Lesson Two - Kennstustund Tvö
I would like to introduce you to the pronouns. Then for Lesson Three, we'll get off the grammar road map (for a bit) to try out some greeting phrases and days of the week!
-In Icelandic, subject pronouns indeed have to agree with cases.
I, you, he, she, it
ég, þú, hann, hún, það
we, you (plural), they
við, þið, þeir (masculine "they"), þær (feminine "they"), þau (neuter "they")
Hann, hún, and það are a little different from English way. Hann can be also masculine "it", hún as feminine "it", and það as neuter "it." For example...This is a rose and it is red.--->Þessi er rós og hún er rauð.
me, you, him, her, it
mig, þig, hann, hana, það
us, you (plural), them
okkur, ykkur, þá (masculine), þær (feminine), þau (neuter)
mér, þér, honum, henni, því
okkur, ykkur, þeim (all three genders)
mín, þín, hans, hennar, þess
okkar, ykkar, þeirra (all three genders)
-If you studied German, you should not be surprised that Icelandic has a complex way of saying "my", "your", "his", and etc.
Well, to ease the anxiety, if you know the definite articles well, then it won't be that hard since the possessive nouns endings are exactly like the articles!
Nominative Singular/Nominative Plural
Accusative Singular/Nominative Plural
Dative Singular/Dative Plural
Genitive Singular/Genitive Plural
Notice that the Dative and Genitive Plural are all the same in the genders.
(your) and Sinn
(his, her, its, their) work the same way as minn.
His, her, its, their, our
hans, hennar, þess, þeirra, okkar
And it's for all cases and numbers.
There is another word for "our" which is vor
, but that word is for formal usages, literatures, and poems.
It has slightly a different conjugation from the rest.
Masculine Singular (N, A, D, G)
vor, vorn, vorum, vors
vorir, vora, vorum, vorra
vor, vora, vorri, vorrar
vorar, vorar, vorum, vora
vort, vort, voru, vors
vor, vor, vorum, vora
In Icelandic, the possessive pronouns go after the noun, unlike English and other languages.
I love my children! Ég elska börn mín
This is my friend Þessi er vinur minn
Here is our car! Hér er bíllinn okkar!
That is his house. Það er húsið hans.
If you are using nouns that is a thing, and not a person, then a correct definite article must be attached to the noun along with a possessive pronoun. But god, there are exceptions for not adding articles for people. Icelandic grammar is full of exceptions!
My farm Bærinn minn
My dog Hundurinn minn
My money Peningarnir mínir
My mother Móðirin mín
...it's móðir mín
Your friend Vinurinn þinn
His brother Bróðirinn hans
Now for sinn
(his, her, its, their), well...it's a trickly, even the Icelanders can get confused when to use this. It's a reflexive possessive pronoun. In English, we usually use poss. pronoun + own + noun, like "his own friend."
Hann talar við vin sinn.
He talks to his own friend.
Þetta er bróðir hans.
This is his brother.
Ólafur talar við vin sinn.
Ólafur is talking to his own friend.
Ólafur talar við vin hans.
Ólafur is talking to somebody else's friend.
Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian also work this way.
Actually, don't worry too much about sinn
"This/These" and "That/Those" have their own conjugations.
Masculine Singular (N, A, D, G)
sá, þann, þeim, þeirra
Masculine plural (N, A, D, G)
þeir, þá, þeim, þeirra
sú, þá, þeirri, þeirrar
þær, þær, þeim, þeirra
það, það, því, þess
þau, þau, þeim, þeirra
þessi, þenna, þessum, þessa
þessir, þessa, þessum, þessara
þessi, þessa, þessari, þessarar
þessar, þessar, þessum, þessara
þetta, þetta, þessu, þessa
þessi, þessi, þessum, þessara
They are constructed in the same way as English, and unlike possessives, they do not go after the noun.
That horse is black. Sá hestur er svartur.
This is my good friend. Þessi er góður vinur minn.
Já já já! Vertu sæææælllll!!!
(Yes yes yes! Goodbyeeee!!!