. Ever. Any of these. All the same. Nice'n'easy :wink:
твої- your
його- his (no change from singular)
її- her (likewise)
його- its (likewise)
нашi- our
ваші- your (pl.)
їхні- their.
Notice the vowel change in мої,твої
Nouns
These are more complicated, but still not as hard as most other things in the Ukrainian language :D
In masc. nouns, which end in a consonant, except for ш, щ, ч and ь, the most common way to make plural is to add -и to the noun. For example: робітник, worker :arrow: робітники, workers. In many, it'll lead to the change of the vowel in the root, eg кіт, cat :arrow: коти, cats.
If the noun ends in -ок, like шинок- a traditional Ukrainian tavern, дзвінок- call/ring, the "o" is dropped. So it becomes шинки, дзвінки. The stress now is on the last syllable.
If the noun ends in ш, щ, ч or ь, you add not -и, but -i. Example: вчитель, teacher :arrow: вчителі, програвач :arrow: програвачі.
Nouns of Ukrianian origin, which end in -р, also get -i. Example, друкар, printer (a person!) :arrow: друкарі, кобзар, a traditional Ukrainian bard :arrow: кобзарі.
Masc. nouns which end in -a, get -и, eg собака :arrow: собаки. There's no change in the stress.
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-09-12, 18:26

Sorry for the standstill.
I really got me cute luvly handies on the PC, so let's go on.
Plural of Fem Nouns.
If the noun ends in -a, you get it off, and put -и.
країна- країни, country- countries.
The stress usually is the same.
If the noun ends in -я, then you throw it away and add -i.
праця- праці, job- jobs.
If the noun ends in a consonant, it also ends in -i.
тінь- тіні, річ- речі. Note the change of the vowel.
Neuter nouns.
If one ends in -я, most of them are names of feelings, then it doesn't change at all.
Читання- reading(s), змагання- competition(s).
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-09-12, 18:42

The verb "to be" and the conjugation.
бути- is the Ukrainian for "to be".
Ukrainian has four tenses, but, de facto, only three are used in everyday speech.
Теперішній час- Present Tense
Минулий час- Past Tense
Майбутній час- Future Tense.

бути- present. Very easy. Always the same in plural or singular, 1st, 2nd or 3rd person- "є".

бути- past.
I(masc)/he/you(masc)-був
I(fem)/she/you(fem)- була
I(neu)/it/you(neu)- було
We/you(pl)/they- були

бути- future
I- буду
You- будеш
He/She/It- буде
We- будемо
You(pl)- будете
They- будуть
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-09-12, 19:50

Word order.
I usually is Object- Verb- Subject.
The verb "to be" when describing something can often be ommitted (not too sure how to spell that).
Київ- столиця України- Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine
Моя квартира велика- My flat is big
Мій друг має машину- My friend has a car.

"to have" or "not to have"
The Ukrainian verb "to have" is мати.
Present tense
I have- маю
You- маєш
He/She/It- має
We- маємо
You(pl)- маєте
They- мають
Я маю дім- I have a/the house.
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-09-16, 19:16

Some more Pronouns.
цей/ця/це- this (masc/fem/neu)
той/та/те- that
"це" is also used when you say "this is..."
Це- кінь = This is a/the horse
Це- веб-сторінка Спільноти УніЛанґ = This is the web-page of the Unilang Community.

Note that "це" is used no matter of what gender the object you're introducing is.
However, when you want to say "that is...", you have to use "то".
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
tomasz
Posts: 249
Joined: 2005-09-07, 13:17
Real Name: tom
Gender: male
Location: Pennsylvania, USA
Country: US United States (United States)
Contact:

Postby tomasz » 2005-09-18, 1:46

i was wondering if anyone could give me a list of the ukrainian alphabet with the name of the letter and how they're pronounced. i speak polish, and because they're so similar, i can understand spoken ukrainian, but i cant spell in it.

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-09-21, 18:02

Sorry for being out for long. Here is the Ukrainian alphabet and the corresponding Polish equivalents.

А,а- a
Б,б- b
В,в- w
Г,г- h
Ґ,ґ- g
Д,д- d
Е,е- e
Є,є- je (at the beginning of word and after a vowel- Polish "jest"), ie (after a consonant- like Polish "nie")
Ж,ж- ż, rz
З,з- z
И,и- y
І,і- i
Ї,ї- ji (at the start of word and after a vowel, if after a consonant, has to be separated by an apostrophe)
Й,й- j
К,к- k
Л,л- ł
М,м- m
Н,н- n
О,о- o
П,п- p
Р,р- r
С,с- s
Т,т- t
У,у- u, ó
Ф,ф- f
Х,х- ch
Ц,ц- c
Ч,ч- cz
Ш,ш- sz
Щ,щ- szcz
Ь,ь- no sound- softens the preceding consonant, like "ń" in Polish
Ю,ю- ju (at the beginning of word, or after apostrophe, after consonant it is like "ü" in German)
Я,я- ja (at the beg. of word and after apostrophe. After a consonant it's like [ia], or like Romanian "ea".)
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-09-23, 18:21

How to ask questions (with transliteration)

Normally, the word order in Ukrainian is OVS. However the verb "to be" can be ommited when describing something/one or introducing something/one.
Example:
Це машина [ce mašýna]- This is a car.
Андрій дуже високий [andríj dúže vysókyj]- Andrew is very tall, but, Андрій є дуже високим [andríj je dúže vysókym]- -//-

Чи Андрій високий? [čy andríj vysókyj]
Чи високий Андрій? [čy vysókyj andríj]
Чи є Андрій високим? [čy je andríj vysókym]

The three above are all the same question- "Is Andrew tall?"

"Чи" is the particle you would usually start a general question with. After that goes the verb and the object and then, if any, the adjective and then the subject

-Чи маєш ти машину? [čy máješ ty mašýnu]- Do you have a car?
The answer (affirmative):
-Так, я маю машину. [tak, ja máju mašýnu]- Yes, I have a car.
Negative answer:
-Ні, я не маю машини. [ni, ja ne máju mašýny]- No, I don't have a car.
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-10-02, 16:48

Wh- questions & prepositions.
Як? [jak]- How?
Який/Яка/Яке? [jakýj/jaká/jaké]- Which/What?(masc/fem/neu)
Хто? [chto]- Who?
Чому? [čomú]- Why?
Де? [de]- Where?
When you ask a wh- question, the word order is the same as in a sentence- OVS, you just add the "wh..." at the beginning.

Мене звати Олексій. [mené zváty Oleksíj]- My name is Oleksii
Це червоний/блакитний/жовтий/чорний/білий/зелений колір. [ce červónyj/blakýtnyj/žóvtyj/čórnyj/bílyj/zelényj kólir]- This is the red/blue/yellow/black/white/green
Я людина. [ja ľudýna]- I am a human.
Я не вдома. [ja ne vdóma]- I am not home.
Найближча крамниця за дві вулиці звідси. [najblýžča kramnýc'a za dvi vúlyci zvídsy]- The nearest shop is two streets from here.

Як тебе звати? [jak tebé zváty]- What is your name?
Який це колір? [jakýj ce kólir]- What colour is this?
Хто ти (є)? [chto ty (je)]- Who are you?
Чому ти не вдома? [čomú ty ne vdóma]- Why aren't you home?
Де найближча крамниця? [de najblýžča kramnýc'a]- Where is the nearest shop?
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-10-08, 18:18

Verbs.

Verbs in Ukrainian have 3 tenses and aspect- perfect/imperfect.
Писати [pysáty]- to write
Написати [napysáty]- to have written
Робити [robýty]- to do
Зробити [zrobýty]- to have done.

Endings:

-АТИ [-áty] читати [čytáty]- to read, впливати [vplyváty]- to influence
-ЯТИ [-játy/-'áty] міняти [mińáty]- to change, прийняти [pryjńáty]- to accept/make (a decision)[perfect]
-УТИ [-úty] бути [búty]- to be, минути [mynúty]- to go/to pass away [perfect]
-ИТИ [-ýty] ганьбити [hańbýty]- to shame (someone), крутити [krutýty]- to spin
-ІТИ [-íty] хотіти [chotíty]- to want, летіти [letíty]- to fly.

It's not just preffixes, that determine whether the verb is perfect or imperfect. Endings differ too.
-АТИ [-áty] and -ЯТИ [-játy/-'áty] are usually for the imperfect aspect. You often have to change the ending of the verb to make it perfect or imperfect.
For example, "прибути" [prybúty]- to have arrived. To make it perfect, i.e. make it mean "to arrive", you have to make it "прибувати" [prybuváty].

To be continued...
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-10-09, 14:51

Perfect->Imperfect

Минути [mynúty] :arrow: Минати [mynáty]- to pass away
Назвати [nazváty] :arrow: Називати [nazyváty]- to name/call (not by phone!)
Прокинутись [prokýnutyś] :arrow: Прокидатись [prokydátyś]- to wake up
Розробити [rozrobýty] :arrow: Розробляти [rozrobľáty]- to create/design
Вивчити [vývčyty] :arrow: Вивчати [vyvčáty]- to learn
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-10-10, 19:24

Present Tense in imperfect aspect

Робити [robýty]- to do/make
Роблю [robľú]- I do
Робиш [róbyš]- You do
Робить [róbyť]- He/She/It does
Робимо [róbymo]- We do
Робите [róbyte]- You do (plural/formal)
Роблять [róbľať]- They do
Читати [čytáty]- to read
Читаю [čytáju]- I read
Читаєш [čytáješ]- You read
Читає [čytáje]- He/She/It reads
Читаємо [čytájemo]- We read
Читаєте [čytájete]- You read (pl./form.)
Читають [čytájuť]- They read
Панувати [panuváty]- to rule/be master of smthng
Паную [panúju]- I rule
Пануєш [panúješ]- You rule
Панує [panúje]- He/She/It rules
Пануємо [panújemo]- We rule
Пануєте [panújete]- You rule (pl./form.)
Панують [panújuť]- They rule
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4757
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Kyiv
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Postby Oleksij » 2005-10-14, 19:58

Conjugation of verbs in Perfect aspect in Present Tense

NOTE: These verbs are conjugated according to the Present Tense model, BUT, this way they are used to talk about something you WILL HAVE DONE IN THE FUTURE!

Зробити [zrobýty]- to have done/made

Зроблю [zrobľú]- I will have done
Зробиш [zróbyš]- You will have done
Зробить [zróbyť]- He/She/It will have done
Зробимо [zróbymo]- We will have done
Зробите [zróbyte]- You will have done (plural/formal)
Зроблять [zróbľať]- They will have done

Прочитати [pročytáty]- to have read

Прочитаю [pročytáju]- I will have read
Прочитаєш [pročytáješ]- You will have read
Прочитає [pročytáje]- He/She/It will have read
Прочитаємо [pročytájemo]- We will have read
Прочитаєте [pročytájete]- You will have read (pl./form.)
Прочитають [pročytájuť]- They will have read

Опанувати [opanuváty]- to become master of smthng

Опаную [opanúju]- I will have become...
Опануєш [opanúješ]- You will have become...
Опанує [opanúje]- He/She/It will have become...
Опануємо [opanújemo]- We will have become...
Опануєте [opanújete]- You will have become... (pl./form.)
Опанують [opanújuť]- They will have become...
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm


Return to “Ukrainian (Українська)”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest