Questions about Indonesian

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Salajane
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Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-01-19, 19:42

1. What is the difference between "memiliki" and "mempunyai"?
2. What is the difference between "aku" and "saya"; "kamu" and "anda"?
3. Does "apa" turn a sentence into question? (in the same way as "ba" in Tagalog)
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby linguoboy » 2018-01-23, 16:56

Irusia wrote:2. What is the difference between "aku" and "saya"; "kamu" and "anda"?

Familiarity/politeness. Essentially, it's T/V distinction.

I don't know anything about Tagalog grammar, but apa can be used at the beginning of a sentence to indicate that a yes/no answer is expected (cf. Hindi क्या). E.g. Apa Bapak sudah makan? "Have you [masc. sing. form. pol.] eaten yet?"
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-01-23, 18:29

linguoboy wrote:
Irusia wrote:2. What is the difference between "aku" and "saya"; "kamu" and "anda"?

Familiarity/politeness. Essentially, it's T/V distinction.

I don't know anything about Tagalog grammar, but apa can be used at the beginning of a sentence to indicate that a yes/no answer is expected (cf. Hindi क्या). E.g. Apa Bapak sudah makan? "Have you [masc. sing. form. pol.] eaten yet?"

Thank you! Terima kasih!
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby linguoboy » 2018-01-23, 18:41

Oh, I also did some searching to see if I could find anything on memiliki vs mempunyai, but it seems that if there's a distinction between them, it's pretty subtle. What I did find is that they're both formal verbs and in colloquial speech punya is more common than either.
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Ser » 2018-01-26, 17:34

Irusia wrote:1. What is the difference between "memiliki" and "mempunyai"?

Check out the response I got from a native speaker in IpseDixit's thread:
https://forum.unilang.org/viewtopic.php?f=60&t=51441
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby atalarikt » 2018-01-30, 22:28

Irusia wrote:3. Does "apa" turn a sentence into question? (in the same way as "ba" in Tagalog)

Mostly yes. It can also be "apakah" in formal speech.
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ۝
"And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge." (Ar-Rum: 22)

Jika saya salah, mohon diperbaiki. If I make some mistake(s), please correct me.
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-02-03, 14:51

Thank you!
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-02-03, 21:46

What is the role of "yang" in a sentence?
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby linguoboy » 2018-02-03, 22:13

Irusia wrote:What is the role of "yang" in a sentence?

Essentially, it's a relativiser, e.g.:

orang yang membangun rumah saya "the person who built my house"

but the relative clause doesn't always require a verb:

orang yang seperti saya "a/the person who is like me"

which leads to it being used frequently with adjectives, e.g.:

orang yang pandai dan periang "a person who is clever and cheerful"

Yang is obligatory in most cases (like this) where adjective phrase consists of multiple words. Otherwise it has an emphatic or distancing value. It can also serve to distinguish compounds from ordinary noun phrases, e.g.:

kamar kecil "toilet" (lit. "small room")
kamar yang kecil "small room" (i.e. any room which happens to be small)
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-02-07, 19:22

linguoboy wrote:Essentially, it's a relativiser, e.g.:

orang yang membangun rumah saya "the person who built my house"

but the relative clause doesn't always require a verb:

orang yang seperti saya "a/the person who is like me"

which leads to it being used frequently with adjectives, e.g.:

orang yang pandai dan periang "a person who is clever and cheerful"

Yang is obligatory in most cases (like this) where adjective phrase consists of multiple words. Otherwise it has an emphatic or distancing value. It can also serve to distinguish compounds from ordinary noun phrases, e.g.:

kamar kecil "toilet" (lit. "small room")
kamar yang kecil "small room" (i.e. any room which happens to be small)

Thank you!
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-02-07, 19:29

What does "ada" mean? I thought it means "to be", but today I saw it in a context where it meant "to have" (but it was in the form "mengadakan").
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby atalarikt » 2018-02-08, 3:35

Irusia wrote:What does "ada" mean? I thought it means "to be", but today I saw it in a context where it meant "to have" (but it was in the form "mengadakan").

It has multiple meanings, depending on the context.

For example, "ada seorang pria di depanku" means "there is a man in front of me", but "mereka mengadakan sebuah acara di kebun itu" means "they held an event in that garden".

As you can see, "mengadakan" means "to hold (an event)".
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ۝
"And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge." (Ar-Rum: 22)

Jika saya salah, mohon diperbaiki. If I make some mistake(s), please correct me.
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby linguoboy » 2018-02-08, 18:20

Irusia wrote:What does "ada" mean? I thought it means "to be", but today I saw it in a context where it meant "to have" (but it was in the form "mengadakan").

My understanding of the circumfix meN-V-kan is that it makes a verb or adjective causative, e.g. bangun "wake up" (intr.) > membangunkan "wake [somebody] up", bersih "(be) clean" > membersihkan "to clean".

So if you think of ada as meaning "be [in place]", "exist", then mengadakan could be interpreted as "cause to be in a place", "make exist", which easily explains a usage like "hold [an event]".

atalarikt, can you say ada sebuah acara di kebun itu?
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby atalarikt » 2018-02-08, 21:00

linguoboy wrote:.atalarikt, can you say ada sebuah acara di kebun itu?

Yes you can. It literally means "there is an event (held) in that garden".
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ۝
"And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge." (Ar-Rum: 22)

Jika saya salah, mohon diperbaiki. If I make some mistake(s), please correct me.
Forever indebted to Robert A. Blust for his contributions to Austronesian linguistics

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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-02-12, 16:30

Thank you!

Another question:
Is "tidak" pronounced [tidak] or [tidaʔ]?
I listened to the song "Bagi Tuhan tak ada yang mustahil" on youtube and I think I heard [taʔ ada] instead of [tak ada] there.
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby linguoboy » 2018-02-12, 16:58

Irusia wrote:Is "tidak" pronounced [tidak] or [tidaʔ]?

[tidaʔ]

Final k is pronounced [ʔ] as a rule. The only possible exceptions might be recent borrowings from languages like English.
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby Salajane » 2018-02-12, 18:02

linguoboy wrote:[tidaʔ]

Final k is pronounced [ʔ] as a rule. The only possible exceptions might be recent borrowings from languages like English.

Thank you for the answer!
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Re: Questions about Indonesian

Postby atalarikt » 2018-02-16, 0:48

linguoboy wrote:Final k is pronounced [ʔ] as a rule. The only possible exceptions might be recent borrowings from languages like English.

Some other native words also have the k pronounced as it is written (although pretty rare nowadays), such as the word jorok (vulgar, dirty) [dʒɔrɔk], kutuk (to curse, as in mythical curses) [kʊtʊk], and cerdik (clever, cunning) [tʃərdik].
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ۝
"And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge." (Ar-Rum: 22)

Jika saya salah, mohon diperbaiki. If I make some mistake(s), please correct me.
Forever indebted to Robert A. Blust for his contributions to Austronesian linguistics


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