Polish adjectives, are they right?

neil_k
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Polish adjectives, are they right?

Postby neil_k » 2010-12-04, 0:19

Hi, could a native Polish speaker please tell me if these adjectives are correct? (I put them in masculine form). I looked them up in a dictionary, but I want to make sure they sound natural.

Also, can I use 'jestem' with these, for example 'jestem wesoły', 'jestem spragniony' etc? Or do I need to add the verb 'to feel', for example in English we say 'I FEEL happy', I FEEL thirsty' etc. Do you need 'to feel' in Polish to describe feelings etc, or can you just use 'jestem'?

Happy - wesoły
Sad - smutny
Angry - rozgniewany
Frustrated - sfrustrowany
Excited - podniecony
Relaxed - wypoczęty
Comfortable - wygodny
Stressed - zestresowany
Tired - zmęczony
Hungry - gwodny
Thirsty - spragniony
Big - duży
Small - mały
Easy - łatwy
Difficult - trudny
New - nowy
Old - stary
Young - młody
Cheap - tani
Expensive - drogi
Beautiful - piękny
Pretty - ładny
Fast - szybko
Slow - wolne
Hot - upalny
Cold - zimny
Busy - zajęty
Lazy - leniwy
Intelligent - inteligentny
Talented - utalentowany
Interesting - interesujący
Delicious - smaczny
Confident - pewny
Disappointed - zawiedziony
Tall - wysoki
Short - niski
Wide - przestronny
Nervous - nerwowy
Good - dobry
Bad - niedobry / zły
Excellent - dobitny / świetny
English - native,
Spanish, Italian, German, Polish - intermediate
Welsh - Dw i'n dysgu siarad/ysgrifennu/darllen/clywed Cymraeg
Japanese - I can hold basic conversations
Mandarin Chinese - needs a lot of work

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Qrczak
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Re: Polish adjectives, are they right?

Postby Qrczak » 2010-12-04, 10:41

neil_k wrote:Also, can I use 'jestem' with these, for example 'jestem wesoły', 'jestem spragniony' etc?

Generally yes.

But some adjectives don't map one to one:

neil_k wrote:Happy - wesoły

Also: szczęśliwy, depending on the meaning.

Wesoły — manifesting happiness (cheerful).
Radosny — similar to wesoły; slightly archaic word.
Szczęśliwy — feeling happiness inside; szczęśliwy also means lucky (about an incident, not a person).

neil_k wrote:Angry - rozgniewany

Yes but it’s quite a formal word. Colloquially: zły, which also means bad or evil.

neil_k wrote:Comfortable - wygodny

This is tricky. A chair or a trip can be wygodne. But when applied to a person, it means that he values his comfort more than other people’s needs, never that he feels comfortable. ‘I feel comfortable’ can be translated as ‘wygodnie mi’ (this is a sentence without a formal subject).

neil_k wrote:Stressed - zestresowany

Yes but only when applied to a person.

About some construction element: obciążony, maybe something else. About a syllable: akcentowany.

neil_k wrote:Hungry - gwodny

głodny

neil_k wrote:Thirsty - spragniony

Yes but it’s a very formal word. In everyday speech ‘I am thirsty’ is ‘chce mi się pić’.

neil_k wrote:Fast - szybko

This is an adverb. Adjective: szybki.

neil_k wrote:Slow - wolne

This is neuter gender or plural. Masculine singular: wolny.

neil_k wrote:Hot - upalny

Yes but only about the weather.
About a physical object: gorący (this can also be said about the weather).
About a dish (spicy): pikantny.

neil_k wrote:Short - niski

Yes but only as the opposite of tall.
As the opposite of long: krótki.

neil_k wrote:Wide - przestronny

Yes but only when applied to the interior of a place for humans to stay in (a room, a car, a passage etc.).
In most other meanings: szeroki (physical objects like furniture, door, spacing, spectrum).

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pittmirg
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Re: Polish adjectives, are they right?

Postby pittmirg » 2010-12-04, 11:32

Qrczak wrote:
neil_k wrote:Comfortable - wygodny

This is tricky. A chair or a trip can be wygodne. But when applied to a person, it means that he values his comfort more than other people’s needs, never that he feels comfortable. ‘I feel comfortable’ can be translated as ‘wygodnie mi’ (this is a sentence without a formal subject).


I would argue that this type of dative arguments has at least one subject property, it can govern reflexives:

Żal mi siebie.
Jest mu dobrze ze sobą.


About a dish (spicy): pikantny.


Also, ostry, e.g. ostry sos.

neil_k wrote:Wide - przestronny

Yes but only when applied to the interior of a place for humans to stay in (a room, a car, a passage etc.).


Przestronny could indeed be translated as "spacious".

neil_k wrote:Also, can I use 'jestem' with these, for example 'jestem wesoły', 'jestem spragniony' etc? Or do I need to add the verb 'to feel', for example in English we say 'I FEEL happy', I FEEL thirsty' etc. Do you need 'to feel' in Polish to describe feelings etc, or can you just use 'jestem'?


What Qrczak said but mind you that in case of certain sensations (warmth and coldness, among others) Polish uses (jest) + Dative + adverb (other orderings can be possible, too, and the copula is often optional in the present tense in this particular construction).

Czy jest panu zimno?
Gorąco mi.


Things like była ciepła would mean either that the person's body was warm or have a non-literal emotion-related meaning, here sth like "friendly, caring".

Czuć się also often requires an adverb, e.g. Czuję się źle*. But not always, e.g. czuję się zestresowany.

*strictly speaking, czuję się zły would mean "I feel evil".
Śnieg, zawierucha w nas

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Qrczak
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Re: Polish adjectives, are they right?

Postby Qrczak » 2010-12-04, 14:16

pittmirg wrote:
About a dish (spicy): pikantny.


Also, ostry, e.g. ostry sos.

Ah, indeed, this is even more common in common speech.

But beware: ostry is primarily sharp. I recently saw ‘sharp paprika’ in a pizza menu mistranslated to English.

(And below that, ‘fruits from a sea’.)

neil_k
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Re: Polish adjectives, are they right?

Postby neil_k » 2010-12-05, 22:19

Great, thanks for your replies :-)
English - native,
Spanish, Italian, German, Polish - intermediate
Welsh - Dw i'n dysgu siarad/ysgrifennu/darllen/clywed Cymraeg
Japanese - I can hold basic conversations
Mandarin Chinese - needs a lot of work


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