Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

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Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-03-17, 3:28

uue pähe müüa to sell [a used item] as new; to pass off [an item for sale] as new
nagu nõelasilmast tulnud brand new
ääri-veeri indirectly; in a roundabout way; hinting at [something]
vananaistesuvi Indian summer (unseasonably warm autumn, i.e. in late September or October)

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-03-21, 16:49

ahervare ruins of a burned building; stone remains of a burned building
tuhaase smouldering ruins of a building; place where there was a fire
kohrutama to emboss (kohrutatud embossed)
sirgeseljalisus rectitude, propriety
ebasünnis improper, indecent

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-04-01, 0:25

tükkis entirely, completely, altogether
tükkis teine asi another thing entirely, a different thing altogether

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-04-27, 1:44

emotsiooniostud impulse buys
lohutustoidud comfort foods
nagu silgud pütis packed like sardines
nui neljaks by whatever means necessary; by hook or by crook
pudulojused small domesticated animals, barnyard animals (i.e. sheep, goats, pigs, calves)
riskitegur risk factor
umbropsu haphazard, hit or miss

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Woods
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Woods » 2021-04-29, 10:44

I really like your thread. Very interesting words. It makes me want to study some Estonian, after I find time to get on with Finnish.

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-04-29, 23:02

Woods wrote:I really like your thread. Very interesting words.

Nice to hear! Most come from whatever I'm currently reading, so they are super-random.

järeleaitamistund remedial lesson
kaudtõlge indirect translation (translation made via a third language)
talitlushäire malfunction

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-04-30, 16:58

saadikupuutumatus diplomatic immunity, parliamentary immunity
tagasikutsumine recall; curtain-call

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-05, 23:18

juhtnöör guideline
kannapööre big change, upheaval
pihusti sprayer
vihmuti sprinkler
üle aisa lööma to violate standards of conduct, act in an unpermitted way (often relating to a husband or wife, i.e. relating to marital relationships)*
üsk womb, bosom, lap, arms (when embracing something)

*I'm not fully sure how to translate üle aisa lööma to English, here is what it means in Estonian:
EKSS: käitumisnormidest üle astuma, kergemeelselt v. lubamatult käituma (hrl. abielumehe v. -naise kohta)
ÕS: kergemeelselt käituma (abielumehe v -naise kohta).
Ais is the shaft that connects a horse's harness to a cart, and üle aisa lööma is to kick above this shaft (what an unruly horse might do, upsetting the cart), or in English, "kick over the traces". In English the idiom refers to the leather straps, in Estonian to the wooden poles, but they are attached to each other so it's basically saying the same thing.
And now I understand why sleigh bells are called aisakell, too!
♪ ♫ Tiliseb, tiliseb aisakell, lumi hell, lumi hell... ♪ ♫ ♪

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-08, 15:36

auku pähe rääkima to talk into, to persuade, to coax into
enesekehtestamine assertiveness
nagu Vändrast saelaudu abundantly
vastuhakkavalt defiantly
ülekohus injustice, outrage

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-12, 1:46

ampel hanging pot
kiviktaimla rock garden
köitraag tendril
närbuma to wilt, to whither
närpima to deadhead (remove wilted flowers from a plant)
roostik wetlands; canebreak
rootsik bare, leafless (weirdly I legit came across roostik and rootsik in my reading just a few pages apart)
rootsi sein Swedish ladder (for exercise)
rõdukast rail planter, window box (for a balcony)
turnikas horizontal bar (for exercise; Russian турник), maybe also children's jungle gym / monkey bars?
võimlemiskang horizontal bar (for exercise)

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-27, 23:21

kaalukeel weight indicator, pointer; deciding factor
kodukirjand essay assigned as homework
kukekannus larkspur
kurereha geranium
kuslapuu honeysuckle
kõigil hambus the talk of the town
valehäire false alarm
üksindusahistus (stress caused by loneliness)*

*it seems that this word is only or mainly used in regards to dogs that misbehave when left home alone. Context:
Küll me selle koeraga nägime alles päevi, püüdes võidelda tema üksindusahistuses laamendamisega ja ringihulkumiskalduvusega.
My attempt:
We really had some difficult times with this dog, trying to grapple with the racket he made when left alone and his tendency to run away from home.
:?: :hmm:

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-29, 4:11

nahhalne blatant, brazen, impudent
raagus bare, without leaves
valla päästma to unleash, unhitch, let loose

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ainurakne
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby ainurakne » 2021-05-29, 8:39

Linguaphile wrote:turnikas horizontal bar (for exercise; Russian турник), maybe also children's jungle gym / monkey bars?
I thought turnikas comes from the verb turnima which in turn comes from German turnen (although the Estonian counterpart rather means to climb than to exercise). In reality, I think turnikas is a shortened form of something, like turnimispuu for example.

The -kas suffix is really versatile in Estonian.

It can be used to shorten words of foreign origin (and thus making them easier to pronounce for Estonian speakers; not just by shortening, but also moving the primary stress onto the first syllable which is more convenient for Estonian speakers). For example:
  • ventilaator -> ventikas
  • Zaporožets (a Russian car) -> sapakas
  • läpptopp (laptop) -> läpakas
  • etc...
Although, regarding the last one, I guess one could do the same for native words as well if they are understandable to other Estonian speakers (although in this case it's probably not shortening, but getting rid of the compound word (and thus getting rid of multiple primary stresses), again making the word easier to pronounce):
  • sülearvuti -> sülekas
  • rüperaal -> rüpekas

It's also really common in certain older words, like berries (maasikas, vaarikas, mustikas, etc...), tree names (kadakas, jalakas, pedakas (although I guess pedajas is more common), etc...), and so on.

And also in words that seem to be formed from verbs (like turnikas), although as I mentioned, it probably actually derives from some longer compound word (like turnimispuu). Another one from this category, that just pops into mind, is hüpekas (kind of like a ramp that is used for "jumping" while moving with high speed by car, on a bicycle, on a sled, or other such). But I'm not sure what is this shortened from. I doubt it would be hüppelaud.

And there are probably more uses for the -kas suffix that I might have missed.

EDIT: after some googling I found that hüpekas could also refer to the jump itself that is caused by a hüpekas (as a structure). Additionally, hüpekas could be used as a short form for hüppeliiges.
But the definition that I gave above, was the one the I was most familiar with while I was a child (e.g. building hüpekaid from snow on sledding hills and other such).
Eesti keel (et) native, English (en) I can manage, Suomi (fi) trying to learn, Pусский (ru)&Deutsch (de) unfortunately, slowly fading away

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-29, 15:53

ainurakne wrote:
Linguaphile wrote:turnikas horizontal bar (for exercise; Russian турник), maybe also children's jungle gym / monkey bars?
I thought turnikas comes from the verb turnima which in turn comes from German turnen (although the Estonian counterpart rather means to climb than to exercise). In reality, I think turnikas is a shortened form of something, like turnimispuu for example.

Thanks! Turnikas doesn't appear in any of my dictionaries so the connection to Russian турник was just a guess. I'd sorted out the meaning from an image search, and found more hits for Lithuanian turnikas (meaning a horizontal bar there too) and Russian турник than for Estonian. I just guessed that they could have come from a common source. (Looking further, Russian турник apparently comes from French, but I hadn't thought to look up turnima, from German turnen just as you said. Interesting!)
It's funny that Lithuanian uses the exact same word. Apparently turnikas is slang or informal in Lithuanian too, with skersinis being the more proper word.

ainurakne wrote:And there are probably more uses for the -kas suffix that I might have missed.

A person from a given place:
  • Leedu -> leedukas "Lithuanian"
  • Narva -> narvakas "person from Narva"
  • Poola -> poolakas "Pole"
  • Pärnu -> pärnakas "person from Pärnu"
  • maa -> maakas "person from the country, country bumpkin"
Color words that indicate a tendency towards a color:
  • hall -> hallikas "greyish"
  • kollane -> kollakas "yellowish"
  • punane -> punakas "reddish"
  • roheline -> rohekas "greenish"
  • roosa -> roosakas "pinkish"
Some other adjectives that indicate a tendency towards something:
  • hapu -> hapukas "sourish"
  • noor -> noorekas "youngish"
  • paks -> paksakas "fattish, chubby"
  • soolane -> soolakas "a bit salty"
Adjectives from nouns:
  • anne -> andekas "gifted"
  • edu -> edukas "successful"
  • mahl -> mahlakas "juicy"
  • nali -> naljakas "funny"
  • vili -> viljakas "fertile"
What I find interesting is that when it is added to an adjective it means a small amount of that trait but when it is added to a noun it means having an abundance of that thing.

ainurakne wrote:in this case it's probably not shortening, but getting rid of the compound word (and thus getting rid of multiple primary stresses), again making the word easier to pronounce

I hadn't really thought about that being the reason why, but that makes perfect sense.
  • alaealine -> alakas
  • fotoaparaat -> fotokas
  • kutsekool -> kutsekas
  • pastapliiats -> pastakas
  • televiisor -> telekas
  • tätoveering -> tätokas
  • viltpliiats -> vildikas
  • õudusfilm -> õudukas
  • ühiselamu -> ühikas

ainurakne wrote:It can be used to shorten words of foreign origin (and thus making them easier to pronounce for Estonian speakers; not just by shortening, but also moving the primary stress onto the first syllable which is more convenient for Estonian speakers). For example:
  • ventilaator -> ventikas
  • Zaporožets (a Russian car) -> sapakas
  • läpptopp (laptop) -> läpakas
  • etc...
Although, regarding the last one, I guess one could do the same for native words as well if they are understandable to other Estonian speakers (although in this case it's probably not shortening, but getting rid of the compound word (and thus getting rid of multiple primary stresses), again making the word easier to pronounce):
  • sülearvuti -> sülekas
  • rüperaal -> rüpekas
[/list]

It's also really common in certain older words, like berries (maasikas, vaarikas, mustikas, etc...), tree names (kadakas, jalakas, pedakas (although I guess pedajas is more common), etc...), and so on.

And also in words that seem to be formed from verbs (like turnikas), although as I mentioned, it probably actually derives from some longer compound word (like turnimispuu). Another one from this category, that just pops into mind, is hüpekas (kind of like a ramp that is used for "jumping" while moving with high speed by car, on a bicycle, on a sled, or other such). But I'm not sure what is this shortened from. I doubt it would be hüppelaud.

And there are probably more uses for the -kas suffix that I might have missed.

EDIT: after some googling I found that hüpekas could also refer to the jump itself that is caused by a hüpekas (as a structure). Additionally, hüpekas could be used as a short form for hüppeliiges.
But the definition that I gave above, was the one the I was most familiar with while I was a child (e.g. building hüpekaid from snow on sledding hills and other such).

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-30, 14:06

läbi tule, vee ja vasktorude through many difficulties
oma mätta otsast (asju näema) (to see things) from one's own perspective
vesi [kellegi] veskile olema to be of great benefit [to someone]

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-05-31, 23:49

keerdsõlm knot; conundrum
päevakorrapunkt agenda item
vaikimisi quietly; implicitly, by default

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-06-08, 23:46

esilinastus premiere
hõlma all võtma to protect, take under one's wing
kulka cultural capital, cultural endowment (kultuurkapital)
mõikama to suffice
stsenaristika script-writing
suge motif
suurusjärk order of magnitude

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-06-11, 18:48

To what extent are these words really used and understood? I have seen vaarisa and vaarvanaisa before and today I came across ellvanaisa in a biography, which led me to find this list.
But otherwise I've mostly seen vanavanavanaisa and so on. From looking online, the "further-back" ones seem to occur mainly in lists of how to say these words, like on genealogical sites. So I wonder how commonly the ell- and iid- components would be understood as having these specific meanings. (I mean if I'd seen iidisa or iidvanaisa without seeing this list, I would have understood it in a more general sense, "male ancestor from many generations back", but not realized it refers to a person from a specific generation back.) And my first guess about ellvanaisa when I came across it was "great uncle", but nope, it's "great-great-great-great-grandfather". (I was probably mixing it with lell in my head.)

isa = father
vanaisa = grandfather
vaarisa = great-grandfather (= vanavanaisa)
vaarvanaisa = great-great-grandfather (= vanavanavanaisa)
ellisa = great-great-great-grandfather (= vanavanavanavanaisa)
ellvanaisa = great-great-great-great-grandfather (= vanaisa vanaisa vanaisa, or vanaema vanaema vanaisa etc.)
ellvaarisa = great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
ellvaarvanaisa = great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
iidisa = great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather
iidvanaisa = (etc., continue adding one "great" as you go down the list)
iidvaarisa
iidvaarvanaisa
iidellisa
iidellvanaisa
iidellvaarisa
iidellvaarvanaisa

I also found a site that points out that while a person has only 1 isa, 2 vanaisad, 4 vaarisad and so on, they have 32 ellvanaisad and 4096 iidellisad. :shock:

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-06-11, 19:10

varanatuke scant belongings, meager belongings

Linguaphile
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Re: Sõnad, mida hiljuti õppisid

Postby Linguaphile » 2021-06-12, 20:46

abiturient senior in high school; student in final year
juhuslikkus randomness
korralagedus disorganization
kui kell kukub when the time comes
ulakus horseplay
ulualune accommodation, shelter


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