Illative case

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Linguaphile
Posts: 3046
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Illative case

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-12-27, 16:41

Estonian has a set of three inner locative cases:
    illative (sisseütlev) = for motion into something; it uses the ending -sse or ends in a vowel
    inessive (seesütlev) = for location inside something; it uses the ending -s
    elative (seestütlev) = for motion out of something; it uses the ending -st

This post will focus on the illative (sisseütlev) case in the singular.
Its Estonian name means "into" (sisse) "saying" (ütlev), and the first component of that word (sisse) gives a convenient reminder of its regular ending (-sse).

Question words for the illative (sisseütlev) case:
    kuhu? into where? to where?
    millesse? into what?
    kellesse? into whom?
Some common uses for the illative case (sisseütlev) are:
  • when talking about motion into something (lähen teatrisse = "I'm going into the theater")
  • when talking about motion to certain places, such as to a city (sõidan autoga Tartusse = "I'm going to Tartu by car")
  • with the verb jääma "to stay in" (kui kauaks jääb Tartusse = "how long is he/she staying in Tartu?"
  • with the verb saabuma "to arrive in, to arrive at" (saabus Eestisse = "he/she arrived in Estonia"
  • with the verb puutuma "to pertain to, to concern, to be in regards to" (see ei puutu sinusse = "this does not concern you")
  • with the verbs armuma "to fall in love with" and kiinduma "to take a liking to, to fancy" (armusin temasse = "I fell in love with him/her")
  • with the verb uskuma "to believe in" (usun Jumalasse = "I believe in God")
  • with the verb suhtuma "to treat, to regard" (suhtub minusse nagu lapsesse = "he/she treats me like a child"

The regular illative ending is formed by attaching -sse to the genitive form of any noun or adjective:
    haigla (hospital): genitive haigla, illative haiglasse
    hea (good): genitive hea, illative heasse
    karu (bear): genitive karu, illative karusse
    katus (roof): genitive katuse, illative katusesse
    kelder (cellar): genitive keldri, illative keldrisse
    puu (tree): genitive puu, illative puusse
    raamat (book): genitive raamatu, illative raamatusse

Some words that end with -se in the genitive form have two illative forms, one which adds the -sse ending to the genitive -se as usual (forming -sesse) and a second, shorter one in which the -se of the genitive form is removed prior to adding -sse:
    armastus (love): genitive armastuse, illative armastusse or armastusesse
    eestlane (Estonian): genitive eestlase, illative eestlasse or eestlasesse
    haigus (illness, disease): genitive haiguse, illative haigusse or haigusesse
    järgmine (next): genitive järgmise, illative järgmisse or järgmisesse
    kauplus (store): genitive kaupluse, illative kauplusse or kauplusesse
    küsimus (question): genitive küsimuse, illative küsimusse or küsimusesse
    loodus (nature): genitive looduse, illative loodusse or loodusesse
    roheline (green): genitive rohelise, illative rohelisse or rohelisesse
    õpilane (student): genitive õpilase, illative õpilasse or õpilasesse
Many words also have a short illative form, which ends with -de, -te, -he, -hu, or a vowel. These forms must be memorized. Basically, when learning new words, you should learn whether or not those words have a short illative form and if so, what the short illative form of is.
Note also that short illatives are typically pronounced in the third degree, i.e. overlong quantity. This means that (for example) even though genitive linna and illative linna are spelled the same, illative linna is pronounced with a longer n sound compared to genitive linna.)
In the list below, the nominative form and translation are given, followed by the short illative form and then the longer illative form.
This is not a complete list by any means, but lists some common ones, and will give you an idea of what the short illative forms look like and how they compare to the longer illative forms. Even though they are not entirely predictable and must be memorized, there are certain patterns to them which help with learning the short illative forms of new words. (I have grouped them by word-types.)

    general pattern: -VCV in nominative becomes -VCCV for short illative
    elu (life) = ellu, elusse
    jõgi (river) = jõkke, jõesse
    keha (body) = kehha, kehasse
    kino (movie theater, cinema) = kinno, kinosse
    küla (village) = külla, külasse
    lumi (snow) = lumme, lumesse
    maja (house) = majja, majasse
    meri (sea) = merre, meresse
    mägi (hill, mountain) = mäkke, mäesse
    mälu (memory) = mällu, mälusse
    nägu (face) = näkku, näosse
    oja (creek) = ojja, ojasse
    osa (part) = ossa, osasse
    talu (farm) = tallu, talusse
    tuba (room) = tuppa, toasse
    tuju (mood) = tujju, tujusse
    tuli (fire) = tulle, tulesse

    general pattern: CVV in nominative becomes CVhV for short illative
    pea (head) = pähe, peasse
    öö (night) = öhe, öösse
    suu (mouth) = suhu, suusse
    soo (swamp) = sohu, soosse

    general pattern: CVsi in nominative becomes CVtte for short illative
    käsi (hand) = kätte, käesse
    mesi (honey) = mette, meesse
    susi (wolf) = sutte, soesse
    vesi (water) = vette, veesse

    general pattern: -VVC in nominative becomes -VVCde (sometimes -VVde) for short illative
    keel (language) = keelde, keelesse
    lääs (west) = läände, läänesse
    meel (mind) = meelde, meelesse
    saar (island) = saarde, saaresse
    suur (large) = suurde, suuresse
    uus (new) = uude, uuesse
    viis (five) = viide, viiesse

    Various others
    aed (garden) = aeda, aiasse
    ahi (stove) = ahju, ahjusse
    apteek (pharmacy) = apteeki, apteegisse
    auk (hole) = auku, augusse
    halb (bad) = halba, halvasse
    hotell (hotel) = hotelli, hotellisse
    jaam (station) = jaama, jaamasse
    jalg (foot, leg) = jalga, jalasse
    järv (lake) = järve, järvesse
    karp (box) = karpi, karbisse
    keskkond (environment) = keskkonda, keskkonnasse
    kool (school) = kooli, koolisse
    kott (bag) = kotti, kotisse
    köök (kitchen) = kööki, köögisse
    linn (city) = linna, linnasse
    mets (forest) = metsa, metsasse
    muuseum (museum) = muuseumi, muuseumisse
    paat (boat) = paati, paadisse
    pood (store) = poodi, poesse
    restoran (restaurant) = restorani, restoranisse
    saun (sauna) = sauna, saunasse
    selg (back) = selga, seljasse
    toos (box) = toosi, toosisse
    tund (hour, lesson) = tundi, tunnisse
    vann (tub) = vanni, vannisse
    õu (yard) = õue, õuesse
    kodu (home) = koju, kodusse
Note that these "patterns" do not fit every word. It is necessary to memorize which words use these patterns and which do not. For example, not every CVV word has a CVhV short illative; suu has a short illative form suhu but the illative of puu is puusse (never *puhu). The short illative of pea is pähe but the illative form of the word hea is heasse (not *hähe) and so on.

Not just common nouns and adjectives but also place-names have short illative forms:
    Haapsalu (Haapsalu) = Haapsallu, Haapsalusse
    Leedu (Lithuania) = Leetu, Leedusse
    Läti (Latvia) = Lätti, Lätisse
    Narva-Jõesuu (Narva-Jõesuu) = Narva-Jõesuhu, Narva-Jõesuusse
    Tartu (Tartu) = Tartu, Tartusse
    Türgi (Turkey) = Türki, Türgisse
    Võru (Võru) = Võrru, Võrusse

For words that have both a short illative form and a regular (long) illative, the short illative form is used much more often than the longer illative.
There are also some situations in which both forms are used but with different meanings. In those cases the longer illative form is usually used with verbs that involve illative in a more abstract way while the shorter illative is used with the more literal ("motion into") concrete meaning:

    Lähen kooli. = I go into the school. (literal meaning which involves motion into something)
    Mis puutub koolisse.... = As for the school... / Regarding the school... (more abstract meaning, no actual motion)
    Lähen külla. = I go into the village. (literal meaning which involves motion into something)
    Armusin külasse = I fell in love with the village. (more abstract meaning, no actual motion)
    Kukkus jõkke. = He/she fell into the river. (literal meaning which involves motion into something)
    Kiindus jõesse. = He/she took a liking to the river. (more abstract meaning, no actual motion)

Linguaphile
Posts: 3046
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Illative case

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-12-27, 16:58

For practice with illative:

Klikkige piltidel (learn illative forms through pictures & audio)
Klikkige piltidel (learn illative forms through pictures & audio)
Kuulake ja klikkige õigel pildil (practice illative forms through pictures & audio)
Kuulake ja klikkige õigel pildil (practice illative forms through pictures & audio)

Ainsuse sisseütlev (sse-lõpuline) (type the -sse illative form of the verb in parenthesis)

Ainsuse sisseütlev (lühike vorm) (type the short illative form of the verb in parenthesis)
Lühike sisseütlev (type the short illative form of the verb in parenthesis)
Lühike sisseütlev (type the short illative form of the verb given)

Ainsuse sisseütlev (type the short or -sse illative form of the verb in parenthesis)
Sisseütlev (type the short or -sse illative form of the verb in parenthesis)
Käändsõnade sisseütlev (put the short illative or -sse illative in the crossword puzzle)

Valige sisseütlev või alaleütlev (choose whether to use the illative or allative case)
Tõstke sõnad õigesse kasti(choose between allative, -sse illative or short illative)
Tõstke sõnad õigesse kasti (choose between allative, -sse illative or short illative)
Vaadake pilti ja lõpetage lause (fill in the blanks with the allative, -sse illative or short illative form)

Linguaphile
Posts: 3046
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Illative case

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-12-28, 19:33

Videos about the illative case from the free online course Keeletee.
(If you go to the course itself, these are in Unit 1.1, Minu tavaline esmaspäev (specifically 1.1.24 through 1.1.36 deals with the illative case). The videos work better within the course because the videos will pause at the exercises automatically and allow you to check your answers. When posted here, they don't do that.)

-sse illative:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAFlefWknBc&feature=emb_logo

short illative:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vu5oU2wlg3g&feature=emb_logo


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