Icelandic 101 - Íslenska 101

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Egein
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Postby Egein » 2004-11-15, 4:02

Sá and Sú mean reather he who, she who.

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-15, 14:54

Egein wrote:Sá and Sú mean reather he who, she who.

He who is "sá sem" and she who is "sú sem" :)
Last edited by JackFrost on 2004-11-15, 15:06, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-15, 15:04

A little quiz, but don't worry...I won't pass or fail you since this course is for fun! :D

Put the correct article
1) bíll (nominative masc. singular)
2) barn (dative neuter singular)
3) kirkja (nominative fem. plural)
4) vatn (accusative neuter singular)
5) íslendingur (dative masc. plural)

Put the correct possessive pronoun
1) my car (bíll - nominative masc. singular)
2) your roses (rós - dative fem. plural)
3) his mother (móðir - nominative fem. singular)
4) our school (skóla - dative masc. singular)
5) her fishes (fiskur - accusative masc. plural)

Put the correct demonative pronouns
1) that car (bíll - dative masc. singular)
2) this rose (rós - nominative fem. singular)
3) these children (barn - dative neuter plural)
4) this school (skól - nominative masc. singular)
5) those dogs (hundur - accusative masc. plural)

Oh, don't worry about the certain endings for the nouns, I haven't taught you those yet. ;)

Good luck...and please don't stress yourself over this. :P
Last edited by JackFrost on 2004-11-15, 23:17, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby Rob P » 2004-11-15, 20:51

Great! I'll start working on this lesson and these exercizes....

Robert

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Postby Guest » 2004-11-15, 21:19

Hæ jack..


Íslenskingur does not exist...


I think you meant Íslendingur

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Postby Egein » 2004-11-15, 22:01

CASES:

In icelandic one finds 4 cases -

Nomative is the dictionary form, and the subject of a phrase.

Accusative is when the word is the direct object of the phrase:
Ex: ég býð þér epla
I give you AN APPLE.
or again : I see the the lamp - Ég lampann

But if I envers them both.

Eplið býður þér mig - The apple gives you me.

Lampinn sér mig - The lamp sees me.


Dative is the case of the indirect object. But, dative isn't allways a real case, as well as accusative, and genitive in icelandic. Meaning that the dative is used for the indirect object, but also with prepositions, because dative is just a mix of old ancient disapeared cases.

In icelandic most of the time dative shows steadyness, while accusative shows movement, when using prepositions such as í - in, and á - on.

In icelandic verbs all govern one preposition. To be, að vera, uses the nominative.

Some prepositions are fixed with cases, while others have two possibilities.

Til allways uses genitive.

Í, á and með can both you Accusative OR dative.
So if I write

Ég verð í bankann - I will go in(to) the bank (movement, accusative)
Ég verð í bankanum - I will stay in the bank (steadyness, dative)


There are few verbs that uses genitive for cases, like SAKNA - to miss someone

Ég sakna þín


But again, prepositions in icelandic are quite much like in french, they mean alot of things depending on their context and such...

Try to fill in those with the correct case.
(Genitive case is most often -u, -a, -ar, -jar, ur or -s)


Ég fer í : a) húsið b) húsinu - I go into the house

Ég sef í : a) rúmið b) rúminu - I sleep in the bed

Þú ert í : a) skólann b) skólanum - You are in the school

Ég fer til : a) Reykjavík b) Reykjavíkur - I go to reykjavík

The last one is tricky.

Now with dative accusative:

Ég gef : a) þér b) þig c) þín epla - I give you an apple

Ég segi : a) til þín b) þér c) þig það - I tell you this



Vona ykkur finnst gott að ég hjálpa.

blessuð.





[/b]

syndin

Postby syndin » 2004-11-15, 23:05

hæhæ
sneddí að vera með svona...en er sniðugt að hafa einhvern sem hefur bara verið að læra íslensku í 1 ár til að sjá um þetta???
annars er þetta frábær hugmynd og gangi þér bara vel:)

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-15, 23:15

Beautiful explaination on cases Egein! :D

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-17, 18:51

Lession Three - Kennstustund Þrjú

Greeting Expressions
Informal:
Halló - Hi
Hæ - Hey, Hi
Bæ - Bye
Bless - Bye
Bæjó - Bye
Sjáumst - See you

Formal good-byes and what adults generally use more except with good friends
Vertu sæll (m)/sæl (f)
Vertu blessaður (m)/blessuð (f)
Verið þið sælir (m plural)/sælar (f plural)/ sæl (n plural, used when there are people of both gender)
Verið þið blessaðir/blessaðar/blessuð

Also, in case you want to learn more ways to say "hi" formally...
Sæll (m)/Sæl (f)
Komdu sæll
Sæll vertu
Blessaður (m)/blessuð (f)
Komdu blessaður
Komdu sæll og blessaður
Komdu blessaður og sæll
Blessaður og sæll
Sæll og blessaður

More...
Góðan daginn - Good morning, good morning
Góðan dag - Good day, good morning
Góða nótt - Good night
Gott kvöld - Good evening

How are you?...
Hvað segirðu? - What's up?
Hvernig hefurðu það? - How are you?

Days of the Week and Months of the Year
Week - Vika (f)
Weekend - Helga (f)
Day - Dagur (m)

Monday - Mánudagur
Tuesday - Þriðjudagur
Wednesday - Miðvikudagur
Thursday - Fimmtudagur
Friday - Föstudagur
Saturday - Laugardagur
Sunday - Sunnudagur

Month - Mánuður (m)
Year - Ár (n)

January - Janúar
February - Febrúar
March - Marz
April - Apríl
May - Maí
June - Júní
July - Júlí
August - Ágúst
September - September
October - Október
November - Nóvember
December - Desember

Wednesday, November 17, 2004
Miðvikudagur 17 Nóvember 2004
Last edited by JackFrost on 2004-12-23, 4:39, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby Guest » 2004-11-17, 22:29

Miðvikudagur sautján noember tvö þúsund og fjögur.(or is it frjorir)

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-17, 22:56

Anonymous wrote:Miðvikudagur sautján noember tvö þúsund og fjögur.(or is it frjorir)

Miðvikudagur Sautján Nóvember Tvö Þúsund og Fjórir

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-22, 3:45

Lesson Four - Kennstustund Fjögur

Nouns
-Icelandic nouns are complex because there are two forms, weak and strong. Weak nouns use the regular patterns while the strong nouns use vowel shifts and irregular patterns. Each form can be grouped according to genders and endings in the nominative plural and genitive singular. In the strong nouns, there are eight groups, four for masculine, three for femimine, and one for neuter, and in the weak nouns, there are five, two for masculine, two for femimine, and one for neuter.

-Nominative singular
Masculine: -ur, -l, -n, -i
Femimine: -a, no ending
Neuter: no ending

This is the case you would find in the dictionary. You can generally tell the gender by looking at the ending, but there are exceptions of course!

-Accusative singular
Masculine: -ur, -l, -n takes no ending. Nouns with -i take an -a.
Femimine: no ending remains no ending. Nouns ending with an -a takes an -u.
Neuter: no ending

-Dative singular
Masculine: -ur, -l, -n is very irregular, some takes an -i, some do not. -I nouns take an -a.
Femimine: no endings still remain no ending. -A nouns take an -u.
Neuter: add an -i.

-Genitive singular
Masculine: add an -s or -ar for -ur, -l, -n, and an -a for -i nouns.
Feminine: no ending nouns take -ar, and -a nouns take -u.
Neuter: add -s.

-Plural
Masculine: -ur, -l, -n take -ar or -ir in the nominative, and -a or -i in the accusative. For -i nouns, -ir for nominative and accusative, -a or -i.
Femimine: no ending nouns take -ur in both nominative and accusative. -A nouns take -ur in both nominative and accusative.
Neuter: ö shift for both cases.
In all genders, they all take -um for the dative, and -a for the genitive, except for femimine -a nouns, which some take -na.

Note: There are exceptions for some nouns, but this is the rough way to get through many of the nouns.

-Examples

Masculine -ur, -l, -n, -i
Bíll (car)
bíll, bíl, bíl, bíls
bílir, bíla, bílum, bíla


Smiður (smith)
smiður, smið, smið, smiðs
smiðar, smiði, smiðum, smiða


Himinn (heaven)
himinn, himin, himini, himins
himinar, himina, himinum, himina


Nemandi (student)
nemandi, nemanda, nemanda, nemanda
nemendur, nemendur, nemendum, nemenda


Femimine no ending, -a
Rós (rose)
rós, rós, rós, rósar
rósir, rósir, rósum, rósa


Kirkja (church)
kirkja, kirkju, kirkju, kirkju
kirkjur, kirkjur, kirkjum, kirkna


Neuter no ending
Barn (child)
barn, barn, barni, barns
börn, börn, börnum, barna


-I know it is complex, even the Icelanders get confused with the nouns I just explained. :? I found two nice sites that explain the nouns and the groups for you all to see how to use the endings correct. :) http://www.samkoma.com/mimir/mimnoun.htm , and http://www.islenska.net/ , which is in Swedish...at the right side...

Femininer -> Femimine
Starka -> Strong
Svaga -> Weak
Maskuliner -> Masculine
Starka -> Strong
Svaga -> Weak
Neutrer -> Neuter

Inside them, grupp-> group, kasus -> cases, obest->without articles, best-> with articles

-According to Beygingarkerfi nafnorða í nútímaíslensku (Icelandic nouns). The author stated about the 1047 nouns..
281 (27%) are masculine (which 67% is strong and 33% is weak).
428 (41%) are femimine (71% are strong and 27.5% are weak).
338 (32%) are neuter (98.5% are strong, and 0.9% weak).

-I stress, do not go overboard with the nouns, I haven't mastered them after almost a year of learning. So please learn with ease and patience. :D Remember, even the Icelanders go crazy with the nouns. ;)
Last edited by JackFrost on 2005-01-13, 0:50, edited 2 times in total.
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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-22, 18:16

Here is an interesting compartion form Old Icelandic (800s to 1300s) This is the language of the sagas and most of old Norse sagas survived in this language.

Old Icelandic
Þorgeirr blundr, systursonr Egils, var þar á þinginu ok hafði gengit hart at liðveizlu við Þorstein. Hann bað Egil ok þá Þorstein koma sér til staðfestu út þangat á Mýrar; hann bjó áðr fyrir sunnan Hvítá, fyrir neðan Blundsvatn. Egill tók vel á því ok fýsti Þorstein, at þeir léti hann þangat fara. Egill setti Þorgeir blund niðr at Ánabrekku, en Steinarr fœrði bústað sinn út yfir Langá ok settisk niðr at Leirulæk. En Egill reið heim suðr á Nes eptir þingit með flokk sinn, ok skildusk þeir feðgar með kærleik.

Modern Icelandic
Þorgeir blundur, systursonur Egils, var þar á þinginu og hafði gengið hart að liðveislu við Þorstein. Hann bað Egil og þá Þorstein koma sér til staðfestu út þangað á Mýrar; hann bjó áður fyrir sunnan Hvítá, fyrir neðan Blundsvatn. Egill tók vel á því og fýsti Þorstein, að þeir létu hann þangað fara. Egill setti Þorgeir blund niður að Ánabrekku, en Steinar færði bústað sinn út yfir Langá og settist niður að Leirulæk. En Egill reið heim suður á Nes eftir þingið með flokk sinn, og skildust þeir feðgar með kærleik.

Note that Modern Icelandic texts did not change very much from Old Icelandic. ;)
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Postby E}{pugnator » 2004-11-22, 20:11

Impressive, JackFrost!

I wonder how much of an Old Norse text can someone from Iceland understand today... ;)
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

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Postby Hunef » 2004-11-22, 21:03

JackFrost: Here is an interesting compartion form Old Icelandic (800s to 1300s) This is the language of the sagas and most of old Norse sagas survived in this language.

The Old Icelandic text looks like normalized younger Old Icelandic. I think a "phonetical" version of the same text in mid 9th Icelandic (i.e. elder Old Icelandic) would be quite different. Modern Icelandic and normalized younger Old Icelandic are basically defined to be more or less identical, thus it is not strange that they are extremely similar. :roll:

Keep up the good work, though!

BTW, my signature below is in non-normalized younger Old Jamtlandic. In Modern Jamtlandic it would be (somewhat archaic):

Kòm dá inn Húnev gongannis tí kyrkjgárðinn og tàlað til inn Óláv: "Lát itt illa, Ólávinn minn, dàr sum dú treng itt um!" Dàr í dí hollin stakk inn Óláv Húnev omąnemndinn tí brœstið mèð knívi og sagdi so: "Hav hennið fyr ið sum fyrr var!

(Translation: Then Hunef came walking into the churchyard and spoke
to Olaf: "Don't be mad, my good Olaf, since you don't need to."
At that point Olaf stabbed the aforementioned Hunef in the chest
with a knife and said: "Have this for the one that was before."
)

Not very different I guess, since I use some archaisms in this "modern" version (e.g. "mèð knívi", 'with a knife', is considered to be a semi-frozen expression; the normal would be "mèð en knív" i.e. with an indefinite article and no dative ending - compare with Swedish 'ur huse' vs 'ur ett hus'; 'till havs' vs 'till ett hav' etc.)
The verb til trengja um (= 'to need') is not in my vocabulary, but it obviously existed in 18th century Jamtlandic according to my Jamtlandic dictionary: "je träng int om dä", normalized "ég treng itt um dàð" = 'I don't need it'.

The normalized Old Norse version for comparance:

Kom þá Húnefr gangandi í kirkjugarðinn
ok talaði til Ólafs: "Lát eigi illa, Ólafr minn, þar sem þik þrengir ekki
um." Því næst stakk Ólafr oftnefndan Húnef í brjóstið með knífi ok
sagði svá: "Haf þetta fyrir hitt er fyrri var."
But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.
Carl Sagan

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-23, 2:49

Well Hunef, I thought the same...the date of the saga was in the 13th century and according to the site (I checked it again), it said it typed the letters to today since modern readers can have difficulties reading the older, funny fonts and spellings.

And E}{pugnator Here is the Old Norse version since you wondered. ;)

Old Norse
Þgeir blundr systorsonr Egils var þar aþingino oc hafði gengit hart at liþueizlo við Þorstein. Hann bað Egil oc þa Þorstein coma ser til staðfesto ut þangat a Myrar; hann bio aðr fyr sunan Huita fyr neþan Blundzvatn. Egill toc uel a þui oc fysti Þorstein at þeir leti hann þangat fara. Egill setti Þorgeir blund niðr at Anabrecko en Stein forði bustað sin ut yfr Langa oc settiz niðr at Leirolok. En egill reið hei suðr anes ept þingit m flocc sin oc skilðoz þeir feðgar með kerleic.

Comparing that to Old and Modern Icelandic, I am quite sure the Icelanders would have not much trouble understanding Old Norse...Old Norse and Old Icelandic is closer to each other than Shakespearean English to today English! ;) The writings changed very little over a thousand year, but the pronunciations did...but not very extreme though.
Neferuj paħujkij!

ruddi

Postby ruddi » 2004-11-25, 16:24

hæ!!!
what a terrible thing, this thing is full of mistakes :?:
you can't even name the lessons right...no one says lexía þrjár = lexía is a very old word you would say kennslustund and if you really want to use the lexía then you say...lexía þrjú - its the same lexía tvö and so on
i'm a native icelandic speaker and i read a part of your lessons and they're all wrong - you need to speak icelandic very well to be able to teach it! its harder than you think
if i ever feel not lazy i will go over those lessons and tell you the stuff that was wrong :)

Hildur

Postby Hildur » 2004-11-25, 16:53

hæ hæ
:D Mér finnst þetta mjög flott hjá þér, sérstaklega að treysta þér að kenna þetta tungumál eftir að hafa bara lært það í eitt ár. Sem íslendingur rekst maður á nokkrar villur í þessu. Þannig að ef þér vantar hjálp með eitthvað ekki hika við að spyrja okkur íslendingana eða eitthvern sem kann góða íslensku.

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Postby JackFrost » 2004-11-25, 18:36

ruddi wrote:hæ!!!
what a terrible thing, this thing is full of mistakes :?:
you can't even name the lessons right...no one says lexía þrjár = lexía is a very old word you would say kennslustund and if you really want to use the lexía then you say...lexía þrjú - its the same lexía tvö and so on
i'm a native icelandic speaker and i read a part of your lessons and they're all wrong - you need to speak icelandic very well to be able to teach it! its harder than you think
if i ever feel not lazy i will go over those lessons and tell you the stuff that was wrong :)

I already wrote a disclamier that I'm not exactly a master of it at the beginning of the lesson. ;) You can correct me all you want. ;) But I wished you didn't have to say "terrible thing"...that's not very encouraging. :?

Don't worry about correcting me. I'll get my Icelander friend to take a look at this. :)
Neferuj paħujkij!

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Postby Guest » 2004-11-26, 20:48

Ég held að þessi maður er gjörsamlega réttur.


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