Lesson One - Kennstustund Eitt
Icelandic alphabet fairly follow the spoken language, and one thing you can breathe easier that Icelandic is a very uniform language, with almost no dialects in Iceland.
Wait, I don't have the special letters on my keyboard!
Þþ and Ðð...you may write them as "Th, th". Ææ, you can write it as "AE, ae." ÁáÉéÍíÓóÚúÝý, just simply add ' next to the letter, like for example..."a' " for "á".
Any questions on the pronunications, please ask me.
Intro to Cases, Numbers, and Genders
-Icelandic, like all Germanic languages, have endings to make the nouns, articles, adjectives, and pronouns singular and plural.
-There are four cases in Icelandic, nominative, accusative, dative, and gentive.
There are endings specified for each cases.
-There are three genders in Icelandic, masculine, feminine, and neuter.
-All nouns, adjectives, numbers, and pronouns are mostly declined to agree with the case, number, and gender. Yes, it is like German, but Icelandic is a little more complex than German.
-Icelandic is more like a lexical language rather than as a grammical language where the verbs and prepositions determine the case, not the word order. If the verb and preposition are in the same sentence, then it is the preposition that governs the case. For example, "að vera" (to be) always governs the nominative case. "Til" (to) governs the genitive case. "Að vera til" (to exist), now the preposition, not the verb, decides the case, and since "til" always governs the genitive case, so therefore it is genitive. Enough of this for now, we will get to the prepositions and verbs later in the course.
Intro to Definite Articles
-Definite articles, there are actually 16 ways saying "the" in Icelandic, depending on the case, gender, and number. Ok...let's get started.
Nominative Singular: Hinn
Nominative Plural: Hinir
As you can see, the dative and genitive plurals are all the same endings in all genders.
The horse (masculine) is hestur
Add the masculine nominative will result as...
Now the accustive
(Why the "ur" isn't there? I will explain it later in the course. Remember, Icelandic nouns have endings specified for each case.
Then the dative
(if the noun ends in a vowel, the "i" in the article is dropped
Lastly the genitive
The rose (feminine) is rós
The child (neuter) is barn
The definite articles always attach to the nouns in today Icelandic. It is very rare to say hinn hestur, hin rós og hið barn
. Unlike Danish, the definite article still remains attached to the noun when there is an adjective with the noun.
-Believe it or not! Indefinite articles (a/an) do not exist at all in Icelandic.
The only way to tell if the noun is indefinite is the noun without the definite article, or by adjectives, if it's strong, then the noun is indefinite and if it's weak, it's not.
The strong adjective forms are used for without articles or pronouns. The weak forms are used with articles and pronouns, but we'll get to that later in the course.
If any questions, please ask!
Lesson Two - Lexía Tvær coming next week!
Takk fyrir og sjáumst!
(thank you and see you soon!)