Polski Kącik / Polish Corner / Angolo Polacco

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Polski Kącik / Polish Corner / Angolo Polacco

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 10:53

Hello! Cześć! Ciao! :D

Welcome to the Polish Corner. This topic is meant to provide support for those who are learning Polish. However, this is not a language course. This is a place where you can:
- talk in Polish in order to practice speaking and improve your language skills (I will correct errors)
- do Polish exercises (I will check if they are done correctly)
- ask questions concerning the Polish language (I will answer them)
- explain some matters to people learning Polish (I will do it)
Please feel at home! ;)


Witajcie w Polskim Kąciku. Ten temat ma za zadanie zapewnić wsparcie osobom uczącym się języka polskiego. Nie jest to jednak kurs języka. To miejsce, w którym możecie:
- rozmawiać po polsku, żeby poćwiczyć i podnieść poziom swoich umiejętności (będę poprawiał błędy)
- robić zadania z języka polskiego (będę sprawdzał, czy są zrobione poprawnie)
- zadawać pytania związane z językiem polskim (będę na nie odpowiadał)
- tłumaczyć pewne kwestie osobom uczącym się polskiego (będę to robił)
Proszę rozgośćcie się! ;)



Benvenuti all'Angolo Polacco. Quest'argomento ha per scopo fornire soccorso a coloro che imparano il polacco. Però non è un corso di lingua. E' un posto in cui potete:
- parlare in polacco per esercitarvi e alzare il livello della vostra capacità (correggerò gli errori)
- fare esercizi polacchi (controllerò se siano fatti correttamente)
- fare domande legate alla lingua polacca (risponderò)
- spiegare qualcosa a coloro che imparano il polacco (lo farò)
Accomodatevi! ;)
Last edited by Fenek on 2005-03-12, 19:17, edited 3 times in total.

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Ja

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 11:09

Najpierw się przedstawię.
Nazywam się Paweł "Fenek" Penszko.
Mam 23 lata.
Jestem Polakiem.
Znam polski, angielski i włoski.
Uczę się angielskiego, włoskiego i słoweńskiego.


First of all, I will introduce myself.
My name is Paweł "Fenek" Penszko.
I am 23 years old.
I am Polish.
I can speak Polish, English and Italian.
I'm learning English, Italian and Slovene.


Prima di tutto, mi presenterò.
Mi chiamo Paweł "Fenek" Penszko.
Ho 23 anni.
Sono polacco.
Conosco polacco, inglese e italiano.
Imparo inglese, italiano e sloveno.
Last edited by Fenek on 2003-01-09, 13:11, edited 1 time in total.

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Age & Languages

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 11:50

There is one tricky thing in the description of myself. It´s the phrase "I am xx years old". Polish numerals are tricky. Here is an explanation how to say "I am xx years old" correctly. I assume that you are more than 1 year old ;)

If the numeral ends in dwa (2), trzy (3) or cztery (4) (i.e. the number's last digit is 2, 3 or 4 and the number's last two digits are not 12, 13 or 14), you say Mam xx lata.
Otherwise, you say Mam xx lat.


Mam dwa lata = Mam 2 lata.
Mam trzy lata = Mam 3 lata.
Mam cztery lata = Mam 4 lata.
Mam pięć lat = Mam 5 lat.
Mam sześć lat = Mam 6 lat.
Mam siedem lat = Mam 7 lat.
Mam dziesięć lat = Mam 10 lat.
Mam jedenaście lat = Mam 11 lat.
Mam dwanaście lat = Mam 12 lat.
Mam trzynaście lat = Mam 13 lat.
Mam dwadzieścia lat = Mam 20 lat.
Mam dwadzieścia jeden lat = Mam 21 lat.
Mam dwadzieścia dwa lata = Mam 22 lata.
Mam dwadzieścia trzy lata = Mam 23 lata.
Mam dwadzieścia cztery lata = Mam 24 lata.
Mam dwadzieścia pięć lat = Mam 25 lat.
Mam trzydzieści lat = Mam 30 lat.
Mam trzydzieści trzy lata = Mam 33 lata.
Mam trzydzieści pięć lat = Mam 35 lat.
Mam sto lat = Mam 100 lat.


(added on 8 Jan 2003:)
You can find a list of nationalities in the first lesson of Polish Language Course by Piotr Pikuta ( http://golem.umcs.lublin.pl/users/ppikuta/lessons/less1.htm ). Please remember that you have to accord the noun's gender with your sex and you have to use the instrumental case!
Here is a list of language names:

Arabic - arabski
Belarusian - białoruski
Bulgarian - bułgarski
Catalan - kataloński
Chinese - chiński
Czech - czeski
Danish - duński
Dutch - niderlandzki
English - angielski
Esperanto - esperanto
Finnish - fiński
French - francuski
Irish Gaelic - irlandzki
Scottish Gaelic - szkocki
Galician - galisyjski
German - niemiecki
Greek - grecki
Hebrew - hebrajski
Hindi - hindi
Hungarian - węgierski
Indonesian - indonezyjski
Italian - włoski
Japanese - japoński
Latin - łaciński
Lithuanian - litewski
Norwegian - norweski
Polish - polski
Portuguese - portugalski
Romanian - rumuński
Russian - rosyjski
Serbocroatian - serbskochorwacki
Slovak - słowacki
Slovene - słoweński
Spanish - hiszpański
Swedish - szwedzki
Tagalog - tagalski
Thai - tajski
Turkish - turecki
Ukrainian - ukraiński
Welsh - walijski

To form the genitive of the names ending in -ki, you should add -ego. Esperanto and hindi are uninflectable, so you don't change their endings.
Last edited by Fenek on 2003-01-08, 9:20, edited 1 time in total.

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Polish conjugation - present and future perfect tense

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 15:15

Polish conjugation is difficult, because it is very irregular. According to some linguists, there are 18 conjugation groups and some irregular verbs. But you cannot always recognize the group the verb belongs to from its infinitive or any other single form. The best, probably, Polish course online, http://golem.umcs.lublin.pl/users/ppikuta/lessons/lessidx.htm, introduces another division, a division into three conjugation groups, and it tells you to memorize the conjugation patterns for each group. I'd like to suggest another method of learning how to conjugate Polish verbs in the present and the future perfect tense. I have invented it myself (I learn the Slovene conjugation in a similar way).
Using this method you can forget about different conjugation groups and their patterns. There is only one pattern. However, you have to memorize two verb forms: 1p. sing. and 3p. sing. When you get to know a new verb, you have to learn by heart its infinitive, its 1p. sing. and 3p. sing. The infinitive is not really required to conjugate the verb in the present and the future perfect tense, but you have to learn it anyway in order to build other tenses (the future imperfect tense above all).

The method presented below regards the present tense and the future perfect tense. Polish verbs are divided into perfective and imperfective verbs. Only imperfective verbs exist in the present tense and only perfective verbs exist in the future perfect tense. That is to say: there are no present tense forms of the perfective verbs and there are no future perfect tense forms of the imperfective verbs. The present tense and the future perfect tense are constructed exactly the same way, so the method regards both of them. If this is not too clear to you, because you are not acquainted with the future perfect tense and the division between perfective and imperfective verbs yet, don't worry. You don't have to know all those things at the moment. Just remember that only the imperfective verbs exist in the present tense. And take the following text as a guide to conjugating Polich verbs in the present tense.

OK, so I will assume that you remember the 1p. sing (first person singluar) and the 3p. sing. (third person singular) of a verb. (maybe this will make them easier to remember: the 1p. sing. always ends in -m or -ę; the 3p. sing. always ends in a vowel). This is how to conjugate the verb:

1p. sing. = 1p. sing. (you remember this form)
2p. sing. = 3p. sing. + 'sz'
3p. sing. = 3p. sing.
1p. plur. = 3p. sing. + 'my'
2p. plur. = 3p. sing. + 'cie'
3p. plur. = a) if the 1p. sing. ends in -m, replace this 'm' with 'ją'; b) if the 1p. sing. ends in -ę, replace this 'ę' with 'ą'.

That's all.

EXAMPLES
Let's start with some easy verb. For example:

czytać, czytam, czyta to read

1p. sing. : czytam I read
2p. sing. : czytasz you read
3p. sing. : czyta he/she/it reads
1p. plur. : czytamy we read
2p. plur. : czytacie you read
3p. plur. : czytają they read

Now, something more tricky.
kłamać, kłamię, kłamie to lie

1p. sing. : kłamię I lie
2p. sing. : kłamiesz you lie
3p. sing. : kłamie he/she/it lies
1p. plur. : kłamiemy we lie
2p. plur. : kłamiecie you lie
3p. plur. : kłamią they lie

Finally, a very nasty verb.
nieść, niosę, niesie to carry

1p. sing. : niosę I carry
2p. sing. : niesiesz you carry
3p. sing. : niesie he/she/it carries
1p. plur. : niesiemy we carry
2p. plur. : niesiecie you carry
3p. plur. : niosą they carry

EXCEPTIONS
I managed to find four basic verbs that do not conjugate according to the presented pattern:

być (jestem, jest), dać (dam, da), jeść (jem, je), wiedzieć (wiem, wie).
Być
is a very irregular verb and you have to learn its conjugation by heart anyway, there is no other solution. Dać, jeść, wiedzieć have unexpected 3p. plur. forms dadzą, jedzą, wiedzą. Apart from that, everything is as the method describes. The things that were said about these three irregular verbs are also true for the prefixed perfective verbs coming from these verbs, like
nabyć (nabędę, nabędzie), podać (podam, poda), zjeść (zjem, zje), powiedzieć (powiem, powie).

I hope this will help. Personally, I prefer to memorize word forms rather than memorize many patterns and complicated rules. This is why this method seems better to me.
Last edited by Fenek on 2004-03-15, 16:55, edited 5 times in total.
I'd appreciate any corrections to my messages!
Vi sarò molto grato per ogni correzione!
Zelo vam bom hvaležen za popravke!
Aş fi recunoscător pentru orice corectare!
Bio bih vam veoma zahvalan na ispravkama!

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Postby Luís » 2003-01-05, 17:02

Fenek wrote:According to some linguists, there are 18 conjugation groups and some irregular verbs.


18? :?: :shock: Do you wanna scare us or what ? :)

Ok, your method sounds fine but... how does one know the 1p. and 3p. singular? Since, you look at a dictionary the only thing you'll find is the infinitive form... :?

Hmm, what about some exercises for that? :wink:
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Postby Luís » 2003-01-05, 17:46

Ok, here's my intro :-) Can't say it's accurate, since it seems to include some cases I haven't come across with yet... :?

Nazywam się Luís Romão.
Mam dziewiętnaście lat.
Jestem Portugalczykiem.
Znam portugalski, angielski i
hiszpański.
Uczę się polskiego, włoskiego, fi
ńskiego etc :-)
(Corrected by Fenek)

First of all, I had no idea how to derive language names from nationalities (which is the only vocabulary I have around here :-)), but then I looked at what you wrote and just grabbed the stem of it and added a -ski :-D
The same for the last one... I don't know what that -iego thing is, but I added it anyway... :-)
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Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 18:42

Luis wrote:Ok, your method sounds fine but... how does one know the 1p. and 3p. singular? Since, you look at a dictionary the only thing you'll find is the infinitive form... :?


If you have the infinitive and nothing more, you need a dictionary which tells you what are the personal forms. Like this one:
http://sjp.pwn.pl/ :idea:

Let's assume that you know that "to help" is "pomóc" in Polish. This is what you need to do:
1. go to http://sjp.pwn.pl/
2. type "pomóc" (the infinitive form) in one of the boxes on the right (no matter which box)
3. click the button below the box
4. you will see a list of words; click the word "pomóc"
5. you will see the entry.

Now, the entry starts with a header. The header for "pomóc" looks like this:

pomóc dk XI, ~mogę, ~możesz, ~móż, ~mógł, ~mogła, ~mogli, ~mógłszy — pomagać ndk I, ~am, ~asz, ~ają, ~aj, ~ał

Let me decipher it.
pomóc - the infinitive form of the verb
dk = "dokonany" = perfective; it tells you that the verb "pomóc" is perfective
XI - the verb "pomóc" belongs to the XI conjugation group; you can click XI and you will see the conjugation group pattern
~mogę, ~możesz etc. - these are verb forms (the beginning is substituted by ~); the two first forms are always: 1p. sing. and 2p. sing.
pomagać - here is another verb, which is the imperfective correspondent of the verb "pomóc"; it is described in the same way as "pomóc"
ndk = "niedokonany" = imperfective
I - the conjugation group
~am, ~asz etc. - the forms' endings

So, how to say "I help" in Polish :?:
Take the imperfective verb "pomagać" (because the perfective verb "pomóc" doesn't have the present tense form :!: ). Check the header and you will see what the 1p. sing. is:

pomóc dk XI, ~mogę, ~możesz, ~móż, ~mógł, ~mogła, ~mogli, ~mógłszy — pomagać ndk I, ~am, ~asz, ~ają, ~aj, ~ał

It's "pomagam".
"I help" = "Ja pomagam" :)

And how to say "He helps" in Polish :?:
There is no 3p. sing. in the dictionary, but there is the 2p. sing., and you know that:
2p. sing. = 3p. sing. + 'sz'
You can modify my method and memorize the 2p. sing. instead of the 3p. sing., or you can get 3p. sing. from the 2p. sing. Since the 2p. sing. is "pomagasz", the 3p. sing. will be "pomaga".
"He helps" = "On pomaga" :)

Is everything clear?

Luis wrote:Hmm, what about some exercises for that? :wink:


Exercises? :) OK, I can give you some verbs and you can try to conjugate them (all the persons, both sigular and plural).

First, five verbs with 1p. sing. and 3p. sing. given by me
pomagać, pomagam, pomaga to help
szukać, szukam, szuka to search
przeglądać, przeglądam, przegląda to browse
pracować, pracuję, pracuje to work
iść, idę, idzie to go

And now, five infinitives (so you have to find the personal forms yourself).
czytać to read
szanować to respect
uczyć to teach
nazywać to name
mieć to have

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Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 19:04

Luis wrote:Nazywam się Luís Romão.
Mam dziewiętnaście lat.
Jestem Portugalczykiem.
Znam portugalski, angielski i Hiszpanski.
Uczę się polskiego, włoskiego, finskiego etc :-)



Very good! :D
There are only two words to correct, but you couldn't have known them indeed...
hiszpański
fińskiego

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Postby Luís » 2003-01-05, 20:17

Fenek wrote:Is everything clear?


I guess :? I don't think I'm quite sure what an Imperfective and Perfective verb is... besides the first one conjugating in the present and the second in the future... but why? :?: and does each verb has 2 forms? :?: Or else how can you talk about something in the future if the verb doesn't conjugate for that tense ? :?:

Fenek wrote:Exercises? :-) OK, I can give you some verbs and you can try to conjugate them (all the persons, both sigular and plural).


You seem to have forgotten one little detail... how does one find the stem of the verb :wink: - But I did find out that infinitives end in -c or , so I guess it's just a matter of taking that ending out to get the stem...

THE FIRST PART

pomagać, pomagam, pomaga

ja pomagam
ty pogamasz
on/ona pomaga
my pomagamy
wy pomagacie
oni/one pomagają


szukać, szukam, szuka

ja szukam
ty szukasz
on/ona szuka
my szukamy
wy szukacie
oni/one szukają


przeglądać, przeglądam, przegląda

ja przeglądam
ty przeglądasz
on/ona przegląda
my przeglądamy
wy przeglądacie
oni/one przeglądają


pracować, pracuję, pracuje

ja pracuję
ty pracujesz
on/ona pracuje
my pracujemy
wy pracujecie
oni/one pracują


iść, idę, idzie

ja idę
ty idziesz
on/ona idzie
my idziemy
wy idziecie
oni/one idą


THE SECOND PART

czytać

ja czytam
ty czytasz
on/ona czyta
my czytamy
wy czytacie
oni/one czytają


szanować

Correct conjugation (by Fenek):
ja szanuję
ty szanujesz
on szanuje
my szanujemy
wy szanujecie
oni szanują

ja szanowanuję
ty szanowanujesz
on/ona szanowanuje
my szanowanujemy
wy szanowanujecie
oni/one szanowanują


uczyć

ja uczę
ty uczysz
on/ona uczy
my uczymy
wy uczycie
oni/one uczą


nazywać

ja nazywam
ty nazywasz
on/ona nazywa
my nazywamy
wy nazywacie
oni/one nazywają


mieć

ja mam
ty masz
on/ona ma
my mamy
wy macie
oni/one mają


I hope I didn't do too bad :)
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Postby Fenek » 2003-01-05, 22:49

You did quite well :)
You only misconjugated the verb "szanować", because you didn't know what the ~ in the dictionary entry stood for.
It should be szanować - szanuję, szanujesz, szanuje...
I hope you don't object me to edit your posts and add my corrections inside. If you don't, let's create a convention: I will use the darkred color to write texts in Polish and the red color to write my corrections. I used to write light red Polish texts, because that color was closer to the color of the Polish national flag, but I will change my habit :) OK?

Back to the problem with the dictionary... they replace the beginning of the word with ~. It's not really the stem, it's just the beginning. They could write:
szanuję, szanujesz, szanuj, szanował, szanowany;
but they wrote:
~nuję, ~nujesz, ~nuj, ~ował, ~owany;
because they wanted the header to be shorter. In the first two forms ~ stands for "sza", in the last two forms it stands for "szan". I know it is sometimes hard to figure out what is substituted by ~. I had the same problem when I was learning Latin. This is what comes to my mind as a possible solution:
- you can click the Roman number and see the conjugation table; maybe this will help you
- you can ask me :)
When you know Polish better, you will have this problem no more, because you will intuitevely feel which forms are possible and which are not.

As for the imperfective and perfective verbs, I will write another post...

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Aspect

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-06, 13:25

Hey :), Luis, I know the division between imperfective and perfective verbs is not absolutely clear to you. To fully understand that division you would have to understand the Polish system of Aspects. And to understand the Polish system of Aspects you would have to see how it works in practice. I'm afraid it's too early for you to gain a fully understanding of the system :? I'll try to give you a general idea of what aspect is. I have had a look at the proycon's The Four Latin Languages reference and I will try to confront it with Portuguese.

Luis wrote:and does each verb has 2 forms?


Precisely: pomóc and pomagać are not two forms of the same verb. They are two diffferent verbs, which have the same meaning, except that the former is perfective and the latter is imperfective. Hence, the former only exists in the perfect tenses (future perfect and past perfect) and the latter only exists in the imperfect tenses (future imperfect, present and past imperfect) (I believe there are five tenses in Polish, unfortunately you may come across many different terminologies). And no, not every perfective verb has its imperfective correspondent verb and not every imperfective verb has its perfective correspondent. This is a little bit like noun's gender in Portuguese. Every Portuguese noun is characterized by its gender - feminine or masculine. Some feminine nouns have their masculine correspondents (e.g. feiticera - feiticero), some don't (e.g. democracia). Analogically, every Polish verb is characterized by its aspect - imperfective or perfective. Some imperfective verbs have their perfective correspondents (e.g. pomagać - pomóc), some don't (e.g. uczyć).
How to say something about the present when the verb doesn't conjugate in the present tense? You have to use another verb!
Strange? :)

OK, I'll try to explain roughly what the aspect is about. As far as the meaning is concerned, the difference between the Polish past perfect tense and the Polish past imperfect tense is close to the difference between the Portuguese Imperfecto and Preterito. You know, "action is a single event" vs. "state which lasts" and so on. In Portuguese you say:
eu comi
eu comia
.
So you use the same verb comer in both tenses.
Polish does not work that way. We use different verbs in different tenses. When we want to say comi, we use the perfective verb zjeść. But when we want to say comia, we use another, imperfective verb which has similar meaning - zjadać, jeść or jadać.

I hope this explanation makes you feel better, not worse ;) Hey, nobody said that Polish would be easy! ;)

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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-01-06, 21:05

Fenek, would you happen to know if the Polish aspect system parallels that of the Russian language or if it takes any signficantly different approach? I remember it was hard at first for me to get the aspect subject in Russian, but even though I'm far from understanding it completely, it doesn't sound any 'alien' any more, so I could use that knowledge if the Polish view of it is similar enough.

By the way, a very basic plan I once got from the Internet to decide about which aspect to use in Russian was the following:

Image

Taken from http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/language/aspect.html.

Though very simple and far from covering all it's about, I guess it might be a good thing to help beginners. What do you think?
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Postby Luís » 2003-01-06, 22:07

Fenek wrote:I hope this explanation makes you feel better, not worse :wink:


:shock: Ok, I'll try... as soon as I recover from the initial shock :wink:

Let's talk about something different :-)

Now that I know how to conjugate verbs in the present, I will sure want to build some sentences ("I read the book", "You write a letter" etc), but for that, I guess I need to know about the accusative case and its endings.

Also, about how the accusative case works with adjectives ("I read the big yellow book", "I write the long novel" etc)

The lessons I'm following tell a little about the accusative with nouns, but not with adjectives yet...

Anyway, I think you're a better teacher! :wink:

If you can then make some exercises for that I'd be grateful... take your time :-)
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Polish and Russian

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-06, 23:02

Psi-Lord wrote:Fenek, would you happen to know if the Polish aspect system parallels that of the Russian language or if it takes any signficantly different approach?


I can't speak Russian, but I have read a Russian grammar reference and I didn't notice any difference between the Russian and the Polish aspect system :!:

But please pay attention to the terminology, because the one you use may be different than mine. I claim that there are five tenses in Polish and Russian:

1. future imperfect
2. future perfect
3. present
4. past imperfect
5. past perfect

But:
2 and 3 are constructed exactly the same way, and
4 and 5 are constructed exactly the same way.

There are different approaches to the matter of tenses in Polish. You can unite 4 and 5 and consider it one single tense, you can unite 2 and 3, you can unite 1 and 2... I will give examples in Polish and Russian to show what I mean by those tenses.

1. ja będę czytać я буду читать
2. ja przeczytam я прочитаю
3. ja czytam я читаю
4. ja czytałem я читал
5. ja przeczytałem я прочитал

(I hope I didn't make any stupid errors... sorry, I can't speak Russian at all)

Thanks for the plan!
I think it can be useful :D

Darky

Postby Darky » 2003-01-07, 21:03

ooooh i'd liek to learn polish too but i'm too buy at the moment... Though that plan that psi-lord showed will be very useful for my russina: it's hard to use perfective and imperfective correctly when you first have to deal with that...it's a question of habit of course, but at first can be rather shocking ;)

-Darkroom-

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Fenek
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Postby Fenek » 2003-01-07, 22:23

Cześć, Daniel! Miło Cię tu widzieć! :D
Hi, Daniel! Nice to see you here! :D

Let me correct your passage

Nazywam się Daniel McManus.
Mam dziewiętnaście (19)
lat. *
Jestem Irlandczykiem.
Znam angielski, hiszpański i francu
ski.
Uczę się hiszpańskiego, francu
skiego i japońskiego.

* - please read the post "Age" (it's the third post in this topic)

Unfortunately some matters that are very useful in presenting oneself - nationalities, languages, numerals - are tricky and full of irregularities.
That makes me think that I should make a list of language names. I will do it and I will answer Luis' last post as soon as I can.

Używam języka migowego. = "I use sign language."
Znam język migowy. = "I know (=am able to use) sign language."

Jestem Szkotem. = I am a Scot.

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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-01-07, 23:13

I've just thought of jumping into the language itself, too. :)

Nazywam się Marcel Querubini.
Jestem Brazylijczykiem.
Mam 23 (dwadzieścia trzy) lata.
Znam portugalski i angielski.
Uczę się japońskiego, greckiego, ruskiego i chińskiego.


I wasn't sure whether I should be using ruski or rosyjski for Russian though.
português do Brasil (pt-BR)British English (en-GB) galego (gl) português (pt) •• العربية (ar) български (bg) polski (pl) ••• Deutsch (de) español rioplatense (es-AR) français (fr) magyar (hu) հայերեն (hy) italiano (it) 日本語 (ja) lingua Latina (la) ภาษาไทย (th) Türkçe (tr) 普通話 (zh-CN)

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Postby Fenek » 2003-01-08, 8:23

Bardzo dobrze! Very good, Psi-Lord! :D
You should have used rosyjski (since ruski is a slang denoting "Russian" or a linguistic term denoting "the medieval language which split into Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian"). Apart from that, everything is correct.

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Real Name: Paweł Penszko
Gender: male
Location: Warszawa
Country: PL Poland (Polska)

Langauge names

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-08, 9:35

I added a list of language names to the third post in this topic.

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Fenek
Posts: 3332
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Real Name: Paweł Penszko
Gender: male
Location: Warszawa
Country: PL Poland (Polska)

Postby Fenek » 2003-01-08, 11:07

Luis wrote:Now that I know how to conjugate verbs in the present, I will sure want to build some sentences ("I read the book", "You write a letter" etc), but for that, I guess I need to know about the accusative case and its endings.

Also, about how the accusative case works with adjectives ("I read the big yellow book", "I write the long novel" etc)

The lessons I'm following tell a little about the accusative with nouns, but not with adjectives yet...


I guess you have already learned the acc. sing. endings of nouns, which are given in the 4th lesson of Pikuta's course (a very difficult lesson, by the way, a lot of grammar, personally I would divide it into a few lessons).

Here are the acc. sing. endings of adjectives:
neuter: same as nom. sing.
feminine: -a => -ą
masculine inanimate: same as nom. sing.
masculine animate: -ego

Some examples.
Nominative:
To jest piękne zwierzę. This is a beautiful animal.
To jest piękna Portugalka. This is a beautiful Portuguese woman.
To jest piękny obraz. This is a beautiful painting.
To jest piękny Portugalczyk. This is a handsome Portuguese man.

Accusative:
Widzę piękne zwierzę. I see a beautiful animal.
Widzę piękną Portugalkę. I see a beautiful Portuguese woman.
Widzę piękny obraz. I see a beautiful painting.
Widzę pięknego Portugalczyka. I see a handsome Portuguese man.

Warning:
1) Not every verb requires accusative, some verbs require other cases.
2) Don't build negative sentences.

I think I will list some verbs and tell which cases they require. Then, I can suggest some exercises.


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