The lihtminevik for regular verbs formed by taking the ma-infinitive form, removing the -ma ending, and adding the following:
|ta||-s / -is *|
1. If the stem of the -ma infinitive form of the verb ends in a vowel, the ending for the third-person singular is -s.
2. If the stem of the -ma infinitive form of the verb ends in a consonant, the ending for the third-person singular is -is.
3. If the stem of the -ma infinitive form of the verb ends in -s-, the ending for the third-person singular becomes -is, and for all other forms besides the third-person singular the s of the stem is omitted.
4. If the stem of the -ma infinitive form of the verb ends in -p- or -t- following a short vowel, the -p- or -t- is doubled for the third-person singular, and the third-person singular ending is -is).
**The past tense ending for the second person singular and third person plural are the same: -sid.
1. For a verb whose stem ends in a vowel: ütlema
|ma ütlesin||I said|
|sa ütlesid||you (singular) said|
|ta ütles||he/she said|
|me ütlesime||we said|
|te ütlesite||you (plural) said|
|nad ütlesid||they said|
2. For a verb whose stem ends in a consonant: teadma (note that the third-person singular ending is -is here; other than that it is the same as #1 above):
|ma teadsin||I knew|
|sa teadsid||you (singular) knew|
|ta teadis||he/she knew|
|me teadsime||we knew|
|te teadsite||you (plural) knew|
|nad teadsid||they knew|
3. For a verb whose stem ends in an -s: seisma (note that the -s- of the stem has been removed here, with the -s of the past tense remaining; except for the third-person singular, which retains both):
|ma seisin||I stood|
|sa seisid||you (singular) stood|
|ta seisis||he/she stood|
|me seisime||we stood|
|te seisite||you (plural) stood|
|nad seisid||they stood|
4. For a verb whose stem ends in a -t: võtma (note the double -tt- in the third person singular):
|ma võtsin||I took|
|sa võtsid||you (singular) took|
|ta võttis||he/she took|
|me võtsime||we took|
|te võtsite||you (plural) took|
|nad võtsid||they took|
Irregular verbs (of which there are thankfully relatively few for the lihtminevik) and negative lihtminevik will be discussed soon in my next posts!