Could you explain the differences in the dialects yellow - I know little things, such as the pronunciation differences (eg d=z in the North and y in the south...) and one of the tonal differences (dau hoi and dau nga merge), but what are some of the more important differences between the Northern and Southern dialects?
and can you tell me about the dialect spoken in Hue as well? Thanks in advance!
I'm not so good about the dialect spoken in Hue, actually the dialects spoken in Hue, Quang Nam, etc... (the middle of the countries) are very hard to understand. I have a friend from there and it took me several days to fully understand her. So, it's very hard for even a native Vietnamese too, don't feel so bad if you can't catch the words (they often speak way too fast). And I strongly recommend you not to learn that dialect, if you can speak the standard dialect (Hanoi's) everyone will understand you^^.
I'm from SaiGon (HoChiMinhCity) so I will try to list some differences between these dialects (Note: SaiGon's dialect doesn't not necessarily represent the Southern dialect. Also note that I'm listing all possible mistakes I can think of, it doesn't mean that those are common.)
r -> d (rất -> dất. This is not a very common mistake)
v -> d (vô -> dô. Common)
tr -> ch (trời ơi -> chời ơi. Common)
s -> x (sung sướng = xung xướng. Common)
tonal: dau nga -> dau hoi (sữa(milk) = sửa(repair). Very common)
n -> ng (cái bàn -> cái bàng)
uôn -> uông (buồn rầu = buồng rầu)
on -> oong (con cái = coong cái)
ân -> âng (sân bãi = sâng bãi)
ơn -> ơơng (sơn lâm = sơơng lâm)
n - > l (nồi -> lồi)
According to a post I read on another forum, the tr,r,s mistakes are quite common there too (I need to recheck this, I thought these mistakes are common in the South only)
tr -> ch (con trai = con chai. I'm not quite sure if this is common)
r -> d, gi (râu ria = dâu dia, rán mỡ = gián mỡ.
s -> x sung sướng = xung xướng, sâu sắc = xâu xắc
Again, I believe it's very very important to be able to speak the standard dialect. If you happen to learn VietNamese somewhere, make sure your teacher can speak the standard dialect. In Vietnamese, if you can speak it right, you can spell it right.