Ok, so... here's my first Icelandic lesson. I'll try to cover a certain kind of grammar (as does the book) every lesson, followed by a text, followed by vocabulary, followed by exercises.
What grammar will we learn today?
- "to be" (present indicative), personal pronouns, masc. and fem. weak nouns, and an intro to adverbs.
First off, nobody is expected to read through these grammar portions and memorize them as they go. No language works like that. The grammar portion serves only as a reference for the texts, and through that (with help from the exercises), the grammar will be engraved in your brain
The nominative forms of the pronouns will be gone over today. For the beginners, the nominative is used as the subject of a sentence.
thou (you singular) - þú
he - hann
she - hún
it - það
we - við
you (pl./formal) - þið
*they (m) - þeir
*they (f) - þær
*they (both/ind.) - þau
*þeir/þær/þau can be a bit confusing at first, but it all depends on who you are talking about. Two or more women is þær, two or more men is þeir, and mixed company or if you don't know the genders of whatever you're talking about is þau.
að vera - to be
The next logical thing to learn is the most important verb in any language: "to be". In Icelandic, this translates to "að vera", and is conjugated irregularly, as follows:
I am - ég er
*thou art - þú ert
he/she/it is - hann/hún/það er
we are - við erum
you (pl.) are - þið eruð
they are - þeir/þær/þau eru
*sometimes (and in the text below), "ert þú" is shortened to just "ertu"
Weak Declension Nouns
I don't believe plural nouns are needed for this text, so we'll just learn the singular, weak declension, first class masculine and feminine nouns endings.
wm.1 (weak masculine first class) is defined as "genitive singular -a, plural -ar":
Sg. Nom. - tím-i - time
Acc. - tím-a
Dat. - tím-a
Gen. - tím-a
Pretty simple, right? Now for the feminine, wf.1 is defined as "genitive singular -u, plural -ur"
Sg. Nom. - tung-a - tongue
Acc. - tung-u
Dat. - tung-u
Gen. - tung-u
There! Declension in Icelandic will be a pain later on, I won't lie, but I'll try to introduce new things slowly.
The only things you need to know about adverbs today are the interrogative adverbs and how to recognize the to and from endings.
they all start with hv-, other than that, what you need to know is in the vocabulary for this text
Adverbs of Place:
Adverbs going to
something usually take the ending -i. Adverbs going from
something usually take the ending -an.
inn - in
inni - into/inside
innan - from the inside
út - out
úti - outside
utan - from the outside (no accent mark)
One last thing before we start the text - to use a verb in the present "i am ___ing" form, you say "ég er" + the infinitive, i.e. "við erum að byrja" - "we are beginning". All infinitives end in -a.
Now, for the fun part
Bjössi, Siggi, Gunna og Valdi eru að leika śer. Bjössi er kennari; þau Siggi, Gunna og Valdi eru að læra hjá honum. Bjössi eru einn í skólastofunni, en þau eru þar ekki; þau eru úti.
Bjössi: Hvar eruð þið?
Siggi (úti): Ég er hér.
Bjössi: Ertu þarna einn?
Siggi: Já, ég er hérna einn.
Bjössi: Hvar eru þau Gunna og Valdi?
Siggi: Valdi er úti á götu, en Gunna er uppi hjá mömmu.
Bjössi: Hvar er pabbi?
Siggi: Pabbi er ekki heima.
Bjössi: Hvar eru þau afi og amma?
Siggi: Þau eru líka uppi hjá mömmu.
Bjössi: Tíminn er að byrja; þið Gunna verðið að koma inn í skólann.
Gunna og Siggi (við gluggann): Við erum að koma.
á - on (with dative); in
að - to (with infinitive)
afi - grandpa (wm.1)
amma - grandma (wf.1)
Bjössi - pet name for Björn (wm.1)
að byrja - to begin, beginning
einn - alone
ekki - not (adverb)
en - but (conjunction)
ertu - ert þú (in case you forgot
gata - street (wf.1)
að gera - to do, doing
gluggi - window (wm.1)
Gunna - pet name for Guðrún (wf.1)
heima - at home (adverb)
hér - here (adverb)
hérna - here (adverb, used while pointing)
hjá - with (with dative)
hvað - what (interrogative)
hvar - where (adverb)
í - in, at (with dative); into (with accusative)
inn - into (adverb)
já - yes
kennari - teacher (wm.1)
að koma - to come, coming
að leika sér - to play, playing
líka - also, too (adverb)
að læra - to learn, study; learning.
mamma - mother (wf.1, dative="mömmu")
og - and
pabbi - father (wm.1)
Siggi - pet name for Sigurður (wm.1)
skólastofa - schoolroom (wf.1)
skóli - school (wm.1)
tími - time, hour, class period (wm.1)
uppi - up above, upstairs (adverb)
úti - outside (adverb)
Valdi - pet name for Þorvaldur (wm.1)
að vera - to be
að verða - to have to.
við - at (with accusative)
þar - there (adverb)
þarna - there (adverb, used while pointing)
Note: -inn and -nn are definite article endings, i.e. tími - class period; tíminn - the class period.
is Bjössi doing? He is a teacher. Where is he? He is up at the school (uppi í skóla)
. Where are Siggi, Gunna and Valdi? Siggi and Valdi are outside, Valdi is out in the street, but Gunna is upstairs. She is with mother. Where are grandma and grandpa? They are upstairs with mother, too. Where is father? He is not at home, he is out. Who (hver)
is studying? Siggi, Gunna and Valdi.
I have put a lot of work into this
so let me know if there's anything I can fix. Also, you can PM me your homework, or post it here, and I'll check it and let you know what's wrong, if anything. Good luck, and if you have any questions, feel free