Hey, me writing Finnish does not mean I understand Finnish
Sorry, I did not know.
Usually people write in the language they want the answer to be in, so I assumed that's the case here, too.
(And sorry#2 for late translation, Christmas has been busy time for me!)
I believe that consonant gradation in this case means "the process where strong grade changes into weak grade". Because the essive usually has a strong grade, there's no consonant gradation (=change into a weak grade).
Strong grade forms aren't very helpful in determining if a word takes part in consonant gradation or not. For example, if you only had the essive forms patana
(pot) and autona
(car), you wouldn't be able to tell that pata
has a weak grade stem pada-
has only a strong grade stem auto-
. But with cases that cause consonant gradation, you can see the weak grade (or its lack): eg. genitive padan
or inessive padassa
. I think this is why Karlsson uses the term 'consonant gradation' to refer to change from strong to weak grade.
Woods wrote:Pysyykö ilma kirkkaana?
Kirkkaana on siellä essiivi (form?) sanasta kirkas, ja siellä on astevaihtelu.
So, there's no consonant gradation in essive kirkkaana
because that's the strong grade (kirkkaa-
). There is consonant gradation in nominative kirkas
, which is in weak grade.
FYI: The consonant gradation is not tied to cases but to syllables. In open syllables, you get a strong grade, and in closed syllables, you get a weak grade. This doesn't work 100% perfectly because some syllables have merged (eg. illative) but it explains why nominative can have both weak and strong grade, depending on the word.
And by the way, with words that are in weak grade in nominative, you can get weak grade essives: kirkasna
. However, these tend to be less used than strong grade essives (kirkkaana