Thx Nero ! You're more than welcome to learn it
Today's lesson will be about the three "participles".
With them, you'll be able to extand your scope of expression.
1. The "past" participle
This is the one you get when learning a new verb. Usually, it ends in tu(du), which is a legacy from Latin. This is how nouns/adjectives are turned into verbs, etc... e.g.: pentsatu = to think.
Gazte: young --> gaztetu: to make young/ to rejuvenate
Better: ohe: bed --> ohera: to bed --> oheratu: to go to bed
Your imagination's the limit (and also uses...)
Other verbs ends in "n" (egin), i (etorri), etc...
This is a past participle used to make present perfect (pp + izan/ukan).
There is another past participle, used with state verbs like egon, eduki. This is the state past participle, in ta(da). (Sorry when I put (da) it means that, for euphonic reasons, the ending in t becomes d if the verb ends in "n").
Let's have it clearer, shall we ?
When I take the verb to tire: nekatu and I am wondering: how would I be able to express the feeling of my tiredness? I analyze the whole stuff as follows:
1. I am tired : not very transitive, let's not use ergative
2. Hopefully I won't be tired tomorrow, so this is a transitory state, let's use "egon"
3. You've said egon ? okay so the pp may be in "ta", for it describes a state
4. Can you remind me of the word for "tire" ? Yes, it's nekatu (sounds very Japanese, doesn't it?)
So the sentence is "Ni nekatuta nago".
2. The "present" participle
Well, in fact, it's not really a present participle, but rather a nominalized form of the verb.
Take the past participle, remove the ending (tu, n, i whatever...), then add t(z)en (you can use both ten/tzen). Just for the notice, ten is te + n, n being a locative (non) form. Indeed, adding te makes the nominalized form of the verb (egite(a): the fact of doing).
When you use the present participle + izan/naiz, you obtain a kind of countinuous present.
The difference between past participle/present participle is more in terms of aspects, like in English.
Okay, now that you begin to understand it a bit more, let's see the present participle for a couple of verbs
joan => joaten
jan => jaten
etorri => etort(z)en (note that the second r is dropped)
ibili => ibilt(z)en
kantatu => kantat(z)en
Last, but not least, a small tip to make you quasi-bilingual.
As you've seen, the present participle is declined.
What if we take the allative (nora) form ?
You make an allative participle ! Only to be used after movement verbs (ibili, joan, etc...)
He goes to eat in the restaurant
Janetexera jatera doa.
What if we take the locative genitive (nongo) form ?
You make a purpose participle
In the urban jungle, men kill to survive.
Hiriko oihanan gizonek bizirik irauteko hil dute. (Nice sentence ?)
3. The future participle
The easiest for the end. Just add "go" at the past participle. And use it like the past participle.
I will eat in the restaurant
Janetxean jango dut.
Hope I did not kill you for that lesson, I'll try to proofread it just to check the spellings/mistakes.