Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

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Linguaphile
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Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-07, 4:43

In the General Languages forum there's a thread called "The last words in a foreign language that you learnt." Sometimes I post Estonian words that I've learned there. But it occurred to me that it would be interesting to have a thread like that specifically for Estonian words, because we would learn new words from each other, and could correct each other if we haven't understood the meaning correctly. So, I'm going to re-post here the three words that I just posted in that other thread, and a few others, and encourage others to add their own.
(By the way: Ainurakne, have I understood the idiomatic meaning of nagu lepse reega correctly? I know that literally it's "like an alderwood sled.")

kolgas backwoods, hinterlands, boondocks
nagu lepse reega without trouble, easily, swimmingly
kartoteegikaart index card
nõiavits divining rod
tehiskeel constructed language, conlang
kunstkeel artistic language, artlang
ühiskeel koine, lingua franca

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby ainurakne » 2018-05-07, 6:17

Linguaphile wrote:(By the way: Ainurakne, have I understood the idiomatic meaning of nagu lepse reega correctly? I know that literally it's "like an alderwood sled.")
Yes!

Hmm, I had only ever heard it as "nagu lepase reega"

Linguaphile wrote:nõiavits divining rod
Or could refer to something like a magic wand in general.

Linguaphile wrote:kunstkeel artistic language, artlang
kunst- (e.g. kunsthammas, kunstmaterjal, etc) often stands for kunstlik and thus is synonymous to tehis-. And I'm pretty sure kunstkeel = tehiskeel.

-----

eede = ettepanek
eetma = ette panema, ettepanekut tegema
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-07, 13:30

ainurakne wrote:
Linguaphile wrote:(By the way: Ainurakne, have I understood the idiomatic meaning of nagu lepse reega correctly? I know that literally it's "like an alderwood sled.")
Yes!

Hmm, I had only ever heard it as "nagu lepase reega"

Linguaphile wrote:nõiavits divining rod
Or could refer to something like a magic wand in general.

Linguaphile wrote:kunstkeel artistic language, artlang
kunst- (e.g. kunsthammas, kunstmaterjal, etc) often stands for kunstlik and thus is synonymous to tehis-. And I'm pretty sure kunstkeel = tehiskeel.

Thanks, Ainurakne! That makes sense. I googled kunstkeel and found it described as artlang in English, and jumped to conclusions because of the meanings of "kunst" and "art". But artlang in English can be used to mean either artistic language or artificial language. (And now that I finally looked it up in EKSS, it does say "conlang.") :D
As for nagu lepse reega, I came across it in writing and it was definitely lepse, not lepase. When I looked it up, from somewhere (don't find it now) I found it as nagu lep(a)se reega. Now I see that EKSS has it too, as läheb nagu lepase ~ lepse reega. So it seems that both versions exist. I assume from your comment that nagu lepase reega is more common.

ainurakne wrote:eede = ettepanek
eetma = ette panema, ettepanekut tegema

:-D

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby ainurakne » 2018-05-07, 18:41

Linguaphile wrote:So it seems that both versions exist. I assume from your comment that nagu lepase reega is more common.
Yes, I checked it out too before commenting, and was surprised that there is indeed an alternate version.

Nagu lepase reega is (infinitely) more common at least among the people/sources that I have had contact with. :lol:
(or maybe I just haven't paid attention when hearing the alternate version)
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-08, 0:27

ainurakne wrote:
Linguaphile wrote:So it seems that both versions exist. I assume from your comment that nagu lepase reega is more common.
Yes, I checked it out too before commenting, and was surprised that there is indeed an alternate version.

Nagu lepase reega is (infinitely) more common at least among the people/sources that I have had contact with. :lol:
(or maybe I just haven't paid attention when hearing the alternate version)

Good to know. It's strange that the first version I came across was nagu lepse reega - or maybe that actually isn't the first time I've encountered it. I mostly noticed it because I didn't know lepne and looked it up; if I'd seen nagu lepase reega I would have known the words individually, probably wouldn't have looked up the phrase, and because of that, probably wouldn't remember it later. So maybe I have seen it as lepane before. :hmm:

Some more words:
tuulama to rummage (also to winnow; I think to winnow is the original meaning and to rummage added by extension)
tunked overalls, jumper
imal sickly sweet, mawkish, insipid (I actually had to look up mawkish too!)
hulgi in bulk, wholesale

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby ainurakne » 2018-05-08, 8:51

Linguaphile wrote:tuulama to rummage (also to winnow; I think to winnow is the original meaning and to rummage added by extension)
I imagine it as rummaging with such a speed/intensity that things (especially papers) are flying around (which is different from tuhnima which is kind of like calm rummaging).

Also to move around fast or with making fast movements (possibly also so that things are flying around). :lol: A bit similar to the word tormama which is interestingly also related to wind ("storm" to be exact).
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Naava » 2018-05-08, 9:09

ainurakne wrote:A bit similar to the word tormama which is interestingly also related to wind ("storm" to be exact).

What does tormama mean?

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-08, 13:01

Naava wrote:
ainurakne wrote:A bit similar to the word tormama which is interestingly also related to wind ("storm" to be exact).

What does tormama mean?

To rush, to dash, to bolt.... :?:

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby ainurakne » 2018-05-08, 14:27

Linguaphile wrote:
Naava wrote:
ainurakne wrote:A bit similar to the word tormama which is interestingly also related to wind ("storm" to be exact).
What does tormama mean?
To rush, to dash, to bolt.... :?:
Yes! For example, it's often used for running really fast (often while being uncautious or oblivious of one's surroundings) or when rushing into (doing) something without taking any time to think first.

(but, of course, it can also mean that it's stormy/windy)
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Prantsis » 2018-05-09, 1:57

karuteene disservice
kassiahastus hangover
siililegi selge very clear and obvious
sinilind inaccessible thing being pursued
kiinijooks mad running

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-09, 2:50

Prantsis wrote:karuteene disservice
kassiahastus hangover
siililegi selge very clear and obvious
sinilind inaccessible thing being pursued
kiinijooks mad running

Oooh, nice ones! For anyone reading this who doesn't already know the animal names, I'll post my attempt at literal translations (because they are so fun):

karuteene disservice = bear-service
kassiahastus hangover = cat-anguish
siililegi selge very clear and obvious clear even to a hedgehog
sinilind inaccessible thing being pursued blue-bird*
kiinijooks mad running = stampede-run

*Are there no actual bluebirds in Estonia? Or are they just really difficult to catch? LOL. Actually, I suppose the expression comes from folklore. Like the sinisirje linnukene who lays colorful eggs in colorful bushes; this is not a real bird so you're never going to catch one. :lol:
I hope I'm not offending anyone by saying that it's not real. Maybe it's like telling a child about Santa Claus.... :lol:
And let's not even get started about flowering ferns.

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Prantsis » 2018-05-09, 3:40

I'm struggling with translating a selection from my notes into English. Feel free to correct my definitions/translations if you think they can be improved.

Linguaphile wrote:*Are there no actual bluebirds in Estonia? Or are they just really difficult to catch? LOL. Actually, I suppose the expression comes from folklore. Like the sinisirje linnukene who lays colorful eggs in colorful bushes; this is not a real bird so you're never going to catch one. :lol:

Actually they haven't really made up their mind what colour uncatchable birds are. Here's a golden one:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLc1t-Nxh38

► Show Spoiler

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-09, 4:38

Prantsis wrote:I'm struggling with translating a selection from my notes into English. Feel free to correct my definitions/translations if you think they can be improved.

Your translations seem perfectly fine to me. They are the correct ones (I mean, you couldn't actually use my translation "bear-service" in English, no one would understand; you'd have to say "disservice".) My literal translations weren't meant as corrections or replacements for yours, just meant to point out (for anyone reading here, not specifically you, since I think you know already) the meanings of the words they're made up of too. Someone who doesn't know the animal names, for example, wouldn't realize they are all animal expressions, but their literal meanings are really quite descriptive. I like siililegi selge - fun to say (almost a tongue-twister), fun meaning when you think of the hedgehog who thinks it's so obvious.

Prantsis wrote:Actually they haven't really made up their mind what colour uncatchable birds are. Here's a golden one

And I was thinking of songs like the one below, but it turns out it has both blue and gold as well! (Right there in the second line: sinisirje, kuldekirje). So you are right. Maybe they change colors mid-flight and that's why they're so hard to pursue. :lol:
By the way, thanks for posting the other song and lyrics. A really sad one (even more so with those images!) but thanks for posting it.

So here's one version of the one I was thinking of:
Sinisirje linnukene (here the actual title is Loomine)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m5H6b1pS8ao
► Show Spoiler

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Naava » 2018-05-09, 7:46

ainurakne wrote:
Linguaphile wrote:
Naava wrote:
ainurakne wrote:A bit similar to the word tormama which is interestingly also related to wind ("storm" to be exact).
What does tormama mean?
To rush, to dash, to bolt.... :?:
Yes! For example, it's often used for running really fast (often while being uncautious or oblivious of one's surroundings) or when rushing into (doing) something without taking any time to think first.

Thanks! It's really interesting though - we have the verb tormata in my dialect, which means 'to storm in, to rush'. Nobody outside of Southern Ostrobothnia has recognized the word*, although now that I tried to google if it exists in any other dialect, I found it in a meänkieli dictionary. Must be a Swedish loan. In any case, I was really surprised to see this word in Estonian! :D Do you know if it was loaned from Swedish?

*most of them ask if it's the same word as törmätä, 'to crash, to bump into'.

Linguaphile wrote:karuteene disservice = bear-service

I think I've read somewhere that "bear-service" is a common idiom for disservice in European languages. This page says it's taken from a fable of Jean de la Fontaine.

In the fable, a man and a bear are friends. One day the man falls asleep, and a fly comes and sits on his face. The bear wants to help the man and hits the fly with a stone. Both the fly and the man die.
Oh the stories I grew up with. :lol:

*Are there no actual bluebirds in Estonia? Or are they just really difficult to catch? LOL.

Actually, no, there are no bluebirds in Estonia. :lol: Looks like you can only find them in the Americas. I had never seen one before googling it.

It's possible Estonia has some birds we don't have here (and vice versa), but what I've seen, most of them are the same and rather dull in colour: for example, sparrows and skylarks. There are some birds with more colour, like bullfinch, robins and pine grosbeak. But the only blue bird I can remember ever seeing is the blue tit (a name that I truly adore).

I grew up reading a book that had pictures and info about every bird species in Finland. We also feed birds in winter, so I've seen quite many of them irl, too. :lol: #askmeaboutbirds

Also, these golden and blue birds remind me of a lullaby/song/something that says that the Sandman will take the children to the land of dreams, where there's a golden forest, and in the forest, there's a blue bird with a golden beak. I wonder if that's just a coincidence or if there's some story or something that would explain why blue birds are magical. :D
Also #2, my dad has always called me his kultalintu, that is, a golden bird. Funny.

And hey, thanks for the songs! I really like Hällilaul! I've heard it before but I can't remember where. Is it from a film?
Loomine was surprising because the lyrics remind me of Kalevala but the melody was nothing like what I expected. :D It's very beautiful.

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Prantsis » 2018-05-09, 8:48

Linguaphile wrote:Your translations seem perfectly fine to me. They are the correct ones (I mean, you couldn't actually use my translation "bear-service" in English, no one would understand; you'd have to say "disservice".) My literal translations weren't meant as corrections or replacements for yours, just meant to point out (for anyone reading here, not specifically you, since I think you know already) the meanings of the words they're made up of too.

I understood you the first time. I just noticed you didn't make any correction and meant that for whatever will come next. But thanks for the reassurance. I'm that person who writes "inaccessible thing being pursued", can't find any exact occurence of it on the web, and then panics. People never needed to say that? Do I? Doesn't that sound odd?

Naava wrote:In the fable, a man and a bear are friends. One day the man falls asleep, and a fly comes and sits on his face. The bear wants to help the man and hits the fly with a stone. Both the fly and the man die.

That's almost exactly how I was picturing it. An eight feet tall teddy bear that wants you absolutely no harm, but just can't help doing disservices, because it's too big and as clumsy as it's cute.

Naava wrote:And hey, thanks for the songs! I really like Hällilaul! I've heard it before but I can't remember where. Is it from a film?

I don't know anything about a film, but there's an album by Maria Peterson and Eva Eensaar with twenty songs like this one: more or less classical poems set to music (some are translations). On Youtube:
Üksildased ütlevad (Avraham Ben-Yitzhak)
Legendaarne lend (Heiti Talvik)
Lootust peab pälvima (Artur Alliksaar)
Taipamine (Uku Masing)
Nii palju on vaadata (Juhan Viiding)
Enne (Juhan Viiding)
Laul sügavast düünist (Juhan Viiding)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfRI9kkxu6A
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGtn2RBEt-w


New words:
kuldsuu: good talker
purssima to speak badly [a language] (Fr. baragouiner)
mugandama to adapt [word, novel, play...]
pikad juhtmed "long wires"
Tal on pikad juhtmed She/he's slow on the uptake
tuupima to bone up (on sth) / to cram, to stuff
tuult tallama :?: (Fr. brasser du vent)
tuuletallaja, tuuletallamine

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Naava » 2018-05-09, 8:57

Prantsis wrote:That's almost exactly how I was picturing it. An eight feet tall teddy bear that wants you absolutely no harm, but just can't help doing disservices, because it's too big and as clumsy as it's cute.

Like this:
► Show Spoiler

The man's Sulo Karjalainen and the bear's Juuso. They're somewhat famous. :)

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-09, 13:31

Prantsis wrote:tuult tallama :?: (Fr. brasser du vent)
tuuletallaja, tuuletallamine

I'm not sure; I'm not familiar with the expressions in Estonian or French. But when I tried looking both up, the Estonian one seemed to have to do with doing "empty work"; it is translated as "potter" or "putter" in some dictionaries. (I might say: "he's just puttering around, not really accomplishing anything.") But the French one is translated online as "to blow hot air" and seems to have more to do with "empty words", i.e. with talk rather than work. So I'm not sure if I'm understanding either one correctly.

Naava wrote:
*Are there no actual bluebirds in Estonia? Or are they just really difficult to catch? LOL.

Actually, no, there are no bluebirds in Estonia. :lol: Looks like you can only find them in the Americas. I had never seen one before googling it.
It's possible Estonia has some birds we don't have here (and vice versa), but what I've seen, most of them are the same and rather dull in colour

Where I live we don't have actual bluebirds either, but we do have blue birds (birds that are blue in color), such as blue jays. The jays are very loud (their "song" is a loud screech) and they chase away the other birds, so although I do like birds, jays aren't my favorite. I guess I should appreciate their blue color a bit more now; it seems like a rather ordinary color to me, not much different from a grey or brown bird, maybe because they are so common here. They don't seem colorful to me.
But you feed birds in winter; they actually stay for winter and don't fly south? I feed birds in winter too, but they're the ones that fly in from the north. You don't really have all that much north for them to come from up there. :mrgreen:

Naava wrote:Loomine was surprising because the lyrics remind me of Kalevala but the melody was nothing like what I expected. :D It's very beautiful.

There are lots of melodies for that type of song in Estonia. For example, both of these have similar lyrics to the one I posted earlier, but different melodies:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmplmxzXjHs
http://www.folklore.ee/UTfolkl/loengud/poeetika/exemplum/laul5.html

Naava wrote:The man's Sulo Karjalainen and the bear's Juuso. They're somewhat famous. :)

Oh, you've got to love a country where blue-colored birds are mythical but famous bears are known by name. :P

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Naava » 2018-05-09, 19:12

Blue jays remind me of fieldfare - annoying little things that eat your berries and make that unnerving noise all the time. Here, it's the one that makes you think is that a bike or... no wait what birds are not supposed to sound like that!

But you feed birds in winter; they actually stay for winter and don't fly south?

Some do - those are called migratory birds. There's a proverb that counts how soon summer will come by observing the migration of birds: kuu kiurusta kesään, puoli kuuta peipposesta, västäräkistä vähäsen, pääskysest' ei päivääkään. (A month to summer from a skylark; half a month from a common chaffinch, a little bit from a white wagtail, not a day from a swallow.) People also wait for swans and cranes to start their migration in autumn. They even tell about it in the news. I guess it's interesting because you don't usually get to see so many birds in one place.

Then there are birds that stay and birds that can stay or move, depending on the weather and how much food they can find. Some common birds that I've seen in winter are bullfinch, yellowhammer, house sparrow, tree sparrow, great tit, blue tit, willow tit, great spotted woodpecker, common blackbird, pheasant, magpie, hooded crow, and western jackdaw.

We also feed squirrels, hares and northern goshawks, but only because they've decided so.

There are lots of melodies for that type of song in Estonia. For example, both of these have similar lyrics to the one I posted earlier, but different melodies:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmplmxzXjHs
http://www.folklore.ee/UTfolkl/loengud/ ... laul5.html

Thanks! They all sound so... cheery? :D The melodies I'm used to are like these:

- Some of the melodies without lyrics
- Song Challenge, where Väinämöinen and Joukahainen test who's stronger (Joukahainen loses, Väinämöinen sings him into a swamp. In order to save himself, Joukahainen promises his only sister to Väinämöinen. His mother is happy, but the sister is not. In the end, she drowns herself because she doesn't want to be married to an old man.)
- Runo #43 from Kalevala Väinämöinen and Lemminkäinen have stolen a treasure from Louhi, who's coming after them.
- Sleep, sleep, grass bird (The same melodies have been used for stories, spells, and lullabies alike.) A lullaby, which my mum used to sing to me. Very relevant to the topic; the lyrics are full of birds. :D
- A runo from Viena, where they seem to have used the same melodies. Väinämöinen hits himself with an axe and goes to find a house where he could be healed.

Because the metre is the same, I thought the Estonian songs would sound like this, too. Well, I was wrong. :D But you can try to sing the Estonian songs with these melodies or the Finnish/Karelian songs with Estonian melodies, and it should work. If you do, upload it to youtube - I'd like to hear that. :lol:

The lyrics, if you're interested (except the Viena one; I couldn't find its lyrics, and I'm not going to listen and write it down because that'd take forever :P):

Song Challenge
► Show Spoiler

Part of the runo #43
► Show Spoiler

Grassbird-lullaby
► Show Spoiler


Oh, you've got to love a country where blue-colored birds are mythical but famous bears are known by name. :P

:lol:

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Prantsis » 2018-05-10, 3:30

Linguaphile wrote:
Prantsis wrote:tuult tallama :?: (Fr. brasser du vent)
tuuletallaja, tuuletallamine

I'm not sure; I'm not familiar with the expressions in Estonian or French. But when I tried looking both up, the Estonian one seemed to have to do with doing "empty work"; it is translated as "potter" or "putter" in some dictionaries. (I might say: "he's just puttering around, not really accomplishing anything.") But the French one is translated online as "to blow hot air" and seems to have more to do with "empty words", i.e. with talk rather than work. So I'm not sure if I'm understanding either one correctly.

The French "brasser du vent" isn't specific to "empty words", like "to blow hot air" seems to be. As far as I can tell, "brasser du vent" and "tuult tallama" are essentially the same image and share the same definition. And the Estonian expression can also be used for "empty words":
One of the example sentences in EKSS: Kui inimestele kirjutada eetilist käsiraamatut, siis tuleb lähtuda i n i m e s e põhiomadustest ja -tungidest. Muidu peksad tühja tuult. M. Metsanurk.
An example sentence in Eesti fraseologismide elektrooniline alussõnastik: Meie rääkimine on nagu tühja tuule tallamine.
Or in this Wikipedia article: Aga et praeguselt valitsuselt seda loota ei ole, siis on kõik see deklaratsioon ainult tühi tuuletallamine.

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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2018-05-10, 4:44

► Show Spoiler
Prantsis wrote:
Linguaphile wrote:
Prantsis wrote:tuult tallama :?: (Fr. brasser du vent)
tuuletallaja, tuuletallamine

I'm not sure; I'm not familiar with the expressions in Estonian or French. But when I tried looking both up, the Estonian one seemed to have to do with doing "empty work"; it is translated as "potter" or "putter" in some dictionaries. (I might say: "he's just puttering around, not really accomplishing anything.") But the French one is translated online as "to blow hot air" and seems to have more to do with "empty words", i.e. with talk rather than work. So I'm not sure if I'm understanding either one correctly.

The French "brasser du vent" isn't specific to "empty words", like "to blow hot air" seems to be. As far as I can tell, "brasser du vent" and "tuult tallama" are essentially the same image and share the same definition. And the Estonian expression can also be used for "empty words":
One of the example sentences in EKSS: Kui inimestele kirjutada eetilist käsiraamatut, siis tuleb lähtuda i n i m e s e põhiomadustest ja -tungidest. Muidu peksad tühja tuult. M. Metsanurk.
An example sentence in Eesti fraseologismide elektrooniline alussõnastik: Meie rääkimine on nagu tühja tuule tallamine.
Or in this Wikipedia article: Aga et praeguselt valitsuselt seda loota ei ole, siis on kõik see deklaratsioon ainult tühi tuuletallamine.

Thanks, Prantsis! :D

Naava wrote:They all sound so... cheery? :D The melodies I'm used to are like these:

- Some of the melodies without lyrics
- Song Challenge, where Väinämöinen and Joukahainen test who's stronger (Joukahainen loses, Väinämöinen sings him into a swamp. In order to save himself, Joukahainen promises his only sister to Väinämöinen. His mother is happy, but the sister is not. In the end, she drowns herself because she doesn't want to be married to an old man.)
- Runo #43 from Kalevala Väinämöinen and Lemminkäinen have stolen a treasure from Louhi, who's coming after them.
- Sleep, sleep, grass bird (The same melodies have been used for stories, spells, and lullabies alike.) A lullaby, which my mum used to sing to me. Very relevant to the topic; the lyrics are full of birds. :D
- A runo from Viena, where they seem to have used the same melodies. Väinämöinen hits himself with an axe and goes to find a house where he could be healed.

Because the metre is the same, I thought the Estonian songs would sound like this, too. Well, I was wrong. :D

Thanks, Naava! It does seem strange that even though Finnish and Estonian folksongs (and Kalevala and Kalevipoeg) basically share the same type of meter, they are so different when it comes to melody. There really are lots of different melodies for Estonian songs. But it's not "one melody for this song and a different one for that song" - you can mix and match: pretty much any song can be sung with any melody as far as I know (which works because they all have the same meter).

Naava wrote:But you can try to sing the Estonian songs with these melodies or the Finnish/Karelian songs with Estonian melodies, and it should work. If you do, upload it to youtube - I'd like to hear that. :lol:

:rotfl: Yeah, that's never going to happen. I like the songs but I can't sing them. I have a truly terrible singing voice. I don't even sing in the privacy of my own home unless I'm the only one there, much less make videos of them to post to Youtube. :nope:

So I'll give you something else instead: do you know Veljo Tormis's song Laulusild? If you aren't familiar with it, I think it's a good one for you. It's actually mostly in Finnish, and uses the Finnish melody for the Finnish parts (which are from Kalevala), but it's mixed in with lines from an Estonian song with a more Estonian melody. The title is Laulusild because it is meant as a bridge between Estonian and Finnish songs. Very cool.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4gQqpBcTkI

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And here is (one version of) the rest of the Estonian song, that those Estonian lines in Laulusild come from - with a different melody. There are some poetic and dialect elements in it that make it a bit different from standard language (such as ie in place of ee, -maie, -ssa, etc.).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNMGL7fU3W8

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