Miumau wrote:Yes, the thumb rule is that in old words (of Finno-Ugric origin?), the inflectional stem is -e, which is actually a remnant of the original word (the singular nominative ending -i being a more recent development in the case of those words). In more recent loan words, the stem is -i, because these words never had an original form with an -e stem.
Sophie wrote:BTW, I believe you're using Finnish: An Essential Grammar by Fred Karlsson
Muisje wrote:What I've read (but I always forget what I read where) is that 'new' words have a stem in -i and 'old' words have a stem in -e.
New loan words ending in a final consonant form their inflectional stem by adding the vowel i, which changes to e before the plural -i-. Cf.:
stadion ‘stadium’: stadioni/n, stadioni/a, stadione/i/ta.
Loan words with a final -s, however, generally decline like ajatus, e.g.:
anis ‘aniseed’: anikse/n, anikse/ssa, anis/ta (part. sing.).
Miumau wrote:But basically...if you don't know or can't make a good guess about the age of the word, you need to learn it by heart, I suppose
Jnɨɨñɨ wrote:Thank you for your answers!
Loan words... such an interesting issue to talk about.
The problem here, however, is not with loan words, but with finnish nouns ending in 'i'.
If one should find this finnish word väri 'colour'... how would you know how to use it?
Which one would be the correct form?
-väri/mme (declined luke 'tunti')
-väre/mme (declined like 'kivi'/'kieli')
And what about the partitive?
-väri/ä (declined like 'tunti')
-väre/ä (delined like 'kivi')
-vär/tä (declined like 'kieli')
You are never sure about the correct inflectional form of nominals.
How to know?
Miumau wrote:It's true that a lot (perhaps most of them nowadays?) of the nouns ending in -i are this kind of recent loans, which have then the i-stem. So I think assuming the i-stem is the safest bet. Many of them are also easily recognisable, like you wrote above.
Most nominals with a basic form ending in -i do not have a separate inflectional stem, but endings are attached directly to the basic form itself
Serpent wrote:Omg. Tunti probably comes from Germanic Stunde??? So crazy how I've known this word for ages and never realized.
if I'm not sure what's the correct form I just google
lumiel wrote:"Risti" on muinaisslaavilainen lainasana. Lähestulkoon kaikki kristinuskossa käytetty sanasto on muinaisslaavilaista lainaa, esim. pappi, raamattu ja risti.
Sekä että, venäläisen wikisanakirjan mukaan ainakin Siis se tuli alunperin muinaisslaviin ja sitten venäjän kautta suomen kieleen (venäjäksi risti on krest).Miumau wrote:Mielenkiintoista! Minä aina ajattelin että 'risti' olisi johdos krististä/Kristuksesta, joka taas tulee kreikan khristos-sanasta (joka ei kylläkään tarkoita ristiä). Vai onko se muinaisslaaviinkin tullut alunperin kreikan kautta?
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