LESSONS: Gradation

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Jonne
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LESSONS: Gradation

Postby Jonne » 2005-09-07, 18:22

How to break a word into syllables?

RULES

The dividing line between two syllables goes
- before one consonant:
ka-tu, lii-sa, suo-ma-lai-nen
- between two consonants:
kyl-lä, met-sä, haus-ka, a-me-rik-ka
- before the last of three consonants:
rans-ka, kort-ti
- between two vowels which do not form a diphthong (see lesson 1):
lu-en, mai-to-a, ha-lu-ai-sin, ra-di-o

A syllable ending in a vowel is called open
A syllable ending in a consonant i called closed

EXAMPLE:
:: Luin tänään kirjan ja kävin uimassa. Ulkona oli lämmintä, muttei liian kuuma.
:: Lu-in tä-nään kir-jan ja kä-vin ui-mas-sa. Ul-ko-na o-li läm-min-tä, mut-tei lii-an kuu-ma.

EXERCISE
BREAK INTO SYLLABLES:
a) ilo, kolo, muoto, asua, rauha, tietyömaa, riiuuyöaie

b) sanakirjoissa on monia sanoja, joita emme tiedä, tai joista emme ole kuulleetkaan.

(post into this thread)


GRADAATIO - Gradation


Gradation = consonant changes. It means that when you add a suffix to a certain kind of a word, the consonants change to others or disappear completely.

Gradation affects to words whose last syllable starts with k, p or t.
you'll need to change the consonants only if the suffix start with consonant.. so this means that you don't have to change it if you're going to put the word into partitive, since the suffix of partitive is -a or -ä.

Gradation is only about the consonant that starts the last syllable of a word!

So, how to change the consonants? which way to do it?

- a double consonant, just ingore the other of them.

kauppa - kaupassa, kaupat, kaupalle etc.
matto - matossa, matot, matolle etc.
kukka - kukassa, kukat, kukalle etc.

- letters & letter groups p, t, ht, nk, k change to voiced.

p -> v
kylpy (a bath) -> kylvyssä (in a bath), kylvyt (baths) etc.

t -> d
katu (a steet) -> kadulla (on a street), kadut (streets) etc.

ht -> hd
Lahti (Lahti it's a city) -> Lahdessa (in Lahti)

nk -> ng
kenkä (a shoe) -> kengässä (in a shoe), kengät (shoes) etc.

k -> 0 *
poika (a boy) -> pojassa (in a boy), pojat (boys) etc.

* when the k is in the between of two vowels, it changes to j.


- letter couples mp, nt, lt, rt changes as-

mp -> mm (kumpi -> kummassa, kummat etc.)
nt -> nn (ranta -> rannassa, rannat etc.)
lt -> ll (kulta -> kullassa, kullat etc.)
rt -> rr (parta -> parrassa, parrat etc.)

- lke changes to lje
kulkea -> kuljen (to go on -> i go on)

- in some words k changes to v if it has u's or y's around it
uku -> uvu (suku -> suvussa, suvut etc.)
yky -> yvy (kyky -> kyvyssä, kyvyt etc.)

I hope I didn'y confuse you too much :?


EXERCISE

Add the given suffix, and change the consonants.
Eg. latu (-lle, allative) -> ladulle

a) Pirkko (-lle, allative) ->
b) ranta (-ssa -ssä, inessive) ->
c) puku (genitive form) ->
d) silta (-lla -llä, adessive) ->



If something is not clear, ask away.

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Alcadras
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Postby Alcadras » 2005-09-07, 18:52

argh
is it necessary to learn it ?

if i dont learn , does it become harder for me to learn finnish ? :D

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Postby Jonne » 2005-09-07, 19:16

You should learn it. Finnish will be easier if you know it :roll:

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Postby Alcadras » 2005-09-07, 19:28

a)
i-lo
ko-lo
muo-to
a-sua
rau-ha
tiet-yö-mää
rii-uu-yöa-ie

b)
sa-na-kir-jois-sa on mo-nia sa-no-ja , joi-ta em-me tie-da,tai jois-ta em-me o-le kuul-leet-kaan

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Postby Jonne » 2005-09-07, 19:31

Alcadras wrote:a)
i-lo
ko-lo
muo-to
a-sua ua is not a diphthong, so it is a-su-a
rau-ha
tiet-yö-mää three words in row: tie+työ+maa (road+work+ground) so it is tie-työ-maa
rii-uu-yöa-ie rii-uu-yö-ai-e

b)
sa-na-kir-jois-sa on mo-nia mo-ni-a sa-no-ja , joi-ta em-me tie-da, tai jois-ta em-me o-le kuul-leet-kaan

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Postby Alcadras » 2005-09-07, 19:39

so the others are true arent they ? :D

what is my degree ? :P

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Postby Jonne » 2005-09-07, 19:41

9 out of 10 ;)
You're doing good.

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Postby Varislintu » 2005-09-08, 7:54

I've learned so much :oops: :lol:. (About theory.)

May I ask a general question; what exactly does voiced mean? What is the opposite to voiced? Is it devoiced? Are "hard" consonants (k, p, etc..) called devoiced?

Also, what about Finnish words that end with -s and -nen, and the way they become -kse- and -se- (Elvis -> Elviksen, punainen -> punaisen)? Or is that technically not gradation, but something else?
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Postby CoBB » 2005-09-08, 8:38

Voiced means using your vocal cords for the pronounciation. When you're whispering, voiced consonants become their unvoiced pairs (well, almost), e. g. b->p, v->f, d->t, g->k, z->s (in English) etc.
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Postby Varislintu » 2005-09-08, 8:47

I see. Thanks.
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Postby Jonne » 2005-09-08, 10:54

Varislintu wrote: what about Finnish words that end with -s and -nen, and the way they become -kse- and -se- (Elvis -> Elviksen, punainen -> punaisen)? Or is that technically not gradation, but something else?


I think this is something special with the genitive as far as I know.

See:
"Gradation, Consonant changes, occur in the inlection of both nouns and verbs and they are very characteristic of the Finnish language. These changes are quite regular with the consonants k, p, and t, both when they are alone and occurring in combination with certain other consonants (l, m, n, r)."

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Postby CoBB » 2005-09-08, 14:34

It's unnecessary to force these special cases into the system which applies to the k-p-t trinity. By the way, I'd also add -s(i) -> -d(e)-/-t(e)-.
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Postby Loiks » 2005-09-08, 16:18

CoBB wrote:It's unnecessary to force these special cases into the system which applies to the k-p-t trinity. By the way, I'd also add -s(i) -> -d(e)-/-t(e)-.


If you mean the words like käsi - käden, vesi - veden etc. then it's not actually gradation of s but t. Historically those words were käti and veti. There was a period when all ti's changed to si's in Finnic languages (it is proved by Baltic loans: Finnish: silta, Estonian: sild; Latvian: tilts, Lithuanian: tiltas).

Gradation of s exists in Votian: Nominative: asi, Genitive: azii (a thing), so: s :arrow: z ; and Estonian where basically all the sounds can be gradated.

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Postby Egein » 2005-09-08, 22:41

I have a question.

This "k" that disapears...does it ALWAYS disapears or is it just sometimes.


Alka
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Ruoka
Ruoan (ruuan in helsinki?)
(is)(fi)
Nouse pois nokinen poika / nokiselta nuotiolta / havuisilta vuoteilta /pihkaisilta pään aloilta
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Postby Varislintu » 2005-09-09, 8:28

As far as nouns are concerned, my layman's opinion is that it dissapears if 1) there is only one k between vowels, and 2) if the word ends in only one vowel.

Vaaka -> vaa'an
Piika -> piian
Ruoko -> ruo'on
Vuoka -> vuoan
Haka -> haan
Reki -> reen
Hiki -> hien
Piki -> pien

BUT

talkoo -> talkoon

On the other hand, talkoo is the only word I know that ends in k+VV (double vowel) :). So I guess it would be safe to say that it dissapears always.
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Re: Gradation

Postby Varislintu » 2005-09-09, 8:41

Jonne wrote:k -> 0 *
poika (a boy) -> pojassa (in a boy), pojat (boys) etc.

* when the k is in the between of two vowels, it changes to j.


But wait a second, is this true then?

After all:

Reikä -> reiän


I think the k becomes j only in the word poika. Maybe it's because of the oi diftong? I can think of only one other word with oi and only one k in it.

Joiku -> joiun

So it can't be the oi, either. It must be the triplet oia, that is impossible in nouns (and thus it becomes oja). Or maybe poika is just an exception to all rules :?.
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Postby CoBB » 2005-09-09, 9:01

Varislintu wrote:On the other hand, talkoo is the only word I know that ends in k+VV (double vowel) :).

Month names? :shock:
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Postby Jonne » 2005-09-09, 10:59

Egein wrote:Ruoka
Ruoan (ruuan in helsinki?)

It's is pronunced as ruuan everywhere I think.
Ruoan is a bit difficult.

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Postby Liisi » 2005-09-09, 11:48

Jonne wrote:
Egein wrote:Ruoka
Ruoan (ruuan in helsinki?)

It's is pronunced as ruuan everywhere I think.
Ruoan is a bit difficult.


I read somewhere (maybe the magazine Kielikello?) that you can spell either ruoan or ruuan, they're both correct. I prefer to use the latter one, because it follows the pronunciation.

Luin jostain (ehkä Kielikello-lehdestä?), että voi kirjoittaa joko ruoan tai ruuan, molemmat ovat oikein. Minä käytän yleensä jälkimmäistä versiota, koska se on ääntämyksen mukainen.
I appreciate corrections to my mistakes in any language.

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Postby Jonne » 2005-09-09, 11:56

Mistäs tätä kielikello-lehteä löytää :D ?

Where can I find this magazine? :D


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