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Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2008-07-05, 23:35
by huhmzah
_____________________________________________________

Notes:
[ ] = transliteration

Consonants:
š = "sh" in Sheep
N = nasal N, as in the French word "mignon" / "raison"

Vowels:
ā = "a" as in car, start, art
a = schwa sound "u" as in curd or "ea" in heard
e = "ay" as in lay, ray or "a" as in made, shade.
ai = "ye" as in "bye", or "igh" as in high, or "y" as in cry, by, fly
i = "i" as in bit, hit
ī = "ee" as in sheep, creep or "ea" as in leap, heap.
o = "o" as in rote, mole, "oa" as in boat, moat.
au = "ow" as in cow, prowl, how
u = "ou" as in should, could
ū = "oo" as in boot, food.

_____________________________________________________

Mr. : श्री [šrī]
Mrs. / Ms.: श्रीमती [šrīmatī]

Mr. / Mrs.: जी [jī]*
*Added at the end of the name -> Vikram => Vikram jī.

_____________________________________________________

Hello! (regular): नमस्ते [namaste]
Hello!/ Greetings! (formal): नमस्कार [namaskāra]

Good morning! सुप्रभात [suprabhāta]
Good evening! शुभ संध्या [šubh sandhyā]
Good night! शुभ रात्रि [šubh rātri]
_____________________________________________________

Yes (polite): जी [jī]
Yes (regular): हां [haN]

No (regular): नहीं [nahīN]
No (casual): न [na]
_____________________________________________________

Congratulations!: बधाई हो [badhāī ho!]

Welcome!: स्वागत [swāgata] / [svāgata]
_____________________________________________________


How are you? कैसे हो? [kaise ho?]

I am fine (regular): ठीक हून [Thīk hūN]
I am fine (informal): ठीक ठाक [Thīk-Thāk]

_____________________________________________________

Thank you: धन्यवाद [dhanyavāda]

You are welcome:कोई बात नहीं [koī bāt nahīN]

_____________________________________________________

Please: कृपा [kripā]

Pardon me: क्षमा कर दीजिये [kšamā kar dījīye]

Sorry: सॉरी जी [sorī jī]
_____________________________________________________

Take care: सचेत रहिये [sacet rahīye]

Goodbye!: राम राम [rāma rāma]

_____________________________________________________

* The inherent "-a" schwa which ends most words is omitted in casual speech, but realized in formal speech i.e. "Thank you" --> धन्यवाद is pronounced /dʰənjəvadə/ formally but /dʰənjəvad/ in casual/regular speech.

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2008-07-05, 23:44
by Osias
huhmzah wrote:_____________________________________________________
Hello!/ Greetings! (formal): नमस्कार [namaskāra]



why do you include an "a" at the end?

Posted: 2008-07-06, 1:45
by huhmzah
All proper Hindi words, especially Sanskritic ones, end with the inherent schwa /ə/ --> "a". The only exceptions are words which end with the diacritic "virama" mark which silences this inherent vowel --> "्" ex. "शर्ट्" (shirt).

This phonetic feature of Hindi is noted in the standard English spellings of several words of Hindi origin. Notice that even though the following Hindi words end in consonants, since they do not have a "virama" the English spelling reflects the inherent vowel with an "-a" ending:


1 ) गौतम बुद्ध - Gautama Buddha
2 ) धर्म - Dharma - Faith, Virtue
3 ) योग - Yoga - Meditation
4 ) कर्म - Karma - Destiny, Action
5 ) महाभारत - Mahabharata - Epic mythological battle
6 ) कृष्ण - Krishna - Hindu deity
7 ) शिव - Shiva - Hindu deity
8 ) मंत्र - Mantra - Chant
9 ) आयुर्वेद - Ayurveda - Traditional Indian medicine.
10 ) महाराष्ट्र - Maharashtra - One of India's largest states.

Notice even though they end with consonants, we do not say/write "yog" but "yoga" or "Buddh" but "Buddha" or "Mantr" but "Mantra" etc.

Posted: 2008-07-06, 1:49
by Osias
but Hindi speakers don't pronounce it, right?

Posted: 2008-07-06, 2:03
by huhmzah
If they are speaking "properly" / formally you'll definitely hear the schwa sound -- such as on the news, politics/religious speeches, literary commentary, intellectual debates etc BUT in casual speech many Hindi speakers will omit the sound -- but then again, in "casual speech" Hindi speakers tend to lean much less on sanskritic/proper vocabulary and much more so on its Hindustani vocabulary that it shares with Urdu - which reflects Hindustani/Urdu phonics i.e. no schwa ending.

Then again, you will never hear a Hindi speaker pronounce the national anthem --> जन गण मन as "jan, gaN, Man" but always "jana gaNa mana" etc.

Posted: 2008-07-06, 11:51
by Osias
is the national anthem in what language?

Posted: 2008-07-06, 14:31
by kalemiye
osias wrote:is the national anthem in what language?


Hindi I suppose.

Posted: 2008-07-06, 15:37
by huhmzah
osias wrote:is the national anthem in what language?


Tagore wrote it originally in a really really Sanskritized form of Bangla -- it was transliterated into Devnagri (Hindi) by the National Library pretty early on and is thus read/sung as per Hindi phonetics in India:

ex: Bangla Original:
জন গণ মন অধিনায়ক জয় হে...
Jon gon mon odhinayoko joy he..

Hindi transliteration and common pronunciation:
जन गण मन अधिनायक जय हे...
Jana gana mana adhinayaka jaya he..

Here is the national anthem in its normal Hindi form - it has captions in Hindi as well so you can follow along and see if you hear the schwa-ending.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bh26zOjIh9I

Posted: 2008-07-09, 12:48
by kalemiye
They end in no sound in Hindi, but they used to end in -a in Sanskrit... and I wonder, besides this "-a" are there any other Sanskritic features that affect Hindi's phonology and make it different to that of Urdu? :)

Off-topic: My friend told me She won't be back to Spain until september :(, so no TY Urdu for me until then :(... so I re-took "Hindi for begginners" by Rupert Snell in the meantime, and one of the first reading rules that are taught is that one you explained :D. I read it in the book and I was like "I already knew that, buddy 8)". It's great you are among us, Hamzah!

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2008-10-06, 22:54
by Meera
Thanks sooo much for the words :D very helpful

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2008-10-25, 18:33
by Smitty
This is very helpful, thank you! :mrgreen:

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2010-08-29, 3:31
by steph12
Thank you for posting the basic Hindi words and greetings. I just joined the site and I am interested in learning Hindi. This post is really helpful. :D

Best regards! :)

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2011-09-01, 23:17
by PDK
Hallo i want to know how is the translation of the sentence to Hindi:
I do not live,i burn

Re:

Posted: 2011-12-05, 19:11
by Online-Discount
Could you please post the complete English translation of national anthem?

huhmzah wrote:
osias wrote:is the national anthem in what language?


Tagore wrote it originally in a really really Sanskritized form of Bangla -- it was transliterated into Devnagri (Hindi) by the National Library pretty early on and is thus read/sung as per Hindi phonetics in India:

ex: Bangla Original:
জন গণ মন অধিনায়ক জয় হে...
Jon gon mon odhinayoko joy he..

Hindi transliteration and common pronunciation:
जन गण मन अधिनायक जय हे...
Jana gana mana adhinayaka jaya he..

Here is the national anthem in its normal Hindi form - it has captions in Hindi as well so you can follow along and see if you hear the schwa-ending.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bh26zOjIh9I

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2012-02-12, 16:50
by jyo159
Tagore's own translation:

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Ocean.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
victory forever.

Hindi:

जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे,
भारत-भाग्य-विधाता ।
पंजाब सिन्धु गुजरात मराठा,
द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग ।
विन्ध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा,
उच्छल जलधि तरंग ।
तव शुभ नामे जागे,
तव शुभ आशिष माँगे;
गाहे तव जय गाथा ।
जन-गण मंगलदायक जय हे,
भारत-भाग्य-विधाता ।
जय हे ! जय हे !! जय हे !!!
जय ! जय ! जय ! जय हे !!

or Urdu, if you prefer:

جن گن من ادھی نایک جئے ہے.
بھارت بھاگیہ ودھاتا
پنجاب سندھ گجرات مراٹھا
دراوڈ اتکل ونگا
وندھیہ ہماچل یمنا گنگا
اچھلہ جلہ دھی ترنگا
توا سبھ نامے جاگے
توا شبھ آشش مانگے
گاہے توا جیا گادھا
جن گن منگل دایک جیہ ہے
بھارت بھاگیہ ودھاتا
جیا ہے، جیا ہے، جیا ہے
جیا جیا جیا جیا ہے

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2012-04-04, 10:30
by davebrown
Namaste aap sab log ko. I am Dave Brown. I am interested in the Hindi Language and have been learning it since a few months. I am looking forward to enjoy this discussion ans learn more about the language and Indian Culture. Dhanyavaad.

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2012-04-05, 16:11
by davebrown
on this occasion of Good Friday, i would like to share something with everyone..

Augustus William Hare
The cross was two pieces of dead wood; and a helpless, unresisting Man was nailed to it; yet it was mightier than the world, and triumphed, and will ever triumph over it.

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2012-04-10, 12:00
by Saim
Aapka svaagat hai! Welcome to Unilang davebrown! Look forward to learning Hindi with you :)

(I think your thing about Good Friday might be more appropriate for the politics and religion section of the forum. Or maybe General Discussion. Just letting you know.)

Re: Hindi Greetings & Basics

Posted: 2013-06-15, 11:00
by ajaybharath
hi,

Thank you for posting the good Hindi words and greetings.

Re:

Posted: 2013-06-15, 14:13
by mōdgethanc
huhmzah wrote:This phonetic feature of Hindi is noted in the standard English spellings of several words of Hindi origin. Notice that even though the following Hindi words end in consonants, since they do not have a "virama" the English spelling reflects the inherent vowel with an "-a" ending:


1 ) गौतम बुद्ध - Gautama Buddha
2 ) धर्म - Dharma - Faith, Virtue
3 ) योग - Yoga - Meditation
4 ) कर्म - Karma - Destiny, Action
5 ) महाभारत - Mahabharata - Epic mythological battle
6 ) कृष्ण - Krishna - Hindu deity
7 ) शिव - Shiva - Hindu deity
8 ) मंत्र - Mantra - Chant
9 ) आयुर्वेद - Ayurveda - Traditional Indian medicine.
10 ) महाराष्ट्र - Maharashtra - One of India's largest states.

Notice even though they end with consonants, we do not say/write "yog" but "yoga" or "Buddh" but "Buddha" or "Mantr" but "Mantra" etc.
Late, but those are Sanskrit words, not Hindi. Words that English did get from Hindi: rupee, thug, veranda, bungalow, pyjamas, khaki, loot, jungle.