Future tense

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kloie
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Future tense

Postby kloie » 2019-01-21, 0:14

Could we use saama and hakkama to form the future tense like finnish uses tulla and aikoa?

Linguaphile
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Re: Future tense

Postby Linguaphile » 2019-01-21, 2:45

kloie wrote:Could we use saama and hakkama to form the future tense like finnish uses tulla and aikoa?

I don't think I'd call it a "future tense" per se - technically Estonian doesn't have a future tense, and it has a variety of different ways to express future events - but yes, those verbs are two of those ways.
Saama is used with only a few verbs, usually with olema, but also with a few others like toimuma. Hakkama can be used with a wider variety of verbs.

You can say, for example:
See aasta saab olema põnev. = This year will be exciting.
Ta hakkab neid aitama. = He will help them.
Mida sa hakkad tegema? = What are you going to do?

Also, when direct objects are involved the partial/total object distinction helps to express the future, as in these two examples (from my previous post above):
Ma ostan raamatut. (part. sing.) = I am buying the book. (partial object)
Ma ostan raamatu. (gen. sing.) = I will buy the book. (total object)

You can also use verbs like "kavatsema" to express the future when it relates to what someone is going to do:
Ma kavatsen minna Tartusse. = I'm going to go to Tartu.
Nende tütar kavatseb abielluda. = Their daughter is going to get married.
Since this technically means "intends to" or "plans to," though, you would not use this verb with an inanimate subject (such as the exciting year mentioned in the example above, for example, or the warmer weather in the example below).

And there are other verbs that are sometimes used. But I think the most common way of expressing the future tense is simply by using the present tense verb, and if clarification is needed a future-oriented time word is added (homme, järgmisel nädalal, varsti, tulevikus, etc).
Ma lähen [homme] kinno. = I'm going to the movies [tomorrow].
Ma räägin temaga [varsti]. = I'll talk to him [soon].
Liisa töötab järgmisel aastal täie koormusega. = Liisa will work full time next year.
Ilm muutub soojemaks. = The weather will get warmer.
Gripi aktiivsus suureneb lähinädalatel. = Flu activity will increase in the coming weeks.
Mida sa järgmisena teed? = What will you do next?
Context often makes the time words unnecessary. For example, you might step outside and notice that it feels warmer and say "ilm muutub soojemaks" (it's getting warmer) in the present tense, meaning it's doing that right now, but in the context of a weather forecast you know that "ilm muutub soojemaks" refers to what is predicted for the coming days.

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ainurakne
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Re: Future tense

Postby ainurakne » 2019-01-21, 6:39

Linguaphile wrote:Saama is used with only a few verbs, usually with olema, but also with a few others like toimuma.
Exessive usage of "saab olema" is not considered a very good style in Estonian. It's an artificial remnant from the influence of German. Although it has its uses sometimes.

Linguaphile wrote:See aasta saab olema põnev. = This year will be exciting.
I would simply say: See aasta tuleb põnev.

Another example:
Siin saab olema maja. -> Siia tuleb maja.
Or Siia ehitatakse maja.* (as opposed to Siin ehitatakse maja. ~ A house is being built here)

* It doesn't necessarily mean that the building process has not begun yet, but that the focus is on the house becoming completed in the future.


The verb "hakkama" is more like moving into the the state of doing something, rather than a true future. The transition may already be happening, although the end result is in the future.
Eesti keel (et) native, English (en) I can manage, Suomi (fi) trying to learn, Pусский (ru)&Deutsch (de) unfortunately, slowly fading away


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