Greek Cypriot dialect

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Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-13, 21:22

I sensed some interest on the linguistic situation of Cyprus, so, as a native speaker I decided to write a small introduction.

Basics
The Cypriot dialect is a set of mutually understandable variants of the Greek dialect spoken in the island of Cyprus (the Republic of Cyprus to be precise).
All variants share common characteristics (I will elaborate below) but they have their unique traits as well. For some decades now these variants are in the process of merging with the neutralized Cypriot Greek which resembles to Standard Greek more than it used to do in the past. All dialects eventually die I guess :whistle:

Politicolinguistic status
Cyprus is basically in a diglossic situation.
Standard Modern Greek is taught at schools and utilized as the official language but the Cypriot dialect is the language used for everyday communication.
Use of the dialect in formal settings is discouraged but not uncommon.

Writing
There is no standard spelling for the Greek dialect.
This becomes even more complicated when one wants to write down sounds that exist in the dialect but are missing from the Greek alphabet. He may resort in ad-hoc combinations or the Latin alphabet (with English readings).
Generally: σσ/σι+vowel = ʃ, ζι = ʤ, τζ/τζι = ʧ, ʤ (these combination would be normally pronounced as /s:/, /si/, /zi/, /dz/. Ambiguities occur)

Phonology
There are 5 vowels, /a/, /i/. /e/. /o/, /u/, same as in standard Greek. The fun begins with the consonants.
As explained in Wikipedia
1. Double consonants preserved the stressed pronunciation of Ancient Greek.
1. Double unvoiced plosives (ττ, ππ, κκ) are pronounced aspirated ([tʰ], [pʰ], [kʰ] or [cʰ] depending on the succeeding vowel). More accurately [t:ʰ], [p:ʰ], [k:ʰ] or [c:ʰ]
2. The rest of the double consonants are pronounced as geminates. (e.g. λλ as [lː], μμ as [mː], etc.)
2. Extreme "palatalization" of Greek velars to palato-alveolars when followed by the front vowels [e] and and the semivowel [j], very similar to how standard Italian developed from Latin. It should be noted that Standard Greek pronunciation exhibits true palatalization of velars to palatals ([k] > [c] and [x] > [ç]). The palato-alveolars in Cypriot Greek can be found both as affricates ([tʃ]) and fricatives ([ʃ]):
1. The "palatalization" of kappa, i.e. κ > κ̌

Standard Greek [c] becomes a soft affricate [tʃ]. This sound is usually represented with τζι or κ̌. For example, Standard Greek καί [ce] meaning "and" becomes Cypriot Greek τζιαί or κ̌αί [tʃe]. Also Standard Greek εκείνος [eˈcinos] becomes Cypriot Greek κ̌είνος [ˈtʃinos]. Note however this is not a hard and fast rule (counter-examples include loans from Standard Greek: κηδεία, κέρδος, άκυρο, ρακέττα).

2. The "palatalization" of kappa after a sigma, i.e. σκ > σ̌κ̌

Standard Greek [sc] becomes the double fricative [ʃː].

3. The "palatalization" of double kappa, i.e. κκ > κ̌κ̌

Pronounced in Standard Greek as single [k] in Cypriot Greek it becomes an aspirated affricate [tʃʰ].

4. The "palatalization" of chi, i.e. χ > χ̌

Similarly Standard Greek [ç] becomes [ʃ]. This sound is usually represented with σι or χ̌. For example, Standard Greek χέρι [ˈçeri] meaning hand becomes Cypriot Greek σιέρι or χ̌έρι [ˈʃeri].

3. Voicing of φ, θ and χ (aspirated consonants in Ancient Greek) before liquids and nasals, to β, δ and γ respectively. (e.g. γρόνος (Cypriot dialect) instead of χρόνος (Modern Greek) (= year), άδρωπος (man) (Cypriot dialect) instead of άνθρωπος (Modern Greek) (= human). In Cypriot dialect άδρωπος means man and not human. Ηuman is called πλάσμα.This process is partially reversed in younger speakers due to the influence of Standard Greek.
4. Deletion of β, δ, γ, voiced intervocalic fricatives; e.g. κοπελλούδιν > κοππελούιν "little child". In linguistic texts, the deleted fricative is sometimes put in brackets for clarity: κοππελού(δ)ιν.
5. /x/ > /θ/: e.g. άνθρωπος > άχρωπος "human"
6. Defrication of [ʝ]/[ç] that function as semi-vowels in Modern Greek to [c] with most of the time modification of the preceding consonant. (e.g. ποιός [pços] in Cypriot Greek would be pronounced as πκοιός [pcos], σπίτια [ˈspitça] in Cypriot Greek would be pronounced as σπίθκια [ˈspiθka]). This is carried further in some parts of Cyprus where speakers use e.g. πσοιός [pʃos]
7. External sandhi rules for word-final nasal consonants:
1. /n/ before bilabials becomes [m]: e.g. το μωρόν [to moron] the baby (acc.).
2. /n/ before velars becomes [ŋ]: e.g. την κρατικήν [tiŋ ɡratiˈcin] the governmental (acc.).
3. Standard Greek sandhi rules for word-final [n] do not apply to Cypriot Greek; the /n/ is used much more frequently in Cypriot Greek.
8. The vowel eta η is in some words pronounced which according to the Erasmic understanding is ancient Greek. A basic common example would be μην in Cypriot, μεν.


In short:
consonant length matters (a warning though: not all the long consonants are preserved and many words are pronounced with long consonants even if etymologically they are short)
aspirated consonants exist (but not related with the ancient greek ones)
consonants ʃ, ʧ, ʒ, ʤ exist
deletion of the "weak" consonants
extensive use of the "final nu"

Grammar
An attempt to write a grammar textbook for the dialect is made by blogger Κυπριακόφωνος.
Personally I disagree with some parts, which is natural. He's a speaker of the Larnaca variant and I speak the Kokkinochoria dialect :)
:arrow: http://www.megaupload.com/?d=89JNI8A9
[i]Redistributed with the permission of the author.


Some major difference from the Standard Greek are
*Extensive use of infinitives as nouns
*Past tense augmentation (ε-) is the standard and not the exception
*"to be" verb is conjugated a bit different
είμαι, είσαι, ένι/εν, είμαστην, είσαστην, ένι/εν. The standard forms (next line) are becoming common though.
είμαι, είσαι, είναι, είμαστε, είστε, είναι
*Personal pronouns differ in pronunciation and their weak type are used in a different manner
Image
About the weak types. In standard Greek, when you want to say "I love you", you say σε (σ') αγαπώ).
This sounds weird to Cypriots. We say "Αγαπώ σε".
Weak types of the pronouns always go after the verb in affirmative or interrogating sentences in Cypriot Greek. Regular order is used for negation. Έν σε αγαπώ.

Various other grammatical stuff:
*Negation particle μην is pronounced μεν
*Negation particle δεν is pronounced εν (same as the "is" verb. I write έν for δεν to distinguish these two)
*Periphrastic future auxiliary is εννά instead of θα
*Periphrastic past tenses are generally avoided. Έχω πάει and είχα πάει are expressed with a plain ol' Aorist, επήα (>επήγα). This causes hypercorrection (have you ever watch Greek talent shows with Cypriot players? Their Std. Greek sounds weird to Greeks and Cypriots alike).

Vocabulary
Cyprus has always being conquered by other nations. This gave to the cypriot dialect lot of new words. Latin, Old French, Italian/Venetian, Arabic and Turkish.
At the same time it retained many ancient greek words that are obsolete in Greece. This is due to the isolation of the island.
Nowadays more new words came from English and Std. Greek (since most media is imported from Greece).

Some words that are "trademarks" of the cypriot dialect are:

συντυγχάνω (v., /sindi'xan:o/): to chat (from Ancient Greek: συν + τυγχάνω = to exist at the same place)
βλαντζί (n., /vlan'ʤi/): liver, Std Greek. συκώτι (from French "flanc")
(α)γιουτώ (v., /(a)ju'to/): to (be a) match (from Italian aiutare)
δικλώ (v., /ðik'lo/): to look towards smth (Medieval Greek βιγλώ>βίγλα)
ζόλος (n., /'zolos/): unpleasant smell (not sure for the etymology)
λάλλαρος (n., /la'l:aros/): extreme heat (»», ήλιος?)
λαφαζάνης (n. adj., /lafa'zanis/): one who tell fat lies (not sure for the etymology)
νεκατσιώ (v., /neka'ʧo/): to loathe
πατανία (n., /pata'nia/): blanket, Std Greek κουβέρτα (from bataniye, Turkish)
παττώ, παττίζω (v., /pa'tʰo/, /pa'tʰizo/): to bankrupt (Turkish battim)
ρόκολος/α (n., /'rokolos/): brat, teenage boy (-ος) or girl (-α)
συνάω (v., /sin'ao/). to collect (A.Greek συν + άγω)
τσαέρα (n., /ʦa'era/): chair (Venetian charegla)
τσιλλώ (v., /ʦi'l:o): to push, to run over smth (not sure for the etymology)

You can browse http://wikipriaka.com/ for more words but don't trust the etymology section blindly :!:

Any questions? :D
Last edited by md0 on 2010-08-14, 0:12, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby KingHarvest » 2010-08-13, 21:58

About the weak types. In standard Greek, when you want to say "I love you", you say σε (σ') αγαπώ).
This sounds weird to Cypriot. We say "Αγαπώ σε".
Weak types of the pronouns always go after the verb in affirmative sentences in Cypriot Greek.


Would you say θυμήθηκά σε or θυμήθηκα σε?

δικλώ (v., /ðik'lo/): to look towards smth (Medieval Greek βιγλώ>βίλγα)


From the Latin stem vigil-?
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-13, 22:12

KingHarvest wrote:
Would you say θυμήθηκά σε or θυμήθηκα σε?

"σε" is an encletic word so it's "αθθημήθηκά σε". Although I can't really tell how it's pronounced. To me it sounds like /'aθ:i'miθikase/ which is against the rule of τρισυλλαβία :shock:

KingHarvest wrote:
δικλώ (v., /ðik'lo/): to look towards smth (Medieval Greek βιγλώ>βίλγα)


From the Latin stem vigil-?


According to Κριαράς dictionary of Medieval Greek, <λατ. vigilia ή vigiliae.
As in "keeping awake for the security of a place"
I made a typo though, the word is βίγλα (γλ, not λγ).
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby KingHarvest » 2010-08-13, 22:19

"σε" is an encletic word so it's "αθθημήθηκά σε".


Is the αθ- the augment or does θυμάμαι have some sort of adfixture in the Cypriot dialect? If it's the augment, please tell us more about the augment in Cypriot.
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-13, 22:25

KingHarvest wrote:
"σε" is an encletic word so it's "αθθημήθηκά σε".


Is the αθ- the augment or does θυμάμαι have some sort of adfixture in the Cypriot dialect? If it's the augment, please tell us more about the augment in Cypriot.


It's a part of the stem actually.
αθθυμούμαι, αθθυμάσαι, αθθυμάται and so on.
My theory is that it cames from the related verb ενθυμούμαι. ε became α and ν was merged with the following θ resulting θθ as it usually happens with ν.

Θυμούμαι and αθθυμούμαι are interchangeable.
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby KingHarvest » 2010-08-13, 22:29

Oh, that's far less interesting than I had hoped :(
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-13, 22:36

KingHarvest wrote:Oh, that's far less interesting than I had hoped :(


Sorry about that :P
I don't think we have any special augment in the Present tense.
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby ego » 2010-08-13, 22:56

Meidei you are also a member here?? Great :)

Your knowledge of the Cypriot structure is great, far exceeds that of most Cypriots. You've done a very good description here. I only disagree in two points, one of which I've mentioned to you before:

1. The double consonants are aspirated but also double. So κκ is pronounced [k:h] and not [kh]. Or else it would sound like the English 'k', but it doesn't. I still remember one of my Cypriot friends pronouncing 'Kahlua' and how much fun we made of her for emphasizing the initial 'k' so much. It definitely sounds different than the English one.

2. The demonstrative τούτο has an alternative τουν and not τούντο. What happens here is a merge: τούτον το --> τουν το

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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-13, 23:09

ego wrote:Meidei you are also a member here?? Great :)

Your knowledge of the Cypriot structure is great, far exceeds that of most Cypriots. You've done a very good description here. I only disagree in two points, one of which I've mentioned to you before:

1. The double consonants are aspirated but also double. So κκ is pronounced [k:h] and not [kh]. Or else it would sound like the English 'k', but it doesn't. I still remember one of my Cypriot friends pronouncing 'Kahlua' and how much fun we made of her for emphasizing the initial 'k' so much. It definitely sounds different than the English one.

2. The demonstrative τούτο has an alternative τουν and not τούντο. What happens here is a merge: τούτον το --> τουν το

Hello eggo. お久しぶり :D I'm "fresh" here.

As I said in the past, you are right about /k:ʰ/, judging from first-hand experience. The thing is that I can't find any academic paper or an essay to cite this. They go for /kʰ/.
And since I can't think of any minimal pair involving /kʰ/ vs /k:ʰ/, I won't be surprised if they are allophones for some speakers.

As for the demonstrative, you are correct. Wikipedia's "mistake"/simplification (that's where the chart cames from).
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby mōdgethanc » 2010-08-13, 23:23

3. Voicing of φ, θ and χ (aspirated consonants in Ancient Greek) before liquids and nasals, to β, δ and γ respectively. (e.g. γρόνος (Cypriot dialect) instead of χρόνος (Modern Greek) (= year), άδρωπος (man) (Cypriot dialect) instead of άνθρωπος (Modern Greek) (= human). In Cypriot dialect άδρωπος means man and not human.

5. /x/ > /θ/: e.g. άνθρωπος > άχρωπος "human"
That's very interesting. Do these words come from the same root, then?

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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-13, 23:37

Talib wrote:
3. Voicing of φ, θ and χ (aspirated consonants in Ancient Greek) before liquids and nasals, to β, δ and γ respectively. (e.g. γρόνος (Cypriot dialect) instead of χρόνος (Modern Greek) (= year), άδρωπος (man) (Cypriot dialect) instead of άνθρωπος (Modern Greek) (= human). In Cypriot dialect άδρωπος means man and not human.

5. /x/ > /θ/: e.g. άνθρωπος > άχρωπος "human"
That's very interesting. Do these words come from the same root, then?


άδ(δ)ρωπος, άθ(θ)ρωπος, άγ(γ)ρωπος and άχ(χ)ρωπος are possible dialectic variants of the word άνθρωπος, of uncertain etymology (most plausible one being the ἄνδρ-ωπος>ἀνήρ + ὤψ "man-faced").

The dialectic variants are usually (but not always) understood as man/male human while the standard άνθρωπος has clearly nothing to do with the gender.

Compare with the words homme, Mann, man etc. Either they mean both human and man either the words for these concept come from the same root.
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-14, 0:10

Update: I made few corrections and addition in the first post. Please point out any other mistake or even a weird sounding sentence (my English grammar tends to be really messed-up in long texts).
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby ILuvEire » 2010-08-14, 3:09

With the diglossia as there is, if I were to visit Cyprus, would most people want to speak Standard Greek to me, or Cypriot Greek? Also, have you noticed that ethnic Turks Greek tends to be different from ethnic Greek's Greek? How prevalent is Turkish in Cyprus (if I were visiting, would I be able to get by on Greek and English, or should I pick up some Turkish too?) Are regular verbs conjugated the same for the most part in the present tense?

And your English looks perfect, I didn't see any mistakes :)
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-14, 4:06

ILuvEire wrote:With the diglossia as there is, if I were to visit Cyprus, would most people want to speak Standard Greek to me, or Cypriot Greek?

English :D Cypriots like English.
Most people would use Standard Greek (probably with a mild accent but they will try to stick to the standard syntax). If you show interest in the dialect, most people would be willing to talk to you in Cypriot Greek.

Also, have you noticed that ethnic Turks Greek tends to be different from ethnic Greek's Greek?

I don't hear Turkish Cypriots or Turks a lot actually :hmm: (as they mostly live in the North part of the island while Greek speaking Cypriots we are in the South)
But what really stands out when they speak Greek is that they pronounce unvoiced stops as voiced ([p]->[b ], [t]->[d], [k]->[g]).

How prevalent is Turkish in Cyprus (if I were visiting, would I be able to get by on Greek and English, or should I pick up some Turkish too?)

You can get by on English actually. But even if that wasn't the case, knowing Greek would be more than sufficient, except if you are going to visit TRNC, which is officially considered territory of the Republic of Cyprus under the occupation of the Turkish army. Most Turkish Cypriots live there after 1974.

Are regular verbs conjugated the same for the most part in the present tense?

If you exclude that there are several "second forms" and some changes in the stem's final consonant, I don't think there is much irregularity...

Group A. -ω/-εις


αφήννω (=αφήνω)
αφήννεις
αφήννει
αφήννουμεν (αφηννουμέντε)
αφήννετε
αφήννουν (αφήννουσιν)

πάω, πααίννω (=πάω, πηγαίνω)
πάεις, πααίννεις
πάει, πααίννει
πάμεν (πάμεντε), πααίννουμεν (πααίννουμέντε)
πάτε, πααίννετε
πάσιν, πααίννουν

έχω (=έχω)
έσσεις (σσ=[ʃ])
έσσει
έχουμεν (εχουμέντε)
έσσετε
έχουν (έχουσιν)

Group B. -ω/-ας

βουρώ (=τρέχω)
βουράς
βουρά
βουρούμεν (βουρούμεντε)
βουράτε
βουρούν (βουρούσιν)

Group C. -μαι (Μεσοπαθητικά, middle/passive voice)

σαντανόννουμαι (=μπερδεύομαι)
σαντανόννεσαι
σαντανόννεται
σαντανοννούμαστεν (σαντανοννούμαστην)
σαντανόννεσται (σαντανοννούσαστεν)
σαντανόννουνται
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby ego » 2010-08-15, 19:31

Εν καλά που τα λαλείς ρε πελλέ. Έναν πράμαν που έθελα να προσθέσω ένι ότι οι Κυπραίοι εννα μιλήσουσιν ελλαδικά ή κυπριακά αναλόγως την μόρφωσιν τους. Αν πάεις να συντύσιεις του βοσκού εν τζι εννα καλαμαρίσει για χάρην σου, μάλλον επειδή εν ιμπορεί, εν εν έτσι;

Κάτι άλλον, επειδή η κυπριακή έσιει διπλά σύμφωνα ('σύφφωνα') πιστεύκω εν εν καλή ιδέα να γράφεις το πασιύν σίγμαν ως διπλόν γιατί δημιουργείται σύγχυση. Οι παραπάνω Κυπραίοι γράφουν το 'σι'.

Εννα 'ρτω Κύπρον πολλά σύντομα, επεχύμησα τους φίλους μου :)

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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-15, 20:00

ego wrote:Εν καλά που τα λαλείς ρε πελλέ. Έναν πράμαν που έθελα να προσθέσω ένι ότι οι Κυπραίοι εννα μιλήσουσιν ελλαδικά ή κυπριακά αναλόγως την μόρφωσιν τους. Αν πάεις να συντύσιεις του βοσκού εν τζι εννα καλαμαρίσει για χάρην σου, μάλλον επειδή εν ιμπορεί, εν εν έτσι;

Κάτι άλλον, επειδή η κυπριακή έσιει διπλά σύμφωνα ('σύφφωνα') πιστεύκω εν εν καλή ιδέα να γράφεις το πασιύν σίγμαν ως διπλόν γιατί δημιουργείται σύγχυση. Οι παραπάνω Κυπραίοι γράφουν το 'σι'.

Εννα 'ρτω Κύπρον πολλά σύντομα, επεχύμησα τους φίλους μου :)


Γουάου, γράφεις τα κυπριακά απίστευτα φυσικά. Αντίχετα, εγιώνι άμαν πάω να τα γράψω έν μου φκαίνουσιν εύκολα. Εσυνήχησα να γράφω νορμάλ ελληνικά εις τα φόρουμ.

Σωστά για τον βοσκόν αλλά έν εν μόνον χέμαν μόρφωσης. Παίζει τζιαι το φύλον ρόλο. Οι γεναίκες εννά καλαμαρίσουν περίτου που τους αντράες γενικά. Ακόμα τζιαι αν δεν ηξέρουν ίνταλως, οι πιο πολλές εναπροσπαθήσουν. Επειδή ακούω τες συχνά λαλώ το.

Όσον για το "σσιου", εν έναν που τα προβλήματα έχει η γραφή των κυπριακών. Εν μερικά σημεία που έν ημπόρω να γράψω "σι" χωρίς να μου χαλάσει την εικόναν.
Γενικά αν δεν βάλουμεν τούτα τα κατσουνούθκια
Image
πάντα εννά έχουμεν αμφισημίες (γιαυτόν έβαλα τζιαι τα IPA γίπλα).

Να ελπίζω που εννά κατεβείς Κύπρο να κάμεις τζιαι καμιάν μελέτην πας την διάλεχτον;
Γιατί εγιώ στερούμαι τα μέσα, όπως έγραψα τζιαι στον μπλόγκ στην υπογραφήν μου.

ΥΓ. Yeap. This post is an example of Kokkinochoria Cypriot Greek. I wonder if the learners can understand much of it... I'm afraid even eggo won't understand me :P
"If you like your clause structure, you can keep your clause structure"
Stable: Cypriot Greek (el-cy)Standard Modern Greek (el)English (en) Current: Standard German (de)Elementary Finnish (fi)
For fun: Legacy: France French (fr)Japanese (ja)Standard Turkish (tr)

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Oleksij
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Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby Oleksij » 2010-08-15, 20:15

Do you too speak as if you have hot food in your mouth, Meidei? (this is how a classmate of mine and all Cypriots in general sound to me) :lol:

But seriously, cool thread.
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
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md0
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Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-15, 20:30

Oleksij wrote:Do you too speak as if you have hot food in your mouth, Meidei?

I don't really know how is this is supposed to sound :D
But I guess it sounds pretty weird to non-Cypriots.

---
By the way, I want to share a related funny audio clip, I hope it's ok.
It's from a satyric radio show on Σκάι 100,3. The host (Αποστόλης) and the listener ("Κύπριος Αδελφός") who called are faking (more like failing) a Cypriot accent in a rather hilarious way :lol:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4OUAaCzRYA
"If you like your clause structure, you can keep your clause structure"
Stable: Cypriot Greek (el-cy)Standard Modern Greek (el)English (en) Current: Standard German (de)Elementary Finnish (fi)
For fun: Legacy: France French (fr)Japanese (ja)Standard Turkish (tr)

User avatar
Oleksij
Posts: 4762
Joined: 2005-06-28, 16:46
Real Name: Олексій Мірошниченко
Gender: male
Location: Nicosia
Country: CY Cyprus (Κύπρος / Kıbrıs)
Contact:

Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby Oleksij » 2010-08-15, 20:32

Yeah, Skai aren't particularly good at kypriaka. Although the dialect does sound quite nasal to me, all the way through.
Moja ulica murem podzielona - świeci neonami prawa strona, lewa strona cała wygaszona, zza zasłony obserwuję obie strony.
My Youtube Channel
Last.fm

User avatar
md0
Posts: 7608
Joined: 2010-08-08, 19:56
Country: FI Finland (Suomi)

Re: Greek Cypriot dialect

Postby md0 » 2010-08-15, 20:39

Just to make it clear, I am a huge fan of Apostolis and Ellinofrenia, even when they are faking accents :)

I'm really interested to hear how non-native speakers of Greek perceive the sounds of the cypriot dialect. Nasal huh :hmm:
"If you like your clause structure, you can keep your clause structure"
Stable: Cypriot Greek (el-cy)Standard Modern Greek (el)English (en) Current: Standard German (de)Elementary Finnish (fi)
For fun: Legacy: France French (fr)Japanese (ja)Standard Turkish (tr)


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