Icelandic 101 - Íslenska 101

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Egein
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Postby Egein » 2005-01-13, 0:23

dear jack.

I'm sorry to say this.
but you're giving away very important information here, and it has alot of mistakes in it.

I don't think you yet qualify to teach icelandic, since yourself isn't done learning it to the extend to be able to remember endings and have a good sence of syntax.
It has become too much of a big job to tell you your mistakes now.

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JackFrost
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Postby JackFrost » 2005-01-13, 0:44

þú viljir mig að stoppa...

allt í lagi...
Neferuj paħujkij!

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Postby Egein » 2005-01-13, 1:11

þú vilt að ég hætti*

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Saaropean
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Postby Saaropean » 2005-01-22, 16:58

A message from the administrator of the UniLang forums:

Projetdefleur has decided to take over the Icelandic course, so I unlocked it. :D

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projetdefleur
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Postby projetdefleur » 2005-01-22, 17:54

Saaropean wrote:A message from the administrator of the UniLang forums:

Projetdefleur has decided to take over the Icelandic course, so I unlocked it. :D
Yes, I have :) I recently bought "Icelandic: Grammar, Texts, Glossary" which is thought by many to be the best Icelandic learning book there is. I'll make lessons and homework from those, and while I may not be the expert here, I'll be learning with you guys.

The first lesson will be coming whenever I can get it typed up :D
Native: English
Actively studying: Русский язык

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Egein
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Postby Egein » 2005-01-22, 19:16

hey. I have this book as well and i have had it for a year now. and it still teaches me so much about all those details that make you better in a language.

it's by far the best learning book for icelandic. oh do i wish other books were made on this model. definitively the best

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Postby projetdefleur » 2005-01-22, 19:22

Ok, so... here's my first Icelandic lesson. I'll try to cover a certain kind of grammar (as does the book) every lesson, followed by a text, followed by vocabulary, followed by exercises.

What grammar will we learn today?

LESSON 1 - "to be" (present indicative), personal pronouns, masc. and fem. weak nouns, and an intro to adverbs.

First off, nobody is expected to read through these grammar portions and memorize them as they go. No language works like that. The grammar portion serves only as a reference for the texts, and through that (with help from the exercises), the grammar will be engraved in your brain :P

Personal Pronouns
The nominative forms of the pronouns will be gone over today. For the beginners, the nominative is used as the subject of a sentence.

I -ég
thou (you singular) - þú
he - hann
she - hún
it - það
we - við
you (pl./formal) - þið
*they (m) - þeir
*they (f) - þær
*they (both/ind.) - þau

*þeir/þær/þau can be a bit confusing at first, but it all depends on who you are talking about. Two or more women is þær, two or more men is þeir, and mixed company or if you don't know the genders of whatever you're talking about is þau.

að vera - to be
The next logical thing to learn is the most important verb in any language: "to be". In Icelandic, this translates to "að vera", and is conjugated irregularly, as follows:

I am - ég er
*thou art - þú ert
he/she/it is - hann/hún/það er
we are - við erum
you (pl.) are - þið eruð
they are - þeir/þær/þau eru

*sometimes (and in the text below), "ert þú" is shortened to just "ertu"

Weak Declension Nouns
I don't believe plural nouns are needed for this text, so we'll just learn the singular, weak declension, first class masculine and feminine nouns endings.

wm.1 (weak masculine first class) is defined as "genitive singular -a, plural -ar":
Sg. Nom. - tím-i - time
Acc. - tím-a
Dat. - tím-a
Gen. - tím-a

Pretty simple, right? Now for the feminine, wf.1 is defined as "genitive singular -u, plural -ur"
Sg. Nom. - tung-a - tongue
Acc. - tung-u
Dat. - tung-u
Gen. - tung-u

There! Declension in Icelandic will be a pain later on, I won't lie, but I'll try to introduce new things slowly.

Adverbs
The only things you need to know about adverbs today are the interrogative adverbs and how to recognize the to and from endings.

Interrogative adverbs:
they all start with hv-, other than that, what you need to know is in the vocabulary for this text :)

Adverbs of Place:
Adverbs going to something usually take the ending -i. Adverbs going from something usually take the ending -an.

Examples:
inn - in
inni - into/inside
innan - from the inside
út - out
úti - outside
utan - from the outside (no accent mark)

One last thing before we start the text - to use a verb in the present "i am ___ing" form, you say "ég er" + the infinitive, i.e. "við erum að byrja" - "we are beginning". All infinitives end in -a.
Now, for the fun part :)

Text

Bjössi, Siggi, Gunna og Valdi eru að leika śer. Bjössi er kennari; þau Siggi, Gunna og Valdi eru að læra hjá honum. Bjössi eru einn í skólastofunni, en þau eru þar ekki; þau eru úti.
Bjössi: Hvar eruð þið?
Siggi (úti): Ég er hér.
Bjössi: Ertu þarna einn?
Siggi: Já, ég er hérna einn.
Bjössi: Hvar eru þau Gunna og Valdi?
Siggi: Valdi er úti á götu, en Gunna er uppi hjá mömmu.
Bjössi: Hvar er pabbi?
Siggi: Pabbi er ekki heima.
Bjössi: Hvar eru þau afi og amma?
Siggi: Þau eru líka uppi hjá mömmu.
Bjössi: Tíminn er að byrja; þið Gunna verðið að koma inn í skólann.
Gunna og Siggi (við gluggann): Við erum að koma.

Vocab

á - on (with dative); in
að - to (with infinitive)
afi - grandpa (wm.1)
amma - grandma (wf.1)
Bjössi - pet name for Björn (wm.1)
að byrja - to begin, beginning
einn - alone
ekki - not (adverb)
en - but (conjunction)
ertu - ert þú (in case you forgot :P )
gata - street (wf.1)
að gera - to do, doing
gluggi - window (wm.1)
Gunna - pet name for Guðrún (wf.1)
heima - at home (adverb)
hér - here (adverb)
hérna - here (adverb, used while pointing)
hjá - with (with dative)
hvað - what (interrogative)
hvar - where (adverb)
í - in, at (with dative); into (with accusative)
inn - into (adverb)
já - yes
kennari - teacher (wm.1)
að koma - to come, coming
að leika sér - to play, playing
líka - also, too (adverb)
að læra - to learn, study; learning.
mamma - mother (wf.1, dative="mömmu")
og - and
pabbi - father (wm.1)
Siggi - pet name for Sigurður (wm.1)
skólastofa - schoolroom (wf.1)
skóli - school (wm.1)
tími - time, hour, class period (wm.1)
uppi - up above, upstairs (adverb)
úti - outside (adverb)
Valdi - pet name for Þorvaldur (wm.1)
að vera - to be
að verða - to have to.
við - at (with accusative)
þar - there (adverb)
þarna - there (adverb, used while pointing)

Note: -inn and -nn are definite article endings, i.e. tími - class period; tíminn - the class period.

Exercise
What (hvað) is Bjössi doing? He is a teacher. Where is he? He is up at the school (uppi í skóla). Where are Siggi, Gunna and Valdi? Siggi and Valdi are outside, Valdi is out in the street, but Gunna is upstairs. She is with mother. Where are grandma and grandpa? They are upstairs with mother, too. Where is father? He is not at home, he is out. Who (hver) is studying? Siggi, Gunna and Valdi.

I have put a lot of work into this :) so let me know if there's anything I can fix. Also, you can PM me your homework, or post it here, and I'll check it and let you know what's wrong, if anything. Good luck, and if you have any questions, feel free :)
Native: English

Actively studying: Русский язык

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Egein
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Postby Egein » 2005-01-22, 19:37

little notes by mister egein:

not all infinitives end in -a

skulu - shall
munu - may
fá - get, make
ná - reach, catch
sjá (older form was séa) - see

most of them have somewhat an irregular pattern

there is a great deal of verbs ending in -ja inwhich the j appears in some cases and is important to know about.

some other verbs end in -va, in which the v appears and dissapears in certain positions.


The pronoun þau is used in plural when ever the thing that is being refered to is mixed in genders, masculine feminine or neutral.

So if you say

Stúlkan og drengurinn eru að leika sér - the girl and the boy are playing
Þau eru að leika sér - they are playing

Ertu is just an interogative forme of the verb vera with the second personne singular.

Þú ert hér - you are here
Ertu hér - are you here? (ert+þú)

this most often occures when the verb has an ending in -r.

Þú talar - you speak
Talarðu - do you speak (talar+þú)

the þú allways becomes -ðu in those cases.


Tunga - tongue, has an irregular genitive plural, and is part of a groupe of feminine nouns all having -na

thus, genitive plural is

Tungna


Some adverbs do show endings in -i,-an and -/

but there is a mistake here.

Adverbs ending in -i show rest, in -/ show movement, and ending in -an show provenance.

thus

Uppi - up
Upp - (to) up
Ofan - from above (this one is irregular)

this aplies on inni

Inni - inside
Inn - into
innan - out from the inside

and úti út utan

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Egein
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Postby Egein » 2005-01-22, 19:38

here is a very helpfull site for verbs

http://www.hi.is/~gt/sagnavefur/sagnavefur.htm

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Postby JackFrost » 2005-01-22, 21:18

One small note by me...

"á - on (with dative); in"
"í - in, at (with dative); into (with accusative)"

There are no exact translations for these two. Both can mean...in, to, at, on, into, onto.

á/í + accusative implies movement or changing situation.
á/í + dative implies static or unchanging situation.

Ég fer upp á sjúkrahús - I am going up to the hospital (movement)
Ég er uppi á sjúkrahúsi - I am (up) at the hospital (static)

Of course the object must modify for the proper case.

Another one...

Barnið skríður undir rúmið.
Barnið skríður undir rúminu.

Both mean, "the child is crawling under the bed." Both have movements, "crawling", but the situations in both are different. The latter implies that the child is crawling under the bed, not going anywhere from under the bed (unchanging situation) while the first implies that the child is crawling around, ending up under the bed (changing situation).

So thus, movements/changing situation --- accusative. statics/unchanging situation --- dative.

As I mentioned before, á and í are rather difficult prepositions because they're so common and they're often mixed up. For example, one can live "á" or "í" (a place).

Ég á heima í Rekjavík. - I live in Rekjavik.
but...
Ég á heima á Húsavík. - I live in Husavik.

Þú býrð á Íslandi. - I live in Iceland.
but...
Þú býrð í Englandi. - I live in England.

So they're rather tricky, and they're usually known by memories and excessive practice and usage.


Anyway, I am glad to see someone taking over. Good luck.
Last edited by JackFrost on 2005-01-22, 21:29, edited 1 time in total.
Neferuj paħujkij!

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Egein
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Postby Egein » 2005-01-22, 21:20

ég er upp í sjúkrahús doesn't make sence...

ég fer upp í sjúkrahús

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JackFrost
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Postby JackFrost » 2005-01-22, 21:28

Oops, a typo (it always happens)...my apologies.

Fixed it.
Neferuj paħujkij!

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projetdefleur
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Postby projetdefleur » 2005-01-22, 22:10

Wow, thanks for all the help guys, but I don't want to confuse everybody in the first lesson :P

Vertu blessaður
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Actively studying: Русский язык


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