Dialects 方言

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Dialects 方言

Postby IMABI » 2011-08-01, 20:42

Hello everyone! As many know, there are 16 dialect groups in Japan and much variation within the groups themselves. We all wonder why people in Hiroshima say things like うもれる instead of 見えなくなる and why in places such as Miyako, the difference is so great that is in an unintelligible different Japonic language. Some differences are merely caused by palatalization, character substitution, pitch, contractions, vowel change, and evolution paths since the time of the Kyoto court. So, I want us to all pitch in together and discuss all the dialect information we possibly have to make Japanese even more vibrant. My thought has always been that Standard Japanese has been incredibly unfair to the dialects of Japan. Why were some words added and some were not? Of course, it is impossible to have every Japanese person learn all the variations of grammar and what not, but I have always thought that if we would add all of the unique vocab to common knowledge that we would be able to have an even more vibrant literary environment.


In short, here is what I'm looking for us to accomplish:

1. Discuss specific dialects in Japanese, all are welcome.
2. Discuss dialect grammar, pitch accents, phonology, and vocabulary.
3. Discuss the history of dialects and show, if you can, why something is what it is.
4. Trade links and resources, please share free sources that are easy to access.
5. Just have fun!

Note: If there are orthographic differences that differ greatly from Standard Japanese, please explain them.
Last edited by IMABI on 2011-08-02, 22:56, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: 方言

Postby IMABI » 2011-08-02, 17:41


The Yaeyama Dialect/Language is called Yaima munii by the natives. There are three sub-dialects with 石垣方言 being the basis of standardization. It is rarely written in Japanese script, and it desperately needs revival. There are many linguistic points to point out about Yaima munii for studying the split from Proto-Japonic. For one, p is cognate with Classical p which is cognate to modern "h". The vowel system is only three, composed of a, i, u, with e and o only seen in less than a handful of words that they are considered non-existent. Here is some vocabulary:

ぷに = 船 ふね Boat
ぱとぅ = 鳩 はと Dove
ぱる = 原 はら Field
たに = 種 たね Seed
はじみてぃ = はじめて First time
てぃー = 手 て Hand
ぴだり = 左 ひだり Left
あうさーん = 青い あおい Blue

As you can see, more than 65% of the vocabulary is cognate with Standard Japanese

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Re: Dialects 方言

Postby IMABI » 2011-08-02, 23:07

The Hiroshima Dialect is quite interesting. A lot of words are very similar to Standard Japanese but are only off in one small aspect. Here are some examples:
だれる = たれる
せな = せなか
さいなら = さようなら
ごっつぉー = ごちそう
こがーに = こんなに
くぎる = こげる
かいい = かゆい
The list can go on and on. Here are some grammar aspects though. Kosoado are typically changed in the following fashion
こんな → こがーな
そんな → そがーな
あんな → どがーな
Particles such as wa and wo fuse with the preceding noun.
ことは → こたぁ
The auxiliary verb ~ yoru, which is typically seen in the Chuugoku Dialect group, fuses with the last syllable if it ends in i. Now, some verbs change to make this happen. For example
たべている → たべよる → たびよる → たびょる → たびょうる
As you can see, elongation tends to happen a lot.

One thing that is common to make verbs polite is to send them into the Ren'youkei and follow it with nsaru. For example, the verb kaeru, which is often replaced by inuru in this region, can be used in the following manner:
帰りました → 帰りんさった。

Come on people, certainly y'all know about Japanese dialectology. I'm interested to see what gets taught here by everyone.

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Re: Dialects 方言

Postby Luna_Lovegood » 2011-08-04, 16:59

高い ーたこう
They conjugate things like this in kinki area.
I have read a book "kinki Japanese"
and I know that in Hoddaido they make imperative all the same with all verbs, even 5dan.

so, not tabero, but tabere.

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Re: Dialects 方言

Postby IMABI » 2011-08-04, 18:18

Somewhat wrong about 高い → 高う. This contraction happens with the Ren'youkei in conjugation. しもうた is also further contracted to しもた or just もた. Many regions simplify conjugation classes.

Note: Everyone, try to localize things to specific* dialects. For example, the Kinki Region is too broad and many dialects around the region are hybrids of it that could be considered Kansai Dialects. So, try saying like Oosaka-ben or Kyouto-ben, etc.

*: Hokkaidou 北海道 ほっかいどう.

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Re: Dialects 方言

Postby coloradaninkyoto » 2015-11-02, 6:22


I currently live in Kyotango, which has a dialect that is (supposedly) part of the chuugoku dialect family. Supposedly.
Anyways, here are a few random grammar points that differ from the standard textbook variety Japanese, note that the standard will be in parentheses for comparison:

Will/be going to (~する つもり だ)
~する で

May (~して も 良い)
~したら ええやん

Let's/shall (~しましょう)
~しもう で / しよう や

Must/have to (~しなければ ならない / しなきゃ)

Don't/doesn't have to (~しなくて も 良い)

Must not (~して は いけない)
~したら あかん

Will/can you (~して くれない)
~して くれへん

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