Pausal Verb Forms [split]

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Pausal Verb Forms [split]

Postby Ser » 2018-06-20, 19:09

księżycowy wrote:I figured you'd say something like that. :P

My suggestion is the Routledge Introductory Course in Modern Hebrew by Etzion, but I am definitely open to other suggestions.

For Biblical my suggestions are:
Biblical Hebrew: Text and Workbook by Kittel, et al.
Introduction to Biblical Hebrew by Lambdin
-or-
Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar by Kelley

I'm vaguely interested in learning some Biblical Hebrew. Does any of these textbooks teach pausal forms from the get-go? I should also admit I'm mostly interested in learning a little Biblical Hebrew for its curious nominal and verbal morphology (I'd like to be familiar with it for conlanging purposes) and do not intend to get deep into it in the long term at all.

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby księżycowy » 2018-06-20, 19:13

Ser wrote:I'm vaguely interested in learning some Biblical Hebrew. Does any of these textbooks teach pausal forms from the get-go?

I'm not sure actually.
I should also admit I'm mostly interested in learning a little Biblical Hebrew for its curious nominal and verbal morphology (I'd like to be familiar with it for conlanging purposes) and do not intend to get deep into it in the long term at all.

If you're interested enough to go through a textbook, you're more than welcome to join. :)

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Ser » 2018-06-20, 19:27

księżycowy wrote:I'm not sure actually.

Oh, I thought you were familiar with the content of those textbooks... I guess you don't happen to know which textbook contains more morphology?

Since it seems like Biblical Hebrew group is going to consist of just you and me, and taking into account you have previous experience with the language while I have experience with Standard Arabic, I think we could go at a faster pace than in the Hokkien group? (I've occasionally read passages of the Bible with the interlinear glosses available on biblehub, and I've found the syntax to be superficially very similar to that of Arabic...) I'm familiar with the Hebrew writing system already, too. If the textbook we choose uses Hebrew letters only, that's not a problem.
księżycowy wrote:If you're interested enough to go through a textbook, you're more than welcome to join. :)

While I occasionally read sections of grammars that interest me, I've pretty much failed all my attempts at reading a grammar from beginning to end before. I'm like you in finding textbooks much more fun.
Last edited by Ser on 2018-06-20, 22:27, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby księżycowy » 2018-06-20, 19:38

Ser wrote:Oh, I thought you were familiar with the content of those textbooks... I guess you don't happen to know which textbook contains more morphology?

I am, but I don't recall any of them specifically saying much about pausal forms. This could just be a lapse of memory, however.

As for which contains more morphology, I'd say Lambdin has good, but reasonable coverage. If you want ad nausium coverage, Kelly.

Kittel gives good coverage too, but it's inductive and doesn't always overtly give you the details. I can share Kittel and Lambdin with you if you'd like to peruse them and see for yourself.

Since it seems like Biblical Hebrew group is going to consist of just you and me, and taking into account you have previous experience with the language while I have experience with Standard Arabic, I think we could go at a faster pace than in the Hokkien group? (I've occasionally read passages of the Bible with the interlinear glosses available on biblehub, and I've found the syntax to be superficially very similar to that of Arabic...) I'm familiar with the Hebrew writing system already, too. If the textbook we choose uses Hebrew letters only, that's not a problem.

kevin has also said he might be interested, and I'm not sure where he stands on prior familiarity, but we'll cross that bridge when I come to it.

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Drink » 2018-06-20, 19:50

Ser wrote:I'm vaguely interested in learning some Biblical Hebrew. Does any of these textbooks teach pausal forms from the get-go? I should also admit I'm mostly interested in learning a little Biblical Hebrew for its curious nominal and verbal morphology (I'd like to be familiar with it for conlanging purposes) and do not intend to get deep into it in the long term at all.

If you have any questions about Biblical Hebrew morphology (including pausal forms), you can ask me. I have a quite a thorough knowledge of it, though I can't promise I know absolutely everything.
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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Ser » 2018-06-20, 19:59

Drink wrote:
Ser wrote:I'm vaguely interested in learning some Biblical Hebrew. Does any of these textbooks teach pausal forms from the get-go? I should also admit I'm mostly interested in learning a little Biblical Hebrew for its curious nominal and verbal morphology (I'd like to be familiar with it for conlanging purposes) and do not intend to get deep into it in the long term at all.

If you have any questions about Biblical Hebrew morphology (including pausal forms), you can ask me. I have a quite a thorough knowledge of it, though I can't promise I know absolutely everything.

That's wonderful to hear!

Here's my most essential question: what is the best resource to find the pausal and non-pausal forms of a word (including conjugated verbs, in case it matters)? Is there a paper or grammar that covers such?

A couple years ago I had a quick glance of some Hebrew reference resources (Joüon's grammar and the like) and it seemed to me that the books I consulted just mentioned the phenomenon of pausal forms in very general terms without providing the patterns and surprising cases found. Also, in the conjugation tables, verbs were generally given only one form for each combination of tense/gender/number/person/binyan, but there are distinct pausal forms for some combinations, aren't there?

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Drink » 2018-06-20, 20:32

Ser wrote:Here's my most essential question: what is the best resource to find the pausal and non-pausal forms of a word (including conjugated verbs, in case it matters)? Is there a paper or grammar that covers such?

A concordance. I tend to use Strong's concordance on this website, only because I can't find anything better (one important caveat is that forms are not infrequently miscategorized, so just keep that in mind). Basically, look up the word you want to find the pausal form for and try to find where it is used in pausal position. If it isn't used in pausal position, then you'll have to consider similar words, but be careful because pausal forms are not always as predictable as they may seem.

Ser wrote:Also, in the conjugation tables, verbs were generally given only one form for each combination of tense/gender/number/person/binyan, but there are distinct pausal forms for some combinations, aren't there?

Yes, there are distinct pausal forms for some combinations. There are also sometimes alternative forms for the same combination. If you have questions about specific forms, let me know. I can even help you construct full conjugation tables with pausal forms.
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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Ser » 2018-06-21, 14:04

Drink wrote:
Ser wrote:Here's my most essential question: what is the best resource to find the pausal and non-pausal forms of a word (including conjugated verbs, in case it matters)? Is there a paper or grammar that covers such?

A concordance. I tend to use Strong's concordance on this website, only because I can't find anything better (one important caveat is that forms are not infrequently miscategorized, so just keep that in mind). Basically, look up the word you want to find the pausal form for and try to find where it is used in pausal position. If it isn't used in pausal position, then you'll have to consider similar words, but be careful because pausal forms are not always as predictable as they may seem.

That's disappointing... There really should be something better. :?
Ser wrote:Also, in the conjugation tables, verbs were generally given only one form for each combination of tense/gender/number/person/binyan, but there are distinct pausal forms for some combinations, aren't there?

Yes, there are distinct pausal forms for some combinations. There are also sometimes alternative forms for the same combination. If you have questions about specific forms, let me know. I can even help you construct full conjugation tables with pausal forms.

Yes, I would like all the pausal forms of at least one sound verb (say, qāṭal, in its pā‘al binyan), please, if you don't mind. Including the two infinitives (qəṭōl and qāṭôl) and the participles, and also, if it matters, the shapes for pronominal suffixes (qāṭəlāh 'she killed' ~ qəṭāláṯî 'she killed me').

I do know that's a lot of forms.

I'll remain happy if you skip forms that are the same as the non-pausal forms, just tell me if you've skipped them because they're the same or because you have no way of knowing the pausal form.

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Drink » 2018-06-21, 18:40

Ser wrote:Yes, I would like all the pausal forms of at least one sound verb (say, qāṭal, in its pā‘al binyan), please, if you don't mind. Including the two infinitives (qəṭōl and qāṭôl) and the participles, and also, if it matters, the shapes for pronominal suffixes (qāṭəlāh 'she killed' ~ qəṭāláṯî 'she killed me').


Firstly, a couple corrections:
  • qāṭəlā 'she killed' has no "h" sound (final ה is only pronounced when it has a dot: הּ)
  • qəṭāláṯnî 'she killed me' has an "n" (the 1.sg. verbal object suffix is -nī, not -ī

I'll start with the base forms without suffixes:

Notes on my transliterations:
  • For clarity, I'll be indicating stress even on forms with final stress.
  • I never use circumflex accents to indicate "full spelling", because it's entirely useless; if you want to know the spelling, look at the Hebrew.
  • I use a superscript schewa to indicate a shva merachef.

Suffix conjugation1:
1.sg.2.m.sg.2.f.sg.3.m.sg.3.f.sg.
non-pausalקָטַלְתִּי qāṭáltīקָטַלְתָּ qāṭáltāקָטַלְתְּ qāṭáltקָטַל qāṭálקָטְלָה qāṭəlā́
pausalקָטָלְתִּי qāṭā́ltīקָטָלְתָּ qāṭā́ltāקָטָלְתְּ qāṭā́ltקָטָל qāṭā́lקָטָלָה qāṭā́lā
1.pl.2.m.pl.2.f.pl.3.m.pl.3.f.pl.
non-pausalקָטַלְנוּ qāṭálnūקְטַלְתֶּם qəṭaltémקְטַלְתֶּן qəṭalténקָטְלוּ qāṭəlū́same as 3.m.pl.
pausalקָטָלְנוּ qāṭā́lnūsamesameקָטָלוּ qāṭā́lūsame as 3.m.pl.

Vav-consecutive suffix conjugation1: Same as regular suffix conjugation (but with the "wə-" prefix), except for 1.sg. and 2.m.sg.:
1.sg.2.m.sg.
non-pausalוְקָטַלְתִּי wəqāṭaltī́וְקָטַלְתָּ wəqāṭaltā́
semi-pausalוְקָטַלְתִּי wəqāṭáltīוְקָטַלְתָּ wəqāṭáltā
pausalוְקָטָלְתִּי wəqāṭā́ltīוְקָטָלְתָּ wəqāṭā́ltā

Prefix conjugation2:
1.sg.2.m.sg.2.f.sg.3.m.sg.3.f.sg.
non-pausalאֶקְטֹל ʾeqṭṓlתִּקְטֹל tiqṭṓlתִּקְטְלִי tiqṭəlī́יִקְטֹל yiqṭṓlתִּקְטֹל tiqṭṓl
pausalsamesameתִּקְטֹלִי tiqṭṓlīsamesame
1.pl.2.m.pl.2.f.pl.3.m.pl.3.f.pl.
non-pausalנִקְטֹל niqṭṓlתִּקְטְלוּ tiqṭəlū́ or תִּקְטְלוּן tiqṭəlū́nתִּקְטֹלְנָה tiqṭṓlnāיִקְטְלוּ yiqṭəlū́ or יִקְטְלוּן yiqṭəlū́nsame as 2.f.pl.
pausalsameתִּקְטֹלוּ tiqṭṓlū or תִּקְטֹלוּן tiqṭōlū́nsameיִקְטֹלוּ yiqṭṓlū or יִקְטֹלוּן yiqṭōlū́nsame as 2.f.pl.

Vav-consecutive prefix conjugation: Same as regular prefix conjugation for sound roots in binyan pa'al (but with the "wa-" prefix).

Cohortative/imperative/jussive2: Jussive is the same as the regular 3rd-person prefix conjugation (only the shorter form for the 3.m.pl.) for sound roots in binyan pa'al, so only cohortative and imperative given:
1.sg. (cohort.)2.m.sg. (imp.)2.m.sg. (imp.) long form2.f.sg. (imp.)
non-pausalאֶקְטְלָה ʾeqṭəlā́קְטֹל qəṭṓlקִטְלָה qiṭᵊlā́ or קָטְלָה qoṭᵊlā́קִטְלִי qiṭᵊlī́
pausalאֶקְטֹלָה ʾeqṭṓlāsameקְטֹלָה qəṭṓlā 3קְטֹלִי qəṭṓlī
1.pl. (cohort.)2.m.pl. (imp.)2.f.pl. (imp.)
non-pausalנִקְטְלָה niqṭəlā́קִטְלוּ qiṭᵊlū́קְטֹלְנָה qəṭṓlnā
pausalנִקְטֹלָה niqṭṓlāקְטֹלוּ qəṭṓlūsame


Participles: Only the f.sg. active participle has a special pausal form for sound roots in binyan pa'al:
f.sg.
non-pausalקוֹטֶלֶת qōṭéleṯ
pausalקוֹטָלֶת qōṭā́leṯ


Infinitives: No forms have special pausal forms for sound roots in binyan pa'al.

Notes:
  1. This table only applies to sound verbs whose characteristic vowel for the suffix conjugation is "a".
  2. This table only applies to sound verbs whose characteristic vowel for the prefix conjugation is "o/u".
  3. Not sure if this form is attested.
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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Ser » 2018-06-22, 23:05

Drink wrote:Firstly, a couple corrections:
  • qāṭəlā 'she killed' has no "h" sound (final ה is only pronounced when it has a dot: הּ)

I used -h because I see it used like that in professional works. For example, Lambdin at the beginning of his textbook transcribes the word for woman with -h. Your approach to romanization, focused on sound, is reasonable of course.

However, focused on sound as it is, is there a reason why ā in a closed syllable is not transcribed as "o"? E.g. pausal wəqāṭā́ltī as "wəqāṭóltī".

EDIT: Wait a second! You did write pausal qoṭᵊlā́ with "o". Does that mean there is really a stressed long קמץ vowel in the middle of wəqāṭā́ltī there? :shock:

qəṭāláṯnî 'she killed me' has an "n" (the 1.sg. verbal object suffix is -nī, not -ī

Is it always -nī (as in Standard Arabic) or is it -nī most of the time?

Thank you very much for your work so far!

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Drink » 2018-06-24, 14:09

Ser wrote:However, focused on sound as it is, is there a reason why ā in a closed syllable is not transcribed as "o"? E.g. pausal wəqāṭā́ltī as "wəqāṭóltī".

EDIT: Wait a second! You did write pausal qoṭᵊlā́ with "o". Does that mean there is really a stressed long קמץ vowel in the middle of wəqāṭā́ltī there? :shock:

So, yes, I meant it the way I wrote it. I'm not careless about these things (although I'm not immune to typos and copy/paste errors, but this is not one of them).

So the best way to avoid confusion regarding the קמץ is to understand that really there are two completely unrelated sounds ("ā" and "o") that happen to be written with the same symbol. There is a reason they share a symbol, because in the Tiberian reading tradition they were the same vowel, though perhaps still differing in length, but it's best to ignore this and think of these two vowels as separate and completely unrelated.

The reason I say this is because it is important to realize that when you are asking yourself whether a particular קצץ is pronounced "ā" or "o", what you're really asking is which of these two unrelated sounds is this קמץ indicating here. The rules about closed and open syllables are guidelines to help differentiate the two sounds, rather rules of how קמץ is pronounced. Now in pausal position (most of the time) a stressed "a" is lengthened to "ā", so even when this happens to be in a closed syllable, it is still "ā" and does not magically become an "o".

The above is just to help you understand things better, because really there is a simple rule here that you can remember instead: a קמץ that carries a primary stress is always "ā". This is because there is also a rule that "o", when stressed, is always lengthened to "ō" (and represented by a חולם).

Side note: qoṭᵊlā́ is not a pausal form.

Is it always -nī (as in Standard Arabic) or is it -nī most of the time?

Yes, always. Did you have a reason to think otherwise?
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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Ser » 2018-06-24, 16:29

Drink wrote:
Is it always -nī (as in Standard Arabic) or is it -nī most of the time?

Yes, always. Did you have a reason to think otherwise?

The reason is found in a PDF file about pronominal suffixes in Biblical Hebrew that I found somewhere, and that I found confusing on the matter of -nī vs. -ī.

Thank you for your explanation regarding the qāmaṣ sign! It does seem like being familiar with the Proto-Semitic lexicon would be very useful for this pausal form business.
Last edited by Ser on 2018-06-24, 22:15, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Drink » 2018-06-24, 20:01

Ser wrote:The reason is found in a PDF file about pronominal suffixes in Biblical Hebrew that I found somewhere, and that I found confusing on the matter of -nī vs. -ī.

The difference is the same as in Arabic: -ī is the possessive and used with certain prepositions, and -nī is the object suffix and used with certain other prepositions.


EDIT:

Thank you for your explanation regarding the qāmaṣ sign!

Just a correction: qāmāṣ.

It does seem like being familiar with the Proto-Semitic lexicon would be very useful for this pausal form business.

I don't think Proto-Semitic is of much relevance here. What makes you say that?
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Re: Pausal Verb Forms [split]

Postby Drink » 2018-06-27, 18:00

So here, I'll describe the pausal forms of verbs with object suffixes. I will classify the suffix-taking stems and give one table for each type. I'll list the conjugated forms that have each stem type, giving an example of that stem with a 3.m.sg. object suffix. Then I'll choose one of the stems and give the forms and pausal forms with every object suffix (in some cases, I will need to switch between stems to avoid non-existant reflexive combinations).

Note that the feminine plural stems for all tenses and numbers are the same as the masculine plural stems (i.e. the forms ending in -nā are not used with object suffixes).

ī-stems: (no special pausal forms)
suf.1.sg.suf.2.f.sg.pre.2.f.sg.imp.f.sg.
קְטַלְתִּיהוּ qəṭaltī́hūקְטַלְתִּיהוּ qəṭaltī́hūתִּקְטְלִיהוּ tiqṭəlī́hūקִטְלִיהוּ qiṭᵊlī́hū

1.sg.2.m.sg.2.f.sg.3.m.sg.3.f.sg.
non-pausalקְטַלְתִּינִי qəṭaltī́nīקְטַלְתִּיךָ qəṭaltī́ḵāקְטַלְתִּיךְ qəṭaltī́ḵקְטַלְתִּיו qəṭaltī́w or קְטַלְתִּיהוּ qəṭaltī́hūקְטַלְתִּיהָ qəṭaltī́hā
1.pl.2.m.pl.2.f.pl.3.m.pl.3.f.pl.
non-pausalקְטַלְתִּינוּ qəṭaltī́nūקְטַלְתִּיכֶם qəṭaltīḵémקְטַלְתִּיכֶן qəṭaltīḵénקְטַלְתִּים qəṭaltī́mקְטַלְתִּין qəṭaltī́n

ū-stems: (no special pausal forms)
suf.1.pl.suf.2.pl.suf.3.pl.pre.2.pl.pre.3.pl.imp.pl.
קְטַלְנוּהוּ qəṭalnū́hūקְטַלְתּוּהוּ qəṭaltū́hūקְטָלוּהוּ qəṭālū́hūתִּקְטְלוּהוּ tiqṭəlū́hūיִקְטְלוּהוּ yiqṭəlū́hūקִטְלוּהוּ qiṭᵊlū́hū

1.sg.2.m.sg.2.f.sg.3.m.sg.3.f.sg.
non-pausalקְטָלוּנִי qəṭālū́nīקְטָלוּךָ qəṭālū́ḵāקְטָלוּךְ qəṭālū́ḵקְטָלוּהוּ qəṭālū́hūקְטָלוּהָ qəṭālū́hā
1.pl.2.m.pl.2.f.pl.3.m.pl.3.f.pl.
non-pausalקְטָלוּנוּ qəṭālū́nūקְטָלוּכֶם qəṭālūḵémקְטָלוּכֶן qəṭālūḵénקְטָלוּם qəṭālū́mקְטָלוּן qəṭālū́n

a-stems: (only the 1.sg. and 2.m.sg. object suffixes have special pausal forms)
suf.2.m.sg.suf.3.m.sg.
קְטַלְתָּהוּ qəṭaltā́hūקְטָלָהוּ qəṭālā́hū

1.sg.2.m.sg.2.f.sg.3.m.sg.3.f.sg.
non-pausalקְטָלַנִי qəṭālánīקְטָלְךָ qəṭāləḵā́קְטָלֵךְ qəṭālḗḵ or קְטָלָךְ qəṭālā́ḵקְטָלוֹ qəṭālṓ or קְטָלָהוּ qəṭālā́hūקְטָלָהּ qəṭālā́h
pausalקְטָלָנִי qəṭālā́nīקְטָלֶךָ qəṭāléḵā or קְטָלָךְ qəṭālā́ḵsamesamesame
1.pl.2.m.pl.2.f.pl.3.m.pl.3.f.pl.
non-pausalקְטָלָנוּ qəṭālā́nūקְטַלְכֶם qəṭalᵊḵémקְטַלְכֶן qəṭalᵊḵénקְטָלָם qəṭālā́mקְטָלָן qəṭālā́n

at-stem (only suf.3.f.sg.):
1.sg.2.m.sg.2.f.sg.3.m.sg.3.f.sg.
non-pausalקְטָלַתְנִי qəṭāláṯnīקְטָלַתְךָ qəṭāláṯᵊḵāקְטָלָתֶךְ qəṭālā́ṯeḵקְטָלַתּוּ qəṭāláttū or קְטָלַתְהוּ qəṭāláṯhūקְטָלַתָּה qəṭāláttā
pausalקְטָלָתְנִי qəṭālā́ṯnīקְטָלָתְךָ qəṭālā́ṯᵊḵā 1sameקְטָלָתּוּ qəṭālā́ttū or קְטָלָתְהוּ qəṭālā́ṯhū 2קְטָלָתָּה qəṭālā́ttā
1.pl.2.m.pl.2.f.pl.3.m.pl.3.f.pl.
non-pausalקְטָלַתְנוּ qəṭāláṯnūקְטָלַתְכֶם qəṭālaṯᵊḵémקְטָלַתְכֶן qəṭālaṯᵊḵénקְטָלָתַם qəṭālā́ṯamקְטָלָתַן qəṭālā́ṯan
pausalקְטָלָתְנוּ qəṭālā́ṯnūsamesamesamesame
Notes:
  1. קְטָלָתְךָ qəṭālā́ṯᵊḵā is not actually attested in the Leningrad Codex's vocalization. The one place I can find where this form occurs in pausal position, the form is the same as the non-pausal form in the Leningrad Codex (although it seems some other editions have had this pausal form that I give, but I don't know which editions these are; but Gesenius seems to have had such an edition).
  2. Or sometimes the same as the non-pausal form קְטָלַתְהוּ qəṭāláṯhū.

More to come later...
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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Ser » 2018-06-27, 20:17

Drink wrote:
Thank you for your explanation regarding the qāmaṣ sign!

Just a correction: qāmāṣ.

Wikipedia has the same mistake I made, in the article "Qamatz". :D (It says the name of the vowel mark is קָמַץ‬, with a pataḥ under the mēm.)
It does seem like being familiar with the Proto-Semitic lexicon would be very useful for this pausal form business.

I don't think Proto-Semitic is of much relevance here. What makes you say that?

I was suspecting that the correspondence of certain vowel qualities between the non-pausal and the pausal form of something (ə ~ ō in yiqṭəlū́ ~ yiqṭṓlū in the 3.M.PL of the prefix conjugation, or e ~ ā in qōṭéleṯ ~ qōṭā́leṯ in the FEM.SG active participle) had to do with the vowels that Proto-Semitic had there. I suppose I'm wrong. :hmm:

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Re: księżyc - עברית

Postby Drink » 2018-06-27, 20:48

Ser wrote:I was suspecting that the correspondence of certain vowel qualities between the non-pausal and the pausal form of something (ə ~ ō in yiqṭəlū́ ~ yiqṭṓlū in the 3.M.PL of the prefix conjugation, or e ~ ā in qōṭéleṯ ~ qōṭā́leṯ in the FEM.SG active participle) had to do with the vowels that Proto-Semitic had there. I suppose I'm wrong. :hmm:

Well you're only partially wrong. Firstly, all the necessary information is contained within Biblical Hebrew itself. For example, the vowel of yiqṭṓlū is known from yiqṭṓl, and the vowel of qōṭā́leṯ is known from pausal correspondences in nouns such as kérem ~ kā́rem, as well as the suffixed forms such as qōṭaltṓ, which is also like karmṓ.

Secondly, really understanding how the alternations came about only requires going back to proto-Biblical Hebrew, where these forms were yaqṭulū and qōṭalt(i), whereas going back to Proto-Semitic would give you the forms yaqṭulūn(a) and qāṭil(a)tu(n/m), where as you can see, the latter actually has a different vowel ("i" instead of "a").
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Re: Pausal Verb Forms [split]

Postby Drink » 2018-06-29, 18:20

Here I give the participle forms with object suffixes. The participle forms forms are mostly the same as the possessive suffix patterns on nouns. So I will give only those forms that differ and those that have special pausal forms. They will be labeled as m.sg.+3.m.sg., which means m.sg. participle with 3.m.sg. object.

m.sg.+1.sg.m.sg.+2.m.sg.m.sg.+3.m.sg.m.pl.+1.sg.m.pl.+2.f.sg.
non-pausalקוֹטְלֵנִי qōṭəlḗnīקוֹטֶלְךָ qōṭelᵊḵā́קוֹטְלוֹ qōṭəlṓ or קוֹטְלֵהוּ qōṭəlḗhūקוֹטְלַי qōṭəláyקוֹטְלַיִךְ qōṭəláyiḵ
pausalsameקוֹטְלֶךָ qōṭəléḵāsameקוֹטְלָי qōṭəlā́yקוֹטְלָיִךְ qōṭəlā́yiḵ
f.sg.+1.sg.f.sg.+2.m.sg.f.sg.+3.m.sg.f.pl.+1.sg.f.pl.+2.f.sg.
non-pausalקוֹטַלְתֵּנִי qōṭaltḗnīקוֹטַלְתְּךָ qōṭaltəḵā́קוֹטַלְתּוֹ qōṭaltṓ or קוֹטַלְתֵּהוּ qōṭaltḗhūקוֹטְלוֹתַי qōṭəlōṯáyקוֹטְלוֹתַיִךְ qōṭəlōṯáyiḵ
pausalsameקוֹטַלְתֶּךָ qōṭaltéḵāsameקוֹטְלוֹתָי qōṭəlōṯā́yקוֹטְלוֹתָיִךְ qōṭəlōṯā́yiḵ


The suffixless imperatives, suffixless prefix-conjugation forms, and infinitives will come later...
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Re: Pausal Verb Forms [split]

Postby Drink » 2018-07-10, 20:47

Are you still interested in me continuing this? Do you have any questions about what I've posted so far? Has it been helpful?
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Re: Pausal Verb Forms [split]

Postby Ser » 2018-07-11, 12:52

Drink wrote:Are you still interested in me continuing this? Do you have any questions about what I've posted so far? Has it been helpful?

No questions, but it's been very interesting for sure! It amazes me this stuff is not included in reference grammars.


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