I've commented on the etymologies of some of these words, in other cases associating them with other words within Turkish or with similar expressions in other languages. Since you've studied all the languages mentioned I think you could get something out of this too.
vijayjohn wrote:tam - whole
From Arabic تَامّ, related to Arabic تمام, whence also Turkish tamam
(complete, "OK!") and Urdu تمام (all, whole).
yaşamak - to go through (among other meanings)
Reminds me of Polish przeżyć, which can mean either "survive" or "experience".
resmen - officially
From Arabic رَسَمَ (to record; رسمي official, رسميا officially). Related to Hebrew רִשְׁמִי (official).
köpekbalığı - shark
Similar to Serbian morski pas
("sea dog"), although the Old Norse loan ajkula
is IME a bit more common at least in the spoken language in Serbia.
hariç - excluding
From Arabic خارج (outside).
numara - trick, stunt
Clearly from a Romance language, although Nişanyan can't decide whether this is from Italian or French.
madde - subject
From Arabic مادة (matter, material), whence also Urdu مادہ.
aynen - ditto
In other contexts it seems to mean something more like "in the same way" or "likewise".
itiraf etmek - to confess
Urdu اِعتراف, from Arabic إعتراف. Verbal noun of اِعْتَرَفَ (to confess), from the same root as عَرَفَ (to know).
palyaço - clown
(clownfish - pesce pagliaccio
). Catalan peix pallasso
, Spanish pez payaso
. What's interesting is that this was borrowed into Catalan and Spanish through French paillasse
, although in French the normal term for a clown is the Anglicism clown
. Turkish got it directly from Italian.
fıkra - joke
From Arabic فقرة. Wiktionary gives the second meaning of this word as "the finest couplet in a poem, choicest saying in rhymed prose", which is where I imagine the Turkish meaning came from.
bayılmak (after noun in dative case) - to really like
Literally to faint
, I found the following fragment in a novel on Google Books:
bayılmış olmalıyımI must have fainted.
dalgıç - diver
dalmak - to dive
dalga - wave
zavallı - poor
From Arabic زوالي, derived from the verb زَالَ (to go away, abandon, disappear).
Kes! - Cut it out!
also literally means "to cut"! Funny coincidence for a language so distant from English.