Bài Học Hai - Lesson Two
Kính Chào Qúy Vì
Xin chào/Chào - Both mean: Hello/Hi/Goodbye/Bye
Kính chào qúy vì - Hello everyone
Xin chào các vì - Hello
Lán tới gạp lại/Sẻ gạp lại - See you
Anh/Em khỏe không? - How are you? (Anh for males and the olders, em for females and the youngers)
Anh/Em khoẻ lám - I'm very good
Anh/Em khoẻ - I'm good/I'm ok
Củng được - Quite so so
Anh/Em không khoẻ - I'm bad/I'm not good
Anh/Em không được khoẻ - Same as above
You can leave out the anh/em and just say the adjectives.
Đại từ - Pronouns
Discussing personal pronouns is quite a pain and it is probably the most confusing feature of Vietnamese for foreigners, even to some native Vietnamese speakers themselves. Because, Vietnamese pronouns can go beyond the meaning of simple "I", "you", and so forth. It can depend on the gender, conversation context, and relation. So, I'll give you a basic translations, and then provide a link to a page that will further discuss the pronouns.
I/me - Tôi
You (familar male) - Anh
You (familar female) - Chị
You (formal male) - Ông
You (formal female) - Bà
He/him - Anh ta (formal: Ông ta)
She/her - Chị ta (formal: Bà ta)
It - Nó
We/us - Chúng tôi
You (familar) - Các anh
You (formal) - Các ông
They/them - Họ
Here is the link for further depth of Vietnamese pronouns.
Động từ - Verbs
Vietnamese verbs are really simple, and they do not change at all for persons and tenses. The construction is exactly like English.
To eat - ăn, fish - cá
Tôi ăn cá - I eat fish.
Anh ăn cá - You eat fish.
Chúng tôi ăn cá. - We eat fish.
To love - yêu
Anh yêu em. - I love you. (Older person to younger person)
Em yêu anh. - I love you. (Younger person to older person)
There is no "to" infinitive in Vietnamese.
I love to eat fish. - Tôi yêu ăn cá.
Although Vietnamese has a verb same as English "to be", là, but it does not work exactly like the English way. It is only used when a noun is involved with a sentence like "I am a student". With adjectives, it is dropped altogether - a Vietnamese speaker would say "I hungry" instead of "I'm hungry".
Tôi là sinh viên. - I am a student.
Tôi đói. - I am hungry.
Tenses are expressed by using "today", "yesterday", "tomorrow", and such. But however, Vietnamese does have a word classifier expressing the past, đã. And the future tense, sẽ. Like English, they are placed before the verb.
I have eaten fish. - Tôi đã ăn cá.
I will eat fish. - Tôi sẽ ăn cá.