Negation [help]

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ahmed_crow
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Negation [help]

Postby ahmed_crow » 2017-05-25, 16:09

All I know about negation in modern greek is to put the word "δεν" before the verb, is this correct or there are another ways for negation ?

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Re: Negation [help]

Postby Multiturquoise » 2017-05-25, 16:54

You can only use "δε(ν)" for negating verbs. With infinitives and imperatives, you use "μη(ν)". If you want to translate the "not" like in "I love her, not him.", you use "όχι". (Την αγαπάω, όχι αυτόν)

Dark_Horse or md0 will help you better, so I recommend you to have what I said confirmed by them.
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Re: Negation [help]

Postby Dark_Horse » 2017-05-25, 18:39

Elaine is generally right, however I'd like to make some remarks grammar-wise. :wink:

1. "Δε(ν)" is used in the indicative mood.
e.g. Δεν πήγα στο σχολείο σήμερα. = I didn't go to school today.

2. "Μη(ν)" is used in the subjunctive mood.
e.g. Θα προτιμούσα να μην πάω στη δουλειά σήμερα. = I'd rather not go to work today.

3. The imperative mood does NOT have a negative form, so we use μη(ν) + subjunctive in order to form negative commands.
e.g. Μην τρέχεις! = Don't run!
Μη φύγεις! = Don't leave!

4. Like Elaine has already said, to render the word "not" as in "I love her, not him" into Greek, the word "όχι" (= no) is used.
e.g. Θα ταξιδέψω στην Ευρώπη, όχι στην Ασία. = I'm traveling to Europe, not Asia.
Θέλω να κοιμηθώ, όχι να χορέψω. = I want to sleep, not dance.


5. To form negation with participles, adjectives and nouns, the word "μη(ν)"* is used.
e.g. Μη γνωρίζοντας τι να κάνει, άρχισε να προσεύχεται. = Not knowing what to do, he started praying.
Το μη εξουσιοδοτημένο προσωπικό δεν πρέπει να εισέρχεται σε αυτόν το χώρο. = Unauthorized (non-authorized) personnel must not enter this room.
Ο χρήστης είναι μη ενεργός. = The user is non-active.
Οι πνεύμονες ενός μη καπνιστή είναι καθαροί. = The lungs of a non-smoker are clean.


NOTE:
The words "μη(ν)" and "δε(ν)" sometimes drop the final , while other times they don't.
The rule says that these words retain the final when the next word begins with a vowel or one of these consonants: κ, π, τ, ξ, ψ, μπ, γκ, ντ, τσ, τζ.

e.g. Δεν ξέρω. = I don't know.
Δε θέλω. = I don't want.
Μην ντρέπεσαι. = Don't be shy.
Μη μιλάς. = Don't speak.


*An exception to this rule is that when forming negation with past participles, adjectives and nouns, we use "μη" without the final , even if the following word begins with a vowel or one of the aforementioned consonants.

e.g. μη ελεγμένος = not checked / not tested
μη πιστευτός = non-plausible
μη καπνιστής = non-smoker


I hope I helped you. :)
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Re: Negation [help]

Postby ahmed_crow » 2017-05-25, 20:01

Thank you very much Elaine and Dark_Horse :)


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