For a couple of diagrams for Fuzhou dialect, see p. 101 (i.e. the fifth page
) of https://journals.linguisticsociety.org/ ... /3520/3220
. For transcribed examples with audio, see here
For Teochew, see this video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lb8U0tF3V5g
I believe this diagram
is for Sixian Hakka. Not really sure what else to recommend for that besides these:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLgNjunJcA8https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cyZ3qqugok
As for the development from Middle Chinese tones, I'll start out by completing my comparison between Amoy Hokkien and Mandarin:
in isolation, the high flat and rising tones with vowel/nasal finals correspond perfectly to (and are nearly identical with) Mandarin. If a word in Amoy Hokkien has a high flat tone in isolation and doesn't end with a stop, then its cognate in Mandarin has one, too, and same with the rising tone. If it does end with a stop, its equivalent in Mandarin with have either a rising tone or a falling tone.
To be more specific, if the tone is low, and the syllable in Hokkien ends with a stop and begins with a sonorant, the equivalent in (Beijing) Mandarin has a falling tone. If it follows these conditions except that it begins with an obstruent, the equivalent in Mandarin has a rising tone. However, if the tone is high and it ends with a stop, actually, the equivalent in Mandarin may have any of the four tones due to a history of dialect mixing in Beijing. If the tone is high falling in spoken Hokkien as well as literary Hokkien, then the equivalent in Mandarin is the so-called falling-rising tone. All other tones in Hokkien correspond to falling tone in Mandarin.
Cantonese preserves the same number of tone distinctions as Middle Chinese did except that when a syllable ends in a stop and begins with a voiceless consonant, the tone in Cantonese is high only if the vowel is short and mid only if the vowel is long.
Fuzhou dialect preserves the same distinctions as literary Amoy Hokkien. However, the qualities of all the tones except the high tone are different. The rising tone in Hokkien corresponds to a (high) falling
tone in Fuzhou. The high falling tone in Hokkien in turn corresponds to a flat mid tone in Fuzhou. The low (dipping?) tone in Hokkien corresponds to a falling-rising tone in Fuzhou, but the flat mid tone in Hokkien corresponds to a rising-falling tone in Fuzhou! And finally, the low checked tone in Hokkien corresponds to a rising tone in Fuzhou.
Teochew preserves the exact same number of distinctions (eight) as there are listed for Middle Chinese. The checked tones are roughly the same as in Hokkien (though the difference in tonal quality between them may be slightly smaller in Teochew than in Hokkien). If a syllable with a high falling tone in Hokkien begins with a voiceless consonant, then its equivalent in Teochew will also have a high falling tone (possibly an even more dramatically falling one). All other tone qualities are completely different between Hokkien and Teochew, but Teochew has a falling-rising tone in the same words where Fuzhou has it. The high flat (unchecked) tone in Hokkien corresponds to a mid flat tone in Teochew. The high rising tone in Hokkien corresponds to a high flat tone in Teochew. Any syllable with a high falling tone in Hokkien that begins with a voiced consonant corresponds to a syllable with a high rising tone in Teochew, and the mid flat tone in Hokkien corresponds to a low tone in Teochew.
Sixian Hakka preserves roughly the same number of distinctions as Mandarin but with a slightly less complicated relationship to Middle Chinese and completely different tonal qualities. The checked tones are roughly the same as in Hokkien (but with the lower one possibly having a tone quality that more closely resembles Teochew). Unusually, the high flat/unchecked tone in Hokkien and Mandarin corresponds to a tone in Sixian that is either rising (this happens in both northern and southern Sixian) or mid flat (only in southern Sixian). The rising tone in Mandarin corresponds to a low flat tone in Sixian. The falling-rising tone in Mandarin corresponds to a mid-to-low falling tone in Sixian, and the falling tone in Mandarin corresponds to a high flat tone in Sixian.
Shanghainese has only two phonemic tones but five surface tones. The checked tones are pretty much the opposite of Hokkien; the low checked tone in Hokkien corresponds to a high checked one in Shanghainese and vice versa. The high flat tone in Hokkien corresponds to a high falling tone in Shanghainese. Anything else that begins with a voiceless consonant corresponds to a mid-to-slightly-higher-than-mid tone in Shanghainese, and anything else (that begins with a voiced one) corresponds to a low rising tone in Shanghainese.